13-Lachter-Stollen - 13-Lachter-Stollen

13-Lachter-Stollen
General information about the mine
13-Lachter-Stollen Mundloch.jpg
Orifice of the 13-laughing tunnel
Information about the mining company
Start of operation 1526
Funded raw materials
Degradation of
Geographical location
Coordinates ° 49 51 '39 " N , 10 ° 16' 46" O Koordinaten: 51 ° 49 '39 " N , 10 ° 16' 46" O
13-Lachter-Stollen (Lower Saxony)
13-Lachter-Stollen
Location 13-Lachter-Stollen
Location Mountain town of Wildemann
local community The mining town of Clausthal-Zellerfeld
District ( NUTS3 ) Goslar
Land State of Lower Saxony
State Germany

The 13-Lachter-Stollen (previously also called Tiefer Wildemann-Stollen ) is a water solution tunnel of the Upper Harz Mining and the oldest surviving mining facility in the Upper Harz .

The mouth of the tunnel is located in Wildemann (mountain and university town of Clausthal-Zellerfeld). From here it extends over a length of 8.9 km to the Caroline pit near Clausthal-Zellerfeld .

The 13-Lachter-Stollen was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2010 as part of the Upper Harz water reserve . [1]

Mine plan from 1661 with the location of the 13-Lachter tunnel

story

As early as the 14th century, the old man is said to have been digging ore at the site of the later mouth hole , before the Black Death largely depopulated the Upper Harz in 1347 . In addition to the plague, the onset of a lack of wood and difficulties in keeping the water in the ever deeper mines meant that mining was brought to a standstill. [2]

Use as a water solution tunnel

Dennert fir at the mouth hole

Between 1524 and 1526, Duke Heinrich the Younger initiated the resumption of mining activities at Wildemann. The tunnel was cleared and driven on during this period . From the beginning it was designed as a water solution tunnel .

After about twenty years work was stopped after only 714 laughs (1400 m) due to hard rock and insufficient ventilation . In 1551, a way of solving the fresh air problem was started with the Upper Wildemanns tunnel . As with the 13 Lachter tunnel, work on the 19 and later 16 Lachter tunnel had to be stopped due to the hardness of the rock.

In 1570 there were no alternatives, which is why the excavation of the tunnels was continued. The 19-Lachter-Stollen was later renamed the Getroster Hedwigstollen . Only by using mallets and irons was the 13-Lachter tunnel driven from 1634 through the Stuffenthaler Gangzug to the Treuen Schacht and from there from 1693 to the pits of the Burgstätter Revier. The miners reached the Zellerfeld Revier around 1680. The distance from the mouth hole in Wildemann to the Clausthaler Markscheide was 2590 Lachter (4983 m) and from there to the pit Neue Benedicte and Prince Friedrich Ludwig a further 1580 Lachter (3040 m). The last section leads to the Caroline pit, which was reached in 1710 after a total length of 4630 puddles (8907 m) at a depth of 73 puddles (140 m). [3]

The route from the Haus Sachsen pit to the mouth hole was laid out with a smaller gradient than the rest of the tunnel, in order to integrate an artificial bike into the tunnel, which received its impact water from the Jungfrau mine . [3]

Until the completion of the Tiefen Georg tunnel in 1799, it was the deepest and most important water solution tunnel for the pits on the Zellerfelder , Rosenhöfer and Burgstätter Gangzug. [4]

Until the middle of the 20th century, the "dissolved" water was fed to the Lautenthaler Kunstgraben for reinforcement. The water was used to drive water wheels and thus pumps that could pump more water from even deeper pits.

Naming

The name 13-Lachter-Stollen comes from the Lachter , a length used in mining. The tunnel was so named because it was 13 Clausthaler Lachter (approx. 25 m) below the next higher water solution tunnel, the 19 Lachter tunnel . This in turn was located 19 laughers under the 16 laughers tunnel and this 16 laughers under the Frankenscharrn tunnel . [5]

literature

  • U. Dumreicher: Entire overview of the water management of the north-western Upper Harz . Verlag der Grosse'schen Buchhandlung, Clausthal 1868.

See also

Weblinks

Commons : 13-Lachter-Stollen - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Ministry for Science and Culture of Lower Saxony: Upper Harz Water Management System. 2008, p. 26 , accessed on December 2, 2015 (English).
  2. Dennert-Tanne 121. Retrieved July 14, 2013 .
  3. a b Dumreicher: Entire overview of the water management of the north-western Upper Harz. 1868, p. 32.
  4. The 13-Lachter-Stollen. Retrieved July 14, 2013 .
  5. Location of the individual water solution tunnels. Retrieved July 14, 2013 .