The 19th German Bundestag was elected on September 24, 2017 and has 709 members . Its constituent meeting took place on October 24, 2017, 30 days after the election and thus at the latest possible time in accordance with Paragraph 2 of the Basic Law .  Only then did the term of office (" electoral period ") of the 18th German Bundestag end, in accordance with Article 39.1 sentence 2 of the Basic Law .
Members of the Bundestag
The 19th German Bundestag has 709 members . In accordance with (1) sentence 1 BWahlG, they acquired their mandate when the first meeting after the election was opened. The 19th German Bundestag has 78 more members than the 18th German Bundestag at its first session and 111 more members than the statutory number of 598 ( (1) sentence 1 BWahlG). It is the largest Bundestag in German history to date,  due to 46 overhang seats and 65 necessary compensation seats .  At the same time, it is one of the largest chambers of parliament in a western democracy (the BritishHowever, the House of Lords is larger with 810 members, as are the two chambers of the Italian or French parliament combined). 
A total of 246 members of the Union parties , 153 members of the SPD , 94 members of the Alternative für Deutschland (AfD), 80 members of the FDP , 69 members of the Left and 67 members of Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen were elected .
The 19th German Bundestag is the first since the 1957 Bundestag election in which (with the AfD) members of a party to the right of the Union parties were elected. However, this only applies under the assumption that the FDP is classified politically to the left of the CDU, which is not undisputed.  At that time, the right-wing DP with 3.4% remained below the five percent hurdle , but was still able to move into the Bundestag because it was able to win three direct mandates with the tolerance of the CDU .  The AfD came to 12.6%.
The then AfD party leader and Saxon top candidate of the AfD, Frauke Petry , declared shortly after the election that she wanted to belong to the 19th German Bundestag as a non-attached MP .  She had been elected as a direct candidate in the constituency of Saxon Switzerland - Eastern Ore Mountains . On October 4, 2017, Mario Mieruch announced his departure from the AfD parliamentary group in the German Bundestag .  After their resignation, both switched to the Blue Party , which was founded a week before the election, and Petry became party chairman . The Blue Party disbanded at the end of 2019.
On November 26, 2018, the SPD MP Marco Bülow, directly elected in the Dortmund I constituency , resigned from the SPD, which means that 152 MPs still belong to its parliamentary group.  He joined Die PARTTEI in November 2020 and is thus its first member of the Bundestag. 
On December 17, 2018, Uwe Kamann announced his departure from the party and parliamentary group of the AfD.  On December 18, 2019, Lars Herrmann resigned from the AfD party and parliamentary group  and on January 27, 2020 Verena Hartmann also announced her departure. 
At the suggestion of its President Norbert Lammert (CDU), the 18th German Bundestag changed the Rules of Procedure of the German Bundestag on June 1, 2017 so that the age president is no longer the oldest member of the Bundestag since 1949, but the longest member of the Bundestag associated member present. This would have opened the first session not Wilhelm von Gottberg (AfD) as the oldest member of parliament, but Wolfgang Schäuble (CDU), who has been a member of the German Bundestag since 1972. 
Since Schäuble was proposed for the office of President of the Bundestag, he renounced the presidency of age; Instead, Hermann Otto Solms (FDP), with the second longest membership in the Bundestag (1980-2013), got the chance.   The constituent session was therefore opened by Solms. The AfD parliamentary group contradicted this and requested that a chairman of the meeting be elected with the exclusive task of leading the vote on the Bundestag's rules of procedure and then handing over the management of office to the old-age president determined according to the rules of procedure then in effect. The application was rejected with the votes of all parliamentary groups with the approval of the AfD parliamentary group. 
To be elected, a candidate had to have at least 355 votes ( absolute majority ).
Before the vice-presidents were elected, their number was first voted on. Each parliamentary group was assigned a vice-president and the number was thus set at six.
The following were proposed as candidates:
- Hans-Peter Friedrich (CSU) for the Union faction
- Thomas Oppermann † for the SPD parliamentary group
- Wolfgang Kubicki for the FDP parliamentary group
- Claudia Roth for the Group of the Greens
- Petra Pau for the left parliamentary group
- Albrecht Glaser , Mariana Harder-Kühnel , Gerold Otten and Paul Podolay three times each for the AfD parliamentary group
The candidates from the CSU, SPD, FDP, Greens and Left were each elected in the first ballot with the required majority. The AfD candidate, controversial in the other parliamentary groups - because of his demand to withdraw basic rights from Muslims - failed in three ballots. Glaser could only have run again with the consent of the Council of Elders . On January 18, 2018, he decided not to admit any further candidacies. 
On November 6, 2018 it was announced that Mariana Harder-Kühnel was nominated as a candidate by her parliamentary group.  They also failed in three ballots and received in the last election on April 4, 2019, only 199 out of 665 votes cast. 
The third candidate Gerold Otten received only 210 yes votes on April 11, 2019, while 393 parliamentarians voted against him and 31 abstained.  In the second ballot on May 16, 2019, he did not receive a sufficient majority with just 205 votes,  also in the third ballot on June 6, 2019 (211 of 667 votes). 
Paul Podolay, now the fourth candidate, failed on September 26, 2019 with 214 votes in favor and 397 against with 33 abstentions,  also on November 7, 2019 (189 out of 638 votes)  and on December 12, 2019 ( 197 votes out of 630). 
In view of the number of MPs, Hermann Otto Solms called for a downsizing of the parliament and a corresponding upper limit in his speech as senior president on October 24, 2017. The Taxpayers' Association also spoke out in favor of this.  
Proportion of women
The 19th German Bundestag currently has 221 women.  This means that the proportion of women is around 31% and thus almost six percentage points lower than in the 18th German Bundestag , which triggered criticism.   The Bundestag, as the representative of the German people, does not adequately represent the real proportion of around 50% women in the population.  Some demands are made for a Parité law .  The AfD parliamentary group has the lowest proportion of women with 11%, and the group of Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen with 58.2%.
However, the proportion of women among party members in the parties represented in the Bundestag is often lower: CDU 26.3%, CSU 20.7%, SPD 32.6%, AfD 17.1%, FDP 23.7%, Greens 40.5% , Left 36.4% (as of December 31, 2018). Taking into account the distribution of seats in the 19th German Bundestag, there is an average proportion of women of around 29% among the members of the parties sending delegates. This means that women are slightly disproportionately represented among MPs in relation to the parties that set them up.
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