|Years||1868 1869 1870 ← 1871 → 1872 1873 1874|
|Decades||1840s 1850s 1860s ← 1870s → 1880s 1890s 1900s|
|Centuries||18th century ← 19th century → 20th century|
|Annual table of the 19th century|
- January 1 : Argentina : the Argentine Civil Code drawn up by Dalmacio Vélez Sársfield enters into force .
- January 2 :
- January 3 : Henry W. Bradley patents oleomargarine .
- January 18 : Proclamation of the German Empire in the hall of mirrors of the Palace of Versailles .
- February 7 : American dentist James Beall Morrison patented a foot-operated drill, which quickly found widespread use.
- February 26 : France : Sign a preliminary peace treaty with Germany that would lay the foundations for the reestablishment of the German Empire.
- March 1 :
- March 18 : France : The Paris Commune , a revolutionary popular government, is installed in the French capital.
- March 27 : Edinburgh : The first international rugby match is played , between the England and Scotland teams .
- May 28 : The Paris Commune falls into a bloodbath of 30,000 dead at the hands of reactionary French and Prussian armies.
- July 18 : Treaty of Frankfurt : End of the Franco-Prussian War . Germany annexes Alsace and Lorraine .
- September 18 : Chile : Federico Errázuriz succeeds Pérez Mascayano in the presidency of the Republic .
- October 8 (Sunday) - In several states in the north-central United States, severe drought, high winds, and high temperatures contribute to one of the worst wildfire disasters in US history, with the Great Fire of Chicago (which started today and ended Tuesday 10; with 300 victims), the Péshtigo Fire (the deadliest in the United States, in which between 1,200 and 2,500 people died) and the fires in Holland , Manistee and Port Huron (in Michigan ).
- October 24 : in the Chinatown neighborhood of Los Angeles the Chinese Massacre happens; a mob of white Americans lynch some twenty Chinese men, women and children .
- November 8 : In Mexico, Porfirio Díaz takes up arms proclaiming the Plan de la Noria in which he does not know the presidency of Benito Juárez.
- November 27 : Execution of the Eight Medical Students of the University of Havana by the Spanish crown, accused of desecrating the grave of Spanish journalist Gonzalo Castañón. The ages of the students shot were between 16 and 21 years old.
- South Africa : Great Britain annexes West Griqualand including the Kimberley diamond mines .
- Great yellow fever epidemic in Buenos Aires that kills 8% of its population.
- Colombia : The Bolívar railway between Barranquilla and Salgar is inaugurated , the first in the country, if the Panama Railway is excluded , which still belonged to Colombia.
Art and literature
- May 10 : Foundation of the Colombian Academy of Language .
- Mexico : premiere of the opera Guatemotzin , by Aniceto Ortega de Villar .
- November 3 : Foundation of the Association of Spanish Writers and Artists .
- December 24 : Egypt : Giuseppe Verdi premieres the opera Aida , in Cairo .
- Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer - Legends .
Science and Technology
- March 12 : Germany : the astronomer Karl Theodor Robert Luther discovers Amalthea (the fifth satellite of Jupiter ).
- December 28 : United States : the Italian Antonio Meucci requests the prepatente of the telephone (before the American Alexander Graham Bell ).
- Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Man .
- Louis Pasteur convinces doctors in military hospitals to boil instruments and bandages to avoid contagion with pathogenic germs .
- Mendeleiev - Periodic system .
- John Edward Gray describes Hector's whale for the first time .
- January 1 : Manuel Gondra , Paraguayan politician (d. 1927 ).
- January 7 : Émile Borel , French mathematician and politician (d. 1956 ).
- January 8 : Manuel Trujillo Durán , Venezuelan photographer, filmmaker and businessman (d. 1933 ).
- January 24 : Maurice Pignet , French physician, chemist and surgeon (d. 1935 ).
- May 6 : Victor Grignard , French chemist, 1912 Nobel Prize Winner (d. 1935 ).
- May 11 : Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo , creator of the Greek-inspired Delphos dress (d. 1949 ).
- August 4 : Enrique Molina Garmendia , Chilean educator and philosopher (d. 1964 ).
- August 13 : Karl Liebknecht , German Socialist leader (d. 1919 ).
- 19 of August : Orville Wright , pioneer of the American aviation (d. 1948 ).
- August 21 : Leonid Andreyev , Russian writer (b. 1919 ).
- August 30 : Ernest Rutherford , British chemist and physicist, 1908 Nobel Prize winner for chemistry (d. 1937 ).
- September 23 : František Kupka , Czechoslovak painter (b. 1957 ).
- September 27 : Grazia Deledda , Italian writer, Nobel Prize for Literature in 1926 (d. 1936 ).
- November 1 : Stephen Crane , American writer.
- November 1: Alexander Spendiaryan , conductor and composer (d. 1928 ).
- November 26 : Luigi Sturzo , Italian priest and politician (d. 1959 ).
- January 8 : José Trinidad Cabañas , military man, president and hero of Honduras (b. 1805 ).
- January 12 : Eduardo Zamacois y Zabala , Spanish painter (b. 1841 ).
- January 13 : Henriette d'Angeville , French climber ( b.1794 )
- February 4 : Shamil , Russian-Bavarian politician and religious (b. 1797).
- February 7 : Leopoldina de Braganza , Brazilian princess (b. 1847 ).
- February 16 : Alberto Lutowski , Polish engineer, military and politician (d. 1871).
- February 20 : Paul Kane , Canadian painter (b. 1810 ).
- February 22 : Luis José Sartorius , journalist and Spanish politician (b. 1820 ).
- March 2 : Victor de Bonald , French writer, lawyer and journalist (b. 1780 ).
- March 18 : Augustus De Morgan , British mathematician of Indian origin ( b.1806 ).
- May 11 : John Herschel , British astronomer (b. 1792 ).
- May 12 : Daniel-François Auber , French musician and composer (b. 1782 ).
- May 12: Anselme Payen , French chemist (b. 1795 ).
- October 5 : Aleksandr Afanásiev , writer and Russian folklorist (b. 1826 ).
- October 18 : Charles Babbage , British mathematician, father of computers (b. 1791 ).