|123rd Mixed Brigade|
|Active||May 1937-January 1939|
|Rama/s||Regular People's Army|
|Wars and battles|
|Spanish Civil War|
The unit was created in May 1937 from the 2nd regiment of the "Karl Marx" Division , the brigade being assigned to the new 27th Division of the XI Army Corps . The head of the 123rd WB fell to the infantry commander Enrique Oubiña Fernández-Cid , while the head of the General Staff fell to the infantry captain Silverio Gallego Salvador . Italian Francesco Scotti was appointed commissioner of the unit. In this sense, there is the fact that within the 123rd WB there was a high proportion of enlisted foreigners, many of them former members of the non nata Popular Olympiad of Barcelona. [ 1]
In June he took part in the Huesca Offensive . Months later, along with the rest of the 27th Division, he participated in the Zaragoza Offensive . Integrated into Group "A", on September 28, the 123rd BM tried to conquer the town of Zuera , without success; Between October 9 and 11, he participated in a new attempt to conquer Zaragoza, which ended in a new failure. Later he took part in the Battle of Sabiñánigo . [ 2 ] It was located in the Ontiñena - Candasnos - Fraga sector . [ 3 ]
At the beginning of 1938 it was transferred to the Teruel front , and placed as a reserve in the Alcorisa - Calanda - Alloza sector . At the end of January he participated in the Singra offensive , managing to conquer the position of "Cabezo Bajo", which meant cutting off traffic on the Villarquemado - Monreal del Campo highway . Later he tried to conquer the level 1,079 of the «Los Cabezos» sector, without success. During these operations he suffered significant casualties. He came to intervene during the Battle of Alfambra . [ 4 ]
When the Francoist offensive began on the Aragón Front, the 123rd BM was located in the Utrillas sector ; it had to retreat in the face of enemy pressure, and on March 24 it placed itself together with the rest of the 27th Division in the defense line of the Cinca River , remaining deployed in the sector between Alamús and Artesa de Segre . However, on April 3, after the fall of Lleida into Franco's hands, the brigade crossed the Segre River and established its positions in the Ibars de Urgel sector . [ 4 ]
The command of the brigade was assumed by the militia major Celestino Uriarte , [ 5 ] a veteran of the war in the North . Reorganized, the 123rd BM participated in the Battle of the Ebro . On August 2, the brigade crossed the river through the Flix dam to relieve the forces of the 35th International Division off Corbera , with the 123rd BM between Corbera and Gandesa located . [ 6 ] [ 4 ]On August 17, the brigade began an assault against Gandesa (later followed by the other brigades of the 27th Division) that surprised Franco's defenders. [ 7 ] The assault, however, was unsuccessful. Later the unit had to face numerous enemy assaults, which left it very weakened; the 123rd WB suffered casualties that affected 50% of its troops, [ n. 1 ] resulting in the death of its commissioner —Bustillo— while the commander —Uriarte— was wounded. [ 8 ] The brigade would withdraw to elevated positions in the Sierras de Lavall and Cavalls. Finally, in the early morning of September 13, the 123rd WB crossed the river very worn. [ 9 ]
After the battle of the Ebro, the unit was in such a state that it was not in a position to participate in the Catalonia Campaign .
- Infantry Commander Enrique Oubiña Fernández-Cid ;
- Major of the militias Manuel Ferrándiz Martín ;
- Militia Major Celestino Uriarte Bedia ;
- Francesco Scotti
- Alejandro Bustillo
- Alpert, Michael (2013). The Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. Cambrige University Press. ISBN 978-84-3230-682-2.
- Engel , Carlos (1999). History of the Mixed Brigades of the People's Army of the Republic . Madrid, Almena. 84-922644-7-0 .
- Garai , Juan Ramón (2008). Celestino Uriarte. Clandestinity and communist resistance . Tafalla: Txalaparta. ISBN 978-84-8136-524-5 .
- Gómez , Esteban C. (2002). The echo of the discharges. Goodbye to republican hope . ESCEGO.
- Martínez Bande , José Manuel (1981). The battle of Pozoblanco and the closure of the Merida stock market . Madrid: Editorial San Martín.
- Salas Larrazábal , Ramón (2006). History of the People's Army of the Republic . The Sphere of Books. ISBN 84-9734-465-0 .
- Zaragoza , Cristóbal (1983). People's Army and Military of the Republic, 1936-1939 . Barcelona: Ed. Planeta.