10th regiment of cuirassiers - 10e régiment de cuirassiers

Royal Cavalry Ties
10 th Cuirassiers

10e put insig.png

Internal association badge
active 1643 to 1992
State French republic coat of arms.svg France
Armed forces Flag of France.svg French armed forces
Armed forces Flag of France.svg French Army
Branch of service Heavy cavalry
Type Cuirassier Regiment
Location Laon
Patron saint St. Georg
Motto "As long as there is one left"
commander
commander Last:
Important
commanders

Jean de Balthazard

The 10 e régiment de cuirassiers (short: 10 e RC) was an association of the French army . Set up in 1643 by Croatian cavalry mercenaries , in 1667 it was taken over by the line cavalry and converted into cuirassiers in 1803 . Disbanded in 1919, it was briefly reactivated in 1939/1940 as a tank reconnaissance regiment in Charles de Gaulle's armored division and probably only temporarily set up again in 1971 as a cadre reserve regiment.

The elongated scarves from the Croatian-influenced founding phase of the regiment are considered the forerunners of the tie , the name of which is also derived from it.

Formation history

  • 1643: At the special request of King Louis XIII. three foreign cavalry regiments (régiments-etrangér de cavalerie) were set up on August 13, 1643 by Comte Jean de Balthazard from Croatian riders . After de Balthazard's resignation on January 1, 1657, the charge went to the Comte de Rochechouart. In 1667 the remnants of the three regiments were combined into one, which was named "Royal-Cravate cavalerie". [1] The regiment consisted at that time of two squadrons. Mestre de camp was the king himself, so the actual commander was the respective Mestre de camp en second.
  • 1761: Incorporation of the "Régiment de Chabrillan cavalerie" (thereby doubling the strength from two to four escadrons. Each escadron consisted of 4 companies of 40 riders each, a total of 649 riders)
  • 1791: Umbenennung in: 10 and on the move
  • 1803: Umbenennung in: 10 and on Cuirassiers
  • 1815: dissolution
  • 1825: Wiederaufstellung as: 10 e Régiment de cuirassiers
  • 1919: dissolution
  • 1940: Re-establishment as a partially armored reconnaissance regiment in the "4 e division cuirassée de réserve" (4th reserve cuirassier division)
  • 1940: dissolved with the armistice
  • 1971: re-established as an inactive reserve regiment

Regimentsstandarten of the Ancien Régime

Regimentskommandanten

Mestre de camp was from 1569 to 1789 the rank designation for the regiment owner and / or the actual commander of a cavalry regiment. The name Colonel was used from 1789 to 1793 and then again from 1803. Should the mestre de camp be a person of the high nobility who had no interest in leading the regiment (such as the king or queen), the command was given to the “mestre de camp lieutenant” (or “ Mestre de camp en second ”). From 1793 to 1803 the French army used the term Chef de brigade . From 1791 there were no more regimental owners.

  • 13. August 1643: Jean, count of Balthazard
  • 1. Januar 1657: Louis-Victor de Rochechouart, count of Vivonne
  • 13. Januar 1669: Camille d'Hostun, count of Tallard
  • September 1679: Count of Goesbriant
  • 10. Juni 1685: François de La Rochefoucauld, count of Roucy
  • May 10, 1692: Le Veneur, count of Tilliéres
  • 1. August 1697: Yves, count of Alégre
  • 21. Oktober 1705: Jacques de Chabannes, Marquis de Curton
  • March 1719: Grandpré, Marquis de Joyeuse
  • 12. April 1725: Michel-Charles-Dorothée de Roncherolles, Marquis de Pont-Saint-Pierre
  • 27. Februar 1742: François-Marie Le Danois, Marquis de Cernay
  • July 27, 1747: marquis de Flachsland
  • October 10, 1755 to January 3, 1770: René Mans de Froulay, count of Tessé
  • 3. Januar 1770: Louis-François du BOUCHET de SOURCHES, marquis de Tourzel
  • 10. November 1786: Joseph-François-Louis-Charles-César, count of Damas
  • 10. März 1788: Honoré-Anne-Charles-Maurice Grimaldi, Duke of Valentinois
  • 1791: Colonel Charles-Joseph Randon de Pully
  • 1792: Colonel Marc-Pierre de la Turmeliere
  • 1793: Head of the Grave brigade (?)
  • 1794: Head of brigade Christophe Ossvald
  • 1795: Chef de brigade Gaspard Dubouchat
  • April 22, 1797–1806: Chef de brigade (Colonel again since 1803) Pierre François Latay
  • 1806: Colonel Samuel-Francois l'Héritier
  • 1809: Colonel Louis-Bernard Franck
  • 1812: Colonel Pierre-Adriende Lahuberdière (or de la Huberdiere)
  • Louis Auguste de Bourbel de Montpinçon
  • 1831–1834 : Colonel Alexandre Bache
  • 1834–1843: Colonel de Waldner de Freunstein
  • 1843–1851 : Colonel Gado
  • 1851–1857: Colonel Rigaud de Rochefort
  • 1857–1866: Colonel René Augustin Galland de Longuerue
  • 1866–1868 : Colonel Dupressoir
  • 1868–1875 : Colonel Juncker
  • 1875–1879 : Colonel MacDermott
  • 1879–1885 : Colonel Ducheyron
  • 1885–1892: Colonel Chauveau de Bourdon
  • 1892–1894: Colonel Canonge
  • 1894–1900 : Colonel Geay de Montenon
  • 1900–1901 : Colonel de Fry
  • 1901–1910 : Colonel Caillard d'Aillières
  • 1910–14: Colonel Bartoli

Fallen or wounded officers of the regiment between 1805 and 1815

  • Colonel l'Heritier: wounded February 8, 1807, May 22, 1809 and July 11, 1809
  • Fallen officers: 11
  • Officers who died from their wounds: 7
  • wounded officers: 58

Battle calendar

Old regime

Under the Ancien Régime , the regiment took part in the following wars:

In 1733 and 1734 the regiment stood on the Rhine
Used in Flanders in 1742 and in Germany in 1743. 1744 back in Flanders before Bapaume.
1745 Battle of Fontenoy
17147 At the siege of Bergen op Zoom

In 1749 the regiment was in Guincamp; 1750 in Tours ; 1752 in Le Quesnoy ; 1753 in Mézières ; and in 1755 in Maubeuge in garrison.

1760: Battle near Korbach

Wars of the Revolution and the First Empire

Colonel of the 10 th RC in der Grand Army

The now "10 e régiment de cavalerie" was assigned to the following armies:

1792

As part of the Armée du Center (Central Army ) it took part in the cannonade near Valmy and was awarded the first standard inscription "VALMY 1792"

1793–1794

In the Armée de Moselle (Moselle Army) it took part in the Battle of Fleurus , in which the Austrian troops were routed

1794–1797

As part of the Armée de Sambre-et-Meuse , it fought near Gießen on September 15, 1796 and in the battle of Neuwied on April 18, 1797.

1799–1800

It fought in the Armée du Rhin near Offenburg on June 15, 1800 and in the Battle of Hohenlinden on December 3, 1800.

1804

Garrison in Haguenau under the command of Colonel Lataye

1805–1806

In the Grande Armée made it to the 1 he régiment de cuirassiers , the 5 e Régiment de cuirassiers , and the 6 e régiment de cuirassiers the "Division de cuirassiers" from Général Jean-Joseph Ange's skin Poul .

The regiment belonged to the reserve cavalry, which ensured with three attacks that the troops of Field Marshal Lieutenant [2] Moritz von Liechtenstein were wiped out and the remnants had to retreat to the heights of Pratzen .

The cavalry division of the General Hautpol left Landshut on October 4th and marched towards Jena . The 10 e RC, commanded by Colonel l'Héritier, was deployed immediately upon arriving on the battlefield. It attacked the enemy and thus accelerated their withdrawal towards Weimar . After the battle, the regiment marched to Warsaw and moved into winter quarters in the region there.

1807

On February 6, the cuirassiers were involved in a skirmish with the Russian rearguard at Hoff . Weakened by several attacks, the Russians withdrew.

After the battle, the regiment was mentioned in Königsberg (Prussia) on February 23 , and then marched off to Magdeburg .

1808

One company was withdrawn and assigned to a provisional cuirassier regiment in the Spanish Army. After the defeat in the Battle of Baylen on July 22, 1808, Napoleon decided to merge the remains of the two provisional regiments. By imperial decree of 1 he vendémiaire de l'an II (October 1, 1808) the "13 e régiment de cuirassiers" was formed.

1809

During the Fifth Coalition War , the regiment was in Germany. It was the brigade Gillon, 2 e assigned division Général Saint Sulpice in the Reserve Corps Bessières. The commanding officer was Colonel Frank.

Here, on April 22nd, the regiment stood out for its exceptional stability, which earned it the inscription "ECKMÛHL 1809" on the standard.

1812

During the Russian campaign , the 10 e RC was assigned to the Watier Brigade in the Montbrun Cavalry Corps. The corps belonged to Joachim Murat's reserve cavalry . The regimental commander was Colonel de Lahuberdière. It distinguished itself on September 7th when the "Grande redoute" was taken away in the Battle of Borodino . This opened the way to Moscow for the army and the regiment received the fifth inscription on the standard: "LA MOSKOVA 1812".

On October 18, the cuirassiers fought in the Battle of Tarutino and then fought in retreat until they arrived in Baryssau on November 21 .

The survivors of the withdrawal from Russia were regrouped in Elbing .

1813

Only three escadrons strong, the 10 e RC together with the 7 e régiment de cuirassiers and the “14 e régiment de cuirassiers” formed the “Brigade Thierie” in the “2 e division Saint-Germain ” in the Sebastiani cavalry corps

After the defeat at Leipzig , the regiment marched back to France and crossed the Rhine on October 2nd . An escadron had been assigned to the Davout army in Hamburg .

1814

After the war had reached France, the cuirassiers fought in various retreat skirmishes. Consisting of only one weak escadron, the regiment was in Paris on April 6, the day of Napoleon's abdication. The Escadron (only a détachement) still in Hamburg at this time formed the "15 e régiment de cuirassiers" during the siege of Hamburg together with the remains of other units

After Napoleon's abdication, the 10 e RC was not dissolved by a royal decree of March 12, 1814 , but the “Corps Royal des Cuirassiers de France” was set up together with the remains of other cuirassier regiments. This designation should not last ten months.

1815 (Reign of the Hundred Days)

Cuirassiers at the Battle of Waterloo

After Napoleon's return to Paris on March 20, the army was immediately reorganized and each regiment was given its previous designation. The 10 e RC was now under the command of Colonel Baron Lahuberdière of the "Brigade Farine", "Division Delort" in the Milhaud Cavalry Corps.

After Napoleon's second abdication, the regiment was disbanded on August 30, 1815.

With the order for the reorganization of the cavalry of February 27, 1825, it was set up again as the "10 e régiment de cuirassiers".

Apart from an expedition to Belgium in 1831, the regiment had no combat operations until 1870.

Second empire

On July 27, 1870, the cuirassiers received their mobilization orders. Four escadrons with 47 officers and 537 riders moved out to Pont-à-Mousson , where the regiment formed the 2nd Cavalry Brigade (Général de Grammont, duc des Lesparre) on July 29 with Colonel Nitot's 7 e régiment de cuirassiers. The 2nd Cavalry Brigade and the 1st Cavalry Brigade (Général Prince Murat) in turn formed the 3rd Cavalry Division under Général de division de Forton, the Reserve Cavalry Division of the Armée du Rhin . On August 11th the regiment was in Montigny-lès-Metz .

After a few unsuccessful marches and skirmishes with the German advance divisions, the unit was at Vionville . In the evening the French advance guard was caught by German artillery fire and withdrew to the plateau near Vionville and Rezonville. The first squadron was the "7 e régiment de cuirassiers" on the counter-attack in the flank of the Bredow Brigade involved

After the Battle of Sedan , the regiment was one of the units that withdrew to the fortress of Metz . Of the cuirassiers, only the 7 e RC managed to do this .

Only the 1st Escadron was able to distinguish itself when it fell under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Pobéguin and Capitaine de Lascousin together with other units in the battle of Vionville of the Bredow Brigade in the flank.

Except for this heroic episode, the regiment remained motionless in the École de pyrotechnic during the entire siege of Metz without doing anything.

1871 to 1914

  • 1907: Garrison in Lyon . Used in the winemaking rebellion in Languedoc . On June 19, it took action against the insurgents who besieged the sub-prefecture in Narbonne . The use of firearms resulted in one death - a cafe owner unrelated to the matter - 15 of the insurgents were seriously injured. [3]

First World War

The regiment was mobilized in Lyon on July 31, 1914 . The order of mobilization arrived at the regimental commander Colonel Bartoli at 7:20 p.m.

Together with the 7 e régiment de cuirassiers it formed the 5th brigade in the 6th Cavalry Division.

1914

  • On August 1st, the train was loaded to Dijon and on the following day the assigned front section on the Meurthe was reached. On August 14th, parts of the regiment attacked a Bavarian cavalry division. More fighting in Lorraine by the end of the month.
  • September relocation to Champagne .
  • October - November deployment in Flanders : at Hazebrouck , Paschendaele, Ypres , Saint Eloi

1915

  • February to August: deployment in Alsace , Artois and Lorraine
  • September to October: trench warfare in Champagne
  • November 11th to ...

1916

  • August: deployment in Lorraine
  • August 17th to ...

1917

1918

  • ... February: Trench warfare in the Blérancourt region
  • March to April: trench warfare on the Somme and Kemmelberg
  • May 28th to June 5th: Trench warfare at Fismes and on the Marne
  • June to October: Trench warfare in Champagne2
  • November: in Lorraine
  • November 19: Entry into Metz

Interwar period

On July 5, 1919, the staff and the depot company were transferred to the 9 e régiment de cuirassiers . The "10e regiment de cuirassiers" was converted into a cadre association.

Second World War

Badge of the 4th Reserve Cuirassier Division (4 e DRC)
Automitrailleuse (Spähpanzer) „Panhard P178“

It was planned to set up a “4 e division légère mécanique” (4th Light Mechanized Division), with the “8 e brigade légère mécanique” (8th Light Mechanized Brigade) into which the 10 e RC should be incorporated. 48 Panhard 178 wheeled armored vehicles were provided as equipment . This corresponded to a brigade reconnaissance regiment.

The technical advantage of the Wehrmacht at the beginning of the French campaign forced the French headquarters to hastily set up an armored division, the 4 e division cuirassée de réserve (4 e DCR) under the command of Colonel de Gaulle . For this purpose, the material was used that was available for setting up the “4 e division légère mécanique”.

The 10 e RC was mobilized as a reconnaissance regiment in 1939:

  • Regimental staff: 7 officers, 77 non-commissioned officers and men, 15 motorcycles, 2 sidecar bikes, 8 liaison vehicles, 1 automobile trailor with radio equipment, 7 light trucks (camionettes)
    • 1 awareness group
    • 1 telecommunications group
    • 1 leadership group
    • 1 medical group
  • 1 additional Escadron: 4 AMD in reserve, 200 men, 4 recovery vehicles, 2 workshop trucks, 2 ambulance vehicles, 2 tankers
  • 2 Squadronsgruppen mit I:
    • Staff: 1 AMD Automitrailleuse , 8 motorcycles, 1 sidecar wheel, 5 cars, 25 soldiers
    • 1. Escadron : 153 soldiers, 21 AMD Panhard 178, 21 Kräder, 3 Sidecar Kräder, 16 machine guns, 1 mortar 60 mm, 6 liaison vehicles, 4 light trucks, 3 medium trucks
      • Staff group 1 AMD, 9 motorcycles, 3 sidecar wheels, 6 liaison vehicles, 4 delivery vans, 3 trucks, 1 mortar 60 mm
      • 4 armored vehicles with 5 AMD Panhard 178 each, 3 Kräder
    • 2. Escadron : (Kradschützen) 147 soldiers, 55 sidecar bikes, motorcycles, 16 machine guns, 1 60 mm mortar, 2 cars, 4 light trucks, 2 medium trucks
      • Staff: 43 soldiers 3 sidecar bikes
        • Staff group: 7 soldiers, 3 sidecar bikes, 1 bike
        • 2 security groups each with: 10 soldiers, 5 sidecar bikes, 2 machine guns
  • Total :
  • 67 officers
  • 129 NCOs
  • 753 teams
  • 44(+4) Panhard AMD-178
  • 223 motorcycles and sidecar bikes
  • 2 mortars 60 mm
  • 32 Maschinengewehre, around 100 vehicles of all types, including 34 liaison cars, 38 vans and 33 trucks.
  • just over 100 other wheeled vehicles from all manufacturers, including:
34 liaison vehicles (cars)
38 light trucks
33 medium trucks

On the night of May 17-18, the regiment arrived at the "4 e DRC". From May 16 to June 6, this division was under the command of (Colonel) Charles de Gaulle - at that time in the rank of provisional brigadier general (Général de brigade à titre provisoire).

Fighting followed in the Laon region on May 17 and 18, 1940, with an attack in the direction of Montcornet (Aisne) and the Serre bridges to block the Germans' way to the Manche . On the Somme they attacked the bridgehead at Abbeville on May 28, 29 and 30 and tried to push it in. When the general retreat movement of the French began in June, they waged sustained fighting of retreat. During an attack on the division's left flank at Charroux , Champagne-Mouton, Saint-Claude and Chasseneuil, the 10 e RC hit the head of the German attack troops with its last armored car. With theArmistice on June 24th, the regiment went under.

post war period

In 1971 the regiment was re-established as an inactive cadre association. Nothing is known about its whereabouts, but it is unlikely to exist beyond the end of the Cold War .

Benchmarks

The standard bears the names of the battles in which the regiment took part in gold letters: [4] [5] [6]

Forage in the colors of the Croix de Guerre 1914–1918
  • VALMY 1792
  • FLOWER 1794
  • AUSTERLITZ 1805
  • ECKMÜHL 1809
  • LA MOSCOW 1812
  • YPRES 1914
  • FLANDERS 1914–1918
  • LAONNAIS 1940

Awards

The flag ribbon is with the Croix de guerre 1914–1918 Photo of the front of the Croix de Guerre (1914–1918) decorated with two palm branches.

The members of the regiment have the right to wear the Fourragère in the colors of the Croix de guerre 1914–1918. (This also applies to disbanded units that are reactivated at some point - nothing unusual in the French Army.)

Devise

As long as there is one
(As long as one remains)

literature

  • Brigadier General Philippe Peress 31, rue Hoche 49400 Saumur .
  • Heimdal edition n ° 8058 De Gaulle warlord.

Weblinks

Footnotes

  1. History of the French army , Pierre Montagnon, Pygmalion editions - 1997
  2. However, writing of the kuk Militäradministratur to 1918 since the spelling reform of 1996 as Field Marshal Lieutenant referred
  3. G. Guiraudet, La Révolte des vignerons de 1907 ( Memento des Originals vom 4. Juni 2012 im Webarchiv archive.today ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , bulletin no. 2 de la SSH, 1992, en ligne, consulté le 3 août 2008@1@2Vorlage:Webachiv/IABot/www.sommieresetsonhistoire.org
  4. DECISION n ° 12350 / SGA / DMPA / SHD / DAT of September 14, 2007 relating to the inscriptions of names of battles on the flags and standards of the troops of the army, the army health service and the military service. essences of armies
  5. Regulation n ° 12350 / SGA / DPMA / SHD / DAT of September 14, 2007 on the appearance of the inscriptions on the flags and standards of the troops of the army, the medical service and the fuel supply industry. Published with the Official Army Bulletin No. 27 of November 9, 2007
  6. ^ Order AFN 1952–1962 on the assignment of the inscriptions on the flags and standards of the formations of the army and the services of November 19, 2004 (A) NORDEF0452926A Michèle Alliot-Marie