| Eduardo Sáenz de Buruaga |
Agustín Muñoz Grandes
|Wars and battles|
|Spanish Civil War|
The 150th Division was a Division of the Francoist Army that fought in the Spanish Civil War , during which it played an important role. The unit took part in the battles of Brunete , Teruel , Alfambra , Aragón , Ebro and Catalonia . Famous soldiers such as Eduardo Sáenz de Buruaga or Agustín Muñoz Grandes passed through the command of the unit .
The division was created in the Moroccan protectorate at the end of May 1937, [ 1 ] being under the command of General Eduardo Sáenz de Buruaga . By mid-June the unit was already fully organized, [ 2 ] being made up of Moroccan regulars, legionaries, etc. At that time, General Sáenz de Buruaga was Cáceres's military commander, so the division was occasionally deployed in this square. [ 3 ]
In July, following the start of the Republican offensive in Brunete, the 150th Division was quickly dispatched to this sector as reinforcement. [ 4 ] On the Perales River, some troops from the division managed to secure the 46th Republican Division , thwarting their advances to the south and west of Quijorna . [ 5 ] After stopping the Republican offensive, on July 18 the forces of Sáenz de Buruaga launched a powerful counterattack against the enemy positions with the support of Barrón's 13th Division and other forces. [ 6 ]On the 19th the forces of the division managed to break the republican lines, advancing several kilometers; the battle continued until July 25, after the reconquest of Brunete by the 13th Division. [ 6 ]
At the end of August the division was sent to the front of Aragon , before the new republican offensive in this sector. Sáenz de Buruaga counterattacked and tried to advance towards the fenced town of Belchite , which would end up surrendering on September 6 after a short but intense resistance . [ 7 ]
In mid-December she was sent to the Teruel front, [ 8 ] after the republican siege of the Teruel capital. The division was added to the Galician Army Corps , commanded by General Antonio Aranda . [ 8 ] On the 29th he participated in the powerful Francoist counteroffensive, although the unit only achieved small advances at the cost of a high number of casualties. [ 9 ] On January 4, 1938 he participated together with the IV Division of Navarra in the assault on the heights of «Celadas», making some advances. [ 10 ]The defenders of Teruel, however, surrendered on January 7. From that moment all the efforts of the Francoist Army were directed towards the reconquest of the provincial capital. In February the 150th Division played an active role during the Battle of Alfambra [ 11 ] and the subsequent reconquest of Teruel. [ 12 ]
On March 9, 1938, the command of the division was handed over to Colonel Agustín Muñoz Grandes , [ 13 ] a veteran of the campaign in the north . Integrated into the Moroccan Army Corps , during the spring of that year the unit had an outstanding participation in the Aragon offensive , especially in the Battle of Caspe - a town that fell after intense fighting. On March 19, she was relieved from her positions on the Guadalope River by Colonel Natalio López Bravo's 105th Division . [ 14 ]Later, the unit entered Catalonia until it reached the Segre River, where its advance was slowed. During the following months it defended its positions on the right bank of the Segre, although during the Balaguer fighting it was transferred to the Tremp - Sort front and intervened in the defense of the Tremp bridgehead together with the 152nd Division . [ 15 ]
The Ebro and Catalonia
After the beginning of the Battle of the Ebro, the division was sent to the new battle front, [ 16 ] as a reinforcement of the other divisions of the Moroccan Army Corps. By then he was already under the command of Colonel Siro Alonso . [ 17 ] During the following months he took part in Franco's counteroffensive.
At the end of 1938, facing the campaign in Catalonia, the unit was assigned to the Urgel Army Corps , commanded by Muñoz Grandes himself. [ 18 ] On December 29, the unit began its advance on the Tremp - Artesa de Segre road , pushing the 31st Republican Division . [ 19 ] On January 1, 1939, he continued his advances towards Montargull, thereby contributing to the siege and conquest of the town of Artesa de Segre. [ 19 ] From that moment the republican resistance practically collapsed.
The division was dissolved after the end of the contest.
- Martínez Bande, 1981 , p. 116.
- Martínez Bande, 1981 , p. 118.
- Martínez Bande, 1981 , p. 108.
- Martínez Bande, 1981 , p. 122.
- VV.AA., 1990, p. 508.
- Thomas, 1976 , p. 771.
- Thomas, 1976, p. 784.
- VV.AA., 1990, p. 557.
- VV.AA., 1990 , pp. 557-558.
- VV.AA., 1990, p. 558.
- El Merroun, 2003, p. 154.
- VV.AA., 1990 , pp. 567-569.
- Vadillo, 1999, p. 99.
- Engel, 2000, p. 161.
- Martínez Bande, 1978 , pp. 27-31.
- Alonso Baquer, 2004 , p. 312.
- Besolí et al ., 2005 , p. 44.
- VV.AA., 1990, p. 631.
- VV.AA., 1990, p. 634.
- Alonso Baquer , Miguel (2004). The Ebro, the decisive battle of the hundred days . The Sphere of Books.
- Besolí , Andreu; Sesalí , David; Hernández , Xavier; Íñiguez , David; Luque , Joan Carles (2005). Ebro 1938 . Barcelona: Inedita Editores. ISBN 84-96364-27-5 .
- El Merroun , Mustapha (2003). The Moroccan Troops in the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 . Almena Editions.
- Engel , Carlos (2000). History of the divisions of the national army . Almena Editions.
- Martínez Bande , José Manuel (1978). The Battle of the Ebro . Madrid: San Martín.
- -- (1981). The battle of Pozoblanco and the closure of the Merida stock market . Madrid: Editorial San Martín.
- Thomas , Hugh (1976). History of the Spanish Civil War . Barcelona: Circle of Readers. ISBN 84-226-0874-X .
- VV.AA. (1990). General history of Spain and America XVII . The second republic and the civil war . Madrid: Rialp Editions.
- Vadillo , Fernando (1999). Muñoz Grandes, the General of the Blue Division . Don Rodrigo Foundation.