The Twelve Spanish Dances, Op. 37 for piano are a series of twelve piano pieces composed by the composer Enrique Granados . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] In the form is incorrectly tagged as Op.5 in some publications to confuse the dance name Andalusian No.5 called homonymous form "Andalusian" with the opus. [ 5 ]The exact dates of composition of each of them are unknown, although it is believed that they were written between 1892 and 1900. The composer himself declared that most are from 1883 (when he was 16 years old). It is possible that, on the other hand, written at an early date, they were later perfected by Granados, which would make two of its qualities compatible: on the one hand, its simplicity of writing, generally tripartite ABA, far from the complexities of its Goyescas famous work , leads to think that they are works of youth; on the other hand, mastery, elegance and rhythmic mastery would indicate that we are dealing with a mature composer. These dances constitute a great contribution to the Spanish nationalist music for piano of the 19th century, being another series of works already mentioned asGoyescas his maximum contribution.
The twelve Spanish dances
- Spanish dance No. 1. Called Galante or Minuet , [ 6 ] it is a kind of bolero in G major that Granados dedicated to Amparo Gal , his future wife. It begins with an allegro section , which modulates in a minor mode into a more relaxed central section, little walking and returns to the initial part.
- Spanish dance No. 2. Called Oriental, it is a dance written in C minor. The first section is an andante in which the left hand draws a meaningful accompaniment, while the right sings the melancholic main melody. The central section, slow assai, exudes a sentimental lyricism.
- Spanish Dance No. 3. This dance receives two names, Fandango or Galician Dance. The score is energetic, and is in the key of D major. It is interesting for its panache, its rhythmic sense and some hint of lyricism that serves as a contrast.
- Spanish Dance No. 4. Called Villanesca, it is inspired by Torquato Tasso . He is courtly in character and, at the same time, popular. Noted allegro alla pastorale, its pastoral, soft and melodious air is its greatest charm. The song and chorus of the middle section are derived from the main theme.
- Spanish Dance No. 5. Called Andalusian or Playera, it is an andantino, almost allegretto. It is the best known of all these dances. It has a certain flamenco atmosphere, which is why it receives the first appeal. The left hand makes a kind of plucking that recalls the strumming of the guitar.
- Spanish dance No. 6. It is called Rondalla Aragonesa, thus being a true jota . Alegretto, little by little scherzando is his Tempo, with a brilliant first section that is difficult for the pianist to translate. The central part is like a couplet and later the first section reappears. It is one of the brightest.
- Spanish dance No. 7. It is known by the name of Valenciana or Calesera. It is an arious allegro in G major. It is a Valencian jota with curious syncopated chords and sustained rhythm, a stylized evocation of popular dance. Granados dedicated it to the composer César Cui .
- Spanish dance No. 8. It is a sardana , which its author used in homage to his land. This sardana appears through its peculiar rhythm, with a varied and original melodic endowment. It's in C minor and it's a moderate assai.
- Spanish dance No. 9. It is commonly called Mazurca or Romántica. It is a brilliant allegro molto in B flat minor. Some scholars have seen in it a Basque zorcico , but the rhythm is different. Others have found a proximity to the chotis . Like others they have also considered it a simply romantic page.
- Spanish dance No. 10. Called Sad or Melancholic Dance , it is an allegretto in G major. It is one of the most popular in the series. From a formal point of view it is somewhat washed out, but therein lies its charm.
- Spanish Dance No. 11. Called Zambra , it is a beautiful and inspired page that shows reminiscences of music with Moorish roots along with the virtuosity and rigor that are usual in Granados .
- Spanish dance No. 12. It is called Arabesca. It is of Moorish inspiration, like the previous dance. It is also the last dance in the collection. Piece of great delicacy, the melody of the central section has a very special grace.
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- Antokoletz, Elliott (March 14, 2014). A History of Twentieth-Century Music in a Theoretic-Analytical Context (in English) . Routledge. ISBN 9781135037307 . Retrieved February 17, 2016 .
- Granados, Enrique; Barrueco, Manuel. Four Spanish Dances, Op. 37 (in English) . Alfred Music. ISBN 9781457455230 . Retrieved February 17, 2016 .
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- «12 Spanish Dances (Granados, Enrique) - IMSLP.org» . imslp.org . Retrieved May 28, 2016 .
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