16 rules of Esperanto - 16 reglas del esperanto
The Esperanto is a constructed language , which follows the grammatical model of natural languages, but try to avoid some of the difficulties of these, simplifying grammar , avoiding exceptions and setting rules as clear as possible.
Its basic grammar is usually summarized in 16 rules (published in Fundamento de Esperanto , 1906), which can be stated as follows:
- Esperanto only has the definite article la , the same for all genders, numbers and cases. It lacks an indeterminate article.
- The noun name ends in -o . To form the plural, a j is added to the singular. The language only has two cases: nominative and accusative. The latter is formed by adding -n to the accusative. The other cases are formed with prepositions: the genitive with de (de) , the dative with al (a) , the ablative with per (por) or with other prepositions, depending on the sense.
- The adjective ends in a . Their cases and numbers are formed as in nouns. The comparative degree is formed, adjective with the word pli (more) and the superlative with the word plej (the most) . The "that" of the comparative is translated by ol , and the "of" of the superlative by el .
- Cardinal numeral adjectives are invariable: unu (1), du (2), tri (3), kvar (4), kvin (5), ses (6), sep (7), ok (8), naŭ (9 ), dek (10), cent (100), mil (1000). The tens and hundreds are formed by the simple meeting of the aforementioned numerals. To the cardinal numeral adjectives is added: the ending a of the adjective, to form the ordinal numerals ; obl for multiples ;on for fractional ; op for collectives . Po before the cardinals forms the distributives .
- The personal pronouns are: my (I) , vi (you, Ud, Uds, you, you) , li (he) , ŝi (she) , ĝi (he, she, it, for animals or things) , if (se , yes, reflective) , ni (we, we) , ili (they, they) , oni (se, one) . Adding the ending a to the adjective forms the possessive adjectives or pronouns . Pronouns are inflected as nouns.
- The verb is invariable in people and in numbers. The present ends in as , the past in is , the future in os , the conditional in us , the imperative in u, and the infinitive in i . Active participles, in ant the present, in int the past and in ont the future. The passive participles, in at the present, in it the past and in ot the future. The passive voice is formed with the verb esti (to be)and the passive participle of the verb that is conjugated. The "of" or "by" of the ablative agent is translated by of .
- The adverb ends in e . Their degrees of comparison are formed like those of the adjective.
- All prepositions govern, by themselves, the nominative .
- Every word is pronounced the same way as it is written.
- The tonic accent always falls on the penultimate syllable.
- Compound words are formed by the simple meeting of the elements that form them. In them the fundamental word always goes at the end. Affixes and endings are treated as words.
- If there is already a negative word in the sentence, the adverb ne (no) is deleted .
- The word that indicates the place where you are going, carries the ending of the accusative.
- Every preposition has, in Esperanto, an invariable and well-determined meaning, which fixes its use. However, when the meaning we want to express does not clearly indicate which preposition we should use, we will use the preposition je , which has no meaning of its own. This rule does not harm clarity, since in such cases all languages use any preposition, with no other rule than custom. Instead of je , the accusative can also be used, if it does not create ambiguity.
- The "foreign" words, that is, those that most languages have derived from the same origin, do not undergo alteration when passing into Esperanto, but they adopt their spelling and their endings. However, of the different words derived from the same root, it is preferable to use only the fundamental word unchanged, and form the others according to the rules of Esperanto.
- The endings a in the article and or in the singular noun can be deleted, replacing them with an apostrophe.