|12 of the Twelve|
|First edition||2009 a 2012|
|Editorial||Provincial Council of Cádiz|
|Screenwriter (s)||Rafael Marin .|
|Draftsman (s)||Mel , Mateo Guerrero , Alberto Foche , Olga Carmona , Francisco Asencio , Kalvellido , Andi Rivas , Shirak , Sergio Bleda , Jesús Méndez , Antonio Romero , Ángel Olivera , Fritz , Paco Nájera , Juan Luis Rincón and Aureo Lorenzo .|
|Colorist (s)||Emilio José Domínguez , Javi Montes , Lola Garmont , Shirak, Sergio Bleda, Ángel Olivera, Fritz and Aureo Lorenzo.|
12 del Doce is a collection of twelve comics directed by the artist Fritz and scripted by Rafael Marín , each story being illustrated by a different cartoonist. The history of "12 del Doce" narrates the historical events that occurred in the city of Cádiz from the Battle of Trafalgar to the repeal of the 1812 Constitution at the hands of Fernando VII , covering a chronological period that goes from 1805 to 1814 .
Between 1979 and 1980 Rafael Marín showed interest in telling the history of his land through comic strips, and together with the cartoonist Ángel Olivera he made two small comics about the history of Andalusia and the life of the mayor and revolutionary Fermín Salvochea , both works being sponsored by the Cádiz City Council . [ 1 ] Shortly after, the history of Cádiz from the War of Independence was briefly narrated as part of the comic Historia de Cádiz ( Roasa , 1983), which was scripted by historian Jorge Alonso García and illustrated by cartoonist Luis Collado Coch. Both the two works by Marín and García's compressed excessive information into very few pages, sacrificing the narrative in favor of data insertion, in such a way that they came to be criticized for appearing to be "illustrated history manuals" and not comics with a sequential narration. [ 2 ]
Project and development
In 2008 , the cartoonist Fritz presented the idea for 12 del Twelve to the Provincial Council of Cádiz, which was looking for projects to commemorate the Bicentennial in 2012 . Never before has the province of Cádiz had such an ambitious comic project. [ 3 ]
With Fritz as director of the collection and Rafael Marín as scriptwriter, various Spanish comic strip artists were selected. The albums in the collection, and their artists, are as follows:
|Title||Drawing and color||Place and date it takes place|
|1||2009||Trafalgar||Mateo Guerrero (artist) and Javi Montes (colorist) [ 4 ]||Cádiz, October 1805|
|2||2009||Solano||Alberto Foche (cartoonist) and Emilio José Dominguez (colorist) [ 5 ]||Cádiz, May 1808|
|3||2009||With the bombs they drop||Kalvellido , Olga Carmona , Francisco Asencio , Lola Garmont , Andi Rivas , Begoña F. Martín (cartoonist)||Cádiz, 1808-1812|
|4||2010||Guerrillas||Sergio Bleda||Sierra de Cádiz, September 1810|
|5||2010||Leon Island||Jesús Méndez (cartoonist) and Lola Garmont (colorist)||San Fernando, September 1810-February 1811|
|6||2010||The Caves of María Moco||Antonio Romero (cartoonist) and Lola Garmont (colorist)||Bay of Cádiz, sometime between 1808-1813|
|7||2011||Pine forest of the french||Angel Olivera||Chiclana, March 5, 1811|
|8||2011||Piñata sunday||Fritz||Cádiz, February 1812|
|9||2012||Gatherings and Courts||Paco Najera||Cádiz, March 1812|
|10||2012||Long live Pepa||Olga Carmona (cartoonist) and Aureo Lorenzo (colorist)||Cádiz, March 19, 1812|
|11||September 2012||Moreno||Juan Luis Rincón (cartoonist) and Lola Garmont (colorist) [ 6 ]||Cádiz, October 1813 / Cádiz, 2012|
|12||December 2012||The Desired||Aureo Lorenzo [ 7 ]||Madrid, 1833|
The series of twelve comics will review the history of the Constitution of 1812, beginning with the defeat of Trafalgar, and then continuing with the Napoleonic invasion, resistance against the French, the courts, the proclamation of the Constitution and, finally, the abolition of the same by King Fernando VII.
Unlike other comics, Rafael Marín has planned to tell the story not only from the point of view of the great historical figures, but also from the perspective of ordinary people, giving prominence to the people of the street. [ 8 ]
The stories are self-concluding, although some characters are reappearing. Although each comic can be read independently, read all at once will make up a historical mosaic.
Volume 1, Trafalgar
The plot follows the defeat of the Franco-Spanish army and the aid that the people of Cadiz give to the Spanish, French and English survivors indistinctly. This help is reflected in the protagonist, María, who loses her son in battle, but in exchange the sea returns a young English cabin boy whom she saves from the jaws of death. [ 4 ]
Volume 11, Moreno
In Cádiz in 2012, a young Sub-Saharan who is dedicated to street vending flees a police raid. Once he has managed to get to safety, he falls exhausted and has a dream that transports him to Cádiz at the end of 1813, when an outbreak of yellow fever devastates the city and the Cortes prepare to leave the city. The story centers on Bernabé and Herminia, he a young slave who serves as a servant for an American deputy, she a domestic slave of a wealthy Cadiz family. Throughout the comic, in addition, the final destination of most of the characters that have appeared throughout the series is contemplated: the English cabin boy William, the prostitute Teresita, the hustlers Sebastián and Chano, the young man Evaristo, the guerrilla Chano and Miss Clara; some find a happy ending,
Volume 12, The Desired One
Fernando VII walks the silent corridors of his palace during the last days of his reign, recounting through his memories his efforts to occupy the throne of Spain: the conspiracies against his father Carlos IV , his exile in France and the return of absolutism after the liberal experience. The story is told from his point of view, and although he is convinced of the justice of all his decisions, his last moments are punctuated by the ghosts of the future: from the Carlist Wars to current social protests. [ 7 ]
To ensure that the collection does not fall into errors or skip relevant topics, the authors have the help of a historical advisor who, in addition to helping them with information, also writes short articles about the time and its context, allowing the interested reader dig a little deeper into the story. [ 9 ] The advisor for the twelve issues will be the historian and screenwriter José Joaquín Rodríguez .
- «Small history of Andalusia in comic. Archives » . January 20, 2008 . Retrieved April 6, 2009 .
- Rodríguez Moreno, José Joaquín (2009). "Salvoceha and the Cadiz canton in vignettes", in Fermín Salvochea in History. Publications Service of the Provincial Council of Cádiz and Cultural Association Ubi Sunt?
- «" From history to the comic "in Diario de Cádiz. Archives » . March 18, 2009 . Retrieved April 6, 2009 .
- 12 of the Twelve: Trafalgar . Cádiz County Council. March 2009. ISBN 978-84-96583-89-4 .
- López, Félix (2010). Emilio José Domínguez , Tebeosfera .
- 12 of the Twelve: Moreno . Cádiz County Council. September 2012. ISBN 978-84-92717-45-3 .
- 12 of the Twelve: The Desired One . Cádiz County Council. December 2012. ISBN 978-84-92717-48-4 .
- «" A collection of comics will reflect the daily life of the constitutional Cádiz "in La Voz Digital. Archives » . March 26, 2009 . Retrieved April 6, 2009 .
- «" The bicentennial of 'La Pepa' and Trafalgar jump into the cartoons "in El País. Archives » . March 18, 2009 . Retrieved April 6, 2009 .