|100th Mixed Brigade|
|Active||June 1937 - February 9, 1939|
|Rama/s||Regular People's Army|
|Wars and battles|
|Spanish Civil War|
The 100th Mixed Brigade was a unit of the Popular Army of the Republic created during the Spanish Civil War . Belonging to the 11th Division , since its creation it constituted a shock unit of the Republican Army. Throughout its existence it was distinguished by its severity in discipline and rigor. [ 1 ]
The 100th Mixed Brigade was created in the Alicante town of Alcoy in June 1937. The basis of its creation was from a battalion of the 1st Mixed Brigade commanded by Major Luis Rivas Amat (who automatically assumed command de la Brigade), and three thousand recruits from the fifth of 1931 from the provinces of Jaén, Córdoba and Murcia. The unit was assigned to the 11th Division of the V Army Corps , staying that way for the rest of the war. [ 2 ]
Battle of Brunete
His first war action was during the Battle of Brunete . On July 5, he began a nocturnal infiltration with two of his battalions, passing the town of Brunete to the right to advance on Sevilla la Nueva and Navalcarnero , while his other two battalions surrounded the population, managing to enter it the next day. Three days later the main fighting had moved south, on the road to Boadilla. However, by then the republican offensive had turned into a bloody battle, and the casualties began to be very important. As an example, during the entire battle of Brunete the 100th BM lost 206 chiefs and officers. The counteroffensive of the Francoist units were increasing and on July 24 the brigade had to evacuate the already destroyed Brunete. From this moment on, both sides ended the fight. The 100th Mixed Brigade had shown itself in its baptism of fire as a fierce and effective unit, which would lead it to take part during the rest of the fight in the great battles. [ 2 ]
In August the brigade moved to Caspe , where it collaborated with the rest of the 11th Division in the dissolution of the Regional Defense Council of Aragon . At the end of the month, it took part in the Zaragoza Offensive : in a new audacious maneuver, like the one it had already carried out in Brunete, the brigade infiltrated behind Franco's lines until it reached Fuentes de Ebro . In addition, he also managed to take the town of Mediana . [ 4 ]
On December 15, 1937, the 100th BM was one of the units that participated in the offensive on Teruel , starting from their positions in El Mansueto with the mission of cutting the railway line and the highway that linked Teruel with Zaragoza, but also to occupy the heights near Concud , to establish a defensive line that would ensure the siege of Teruel. Indeed, on December 29, he had to resist in this place a strong attack of infantry and tanks of the enemy that tried to lift the siege of the city. With numerous casualties, the following day she was relieved by troops from the 68th Division.. On January 7, 1938, Teruel finally fell into Republican hands. On January 22, the 100th BM went into reserve and headed to Madrid to re-equip itself. [ 5 ] However, due to the constant counterattacks of the enemy, on February 9 he had to return to the Teruel front. Ten days later he was already fighting in the front line of combat, in the Salvacañete area . A counterattack was planned for February 22, but this was canceled since that same day the Francoist forces had recaptured the capital of Teruel < [ 1 ] After the end of the fighting, the unit was very worn out. [ 6 ]
In March, after the start of the Francoist offensive in Aragon, the 100th BM defended the front that ran from Calanda to the Ebro river . The brigade tried to retreat to Alcañiz , but it had already fallen even before the unit got there. He had to retreat to Valdealgorfa , establishing there a defensive line that they would manage to maintain for a few days. From Valdealgorfa, the 100th BM managed to repel several attacks on a front that ran from the Canaleta River and La Venta de Camposines, but had to retreat again before the enemy superiority. After the battles of Aragon the brigade was again in reserve, stationed at the bridgehead ofBalaguer . [ 2 ]
The Ebro and Catalonia
On July 25, the 100th BM crossed the Ebro through the Ginestar area , quickly occupying Miravet and Pinell de Bray . It also took control of a significant number of heights. [ 7 ] But he had to face a prompt Francoist counteroffensive and on July 30 he lost levels 624, 648 and 644 in the Sierra de Pandols. Then the brigade was forced to settle on the so-called southern slope, occupying the positions on the right flank, towards Puig Caballé. Situated in these new positions, between August 10 and 14 the bulk of the unit suffered devastating fire from the adversary artillery and the continued charges of the infantry. As a result of this continuous bombardment, the casualties were very high: the commander of the brigade (who would be replaced by the militia major Eduardo García) and his commissioner were wounded, and the chief of the 1st battalion was also killed . [ 1 ]
The unit had to withdraw to the rear to proceed with its reorganization. On August 27 he would return to his previous positions and after attending, in the first days of September, in support of the 27th Division in Corbera , on September 5 he lost the Ermita de Santa Madrona, a key position in the Sierra de Pandols . But it had been so battered in these last combats that it had to be withdrawn again from the front, although it would still return to Pandols, where it was almost on the point of being surrounded on October 30. On November 5 he crossed the Ebro again at Benifallet . [ 1 ]
The fighting in the Ebro had meant tremendous wear and tear on both men and equipment for the brigade, so after returning to the rear the unit was sent to the Borjas Blancas area . There he was when he was surprised by the beginning of the Franco offensive on Catalonia . On December 25, he marched to the Aspe-Alcanó area to try to contain enemy attacks, which he did not succeed in, having to retreat. During the course of the retreat, the new commander of the brigade, Major Alabau, and the new commissioner, Hipólito del Olmo, were killed. [ 1 ] By January 17, 1939 he was defending the front in Igualadaand on February 3 he had already retreated to Gerona. Three days later he had to leave the town of Sarriá de Ter and tried to organize a defensive line on the Muga river. Finally, at dusk on February 9, the 100th BM crossed the border at the border post of Port-Bou . [ 1 ]
- Militia Major Luis Rivas Amat ;
- Major of the militias Santiago Aguado Calvo ; [ 8 ]
- Militia Major Eduardo García ;
- Major Alabau;
- Alonso Baquer , Miguel (2004). The Ebro, the decisive battle of the hundred days . The Sphere of Books.
- Álvarez , Santiago (1989). Political commissars in the People's Army of the Republic . Editions do Castro.
- Corral , Pedro (2005). If you want to write to me. The battle of Teruel . Pocket-size. ISBN 84-9793-626-4 .
- Engel , Carlos (1999). History of the mixed brigades of the People's Army of the Republic . Almena Editions.
- Hurtado , Víctor (2013). The International Brigades . DAU editions. ISBN 978-84-941031-1-7 .
- Maldonado , José M.ª (2007). The front of Aragon. The Civil War in Aragon (1936-1938) . Look Editors. ISBN 978-84-8465-237-3 .