1st Leib-Hussar Regiment No. 1 - 1. Leib-Husaren-Regiment Nr. 1

1st Leib-Hussar Regiment around 1880
Regimentsstandarte

The first Hussars Regiment. 1 was a cavalry joined in the Prussian army . It had no guard status .

Association membership

XVII. Army Corps in Danzig - Commanding General : General of the Cavalry August von Mackensen
36th Division in Danzig - Commander : Major General Konstanz von Heineccius
Leibhusaren Brigade in Danzig - Commander: Major General Eberhard von Schmettow

Lineup

The Crown Prince takes over the 1st Leib-Hussar Regiment (Danzig, September 15, 1911)

With the Highest Cabinet Order (AKO) of August 9, 1741, King Friedrich II founded the fifth hussar regiment of the Prussian army, which was initially called the Regiment Black Hussars . Major von Mackroth was appointed as the first chief of the regiment, but the association did not use his name. By September 5, five squadrons had been set up and the towns of Goldap , Lyck , Darkehmen , Lötzen , Oletzko , Stallupönen , Schirwindt and Pillkallen were assigned as garrisons.

Only with the second chief did the regiment, as was customary at the time, receive his name for identification and was called from then on the Hussar Regiment "von Ruesch" . With every change of chief, the regimental name was also changed, so the name of the association was:

After the Peace of Tilsit on July 7, 1807, the Prittwitz Hussars were the only hussar regiment in the Prussian Army that still had full crew strength, as it had not participated in the Battle of Jena and Auerstedt on October 14, 1806.

With AKO on December 20, 1808, the regiment was divided and the 1st Leib Hussar Regiment in Goldap and the 2nd Leib Hussar Regiment in Prussian Stargard were formed. General von Prittwitz remained chief of the two regiments, which were always closely linked to one another. On May 7, 1817, the 1st Leib-Hussars moved into the new garrison in Danzig and on May 7, 1861 they were renamed the 1st Leib-Hussar Regiment No. 1.

The 1st Leib-Hussar Regiment was mounted with white horses.

Campaigns

The Hussar Regiment "von Ruesch" fought successfully in the Second Silesian War in 1744 near Smatschna and Moldauthain. With the cavalry attack led by General von Zieten of 22 squadon hussars on November 23, 1745 near Katholisch-Hennersdorf, a Saxon army was wiped out. For their bravery, Frederick II awarded the “black hussars” the captured kettledrum , which the regiment led until 1918.

In the Seven Years' War (Third Silesian War) the regiment attacked on August 25, 1758 in the Battle of Zorndorf .

In the War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778/79 the hussars were only used in outpost and reconnaissance service.

In the war against Napoleon in 1806/07, the regiment initially stayed in Poland and was then pulled up to the Vistula as far as Thorn , where on June 10, 1807 in the Battle of Heilsberg it crushed the French 55th Line Infantry Regiment and captured its eagle . A monument to the Prittwitz Hussars was erected on the market square in Heilsberg .

In the liberation war of 1813/14 the hussars fought in the Battle of Großbeeren and in the Battle of Nations near Leipzig . After Napoleon's abdication, the regiment and the victorious troops entered Paris .

During the unrest in Poland in 1830, 1848 and 1863/64, the regiment stood as security on the Prussian-Russian border.

In the war against Austria , the regiment fought in Bohemia and took part in the Battle of Königgrätz on July 3, 1866 .

The Franco-German War saw the body hussars in the battle of Sedan against the troops of Emperor Napoleon III. with subsequent transfer to the Southern Army in the Orléans area . On June 28, 1871, the regiment returned to its home garrison.

At the beginning of the First World War, the regiment moved to the western front on August 3, 1914 with its sister regiment (2nd Leib-Hussar Regiment No. 2), with which it was to remain in the brigade unit throughout the war . The Hussars took part in the Battle of the Marne and the fighting for Arras and were relocated to the Eastern Front in autumn 1914 . Here they fought first in Galicia and in the Battle of Riga and were involved in the occupation of the islands of Oesel and Dagö . In 1917 the brigade was sent to Finland to support the struggle for independence . After thisPeace treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Russia of March 3, 1918, the units remained as occupying forces in the Russian territories. In January 1919 the Leib-Hussars returned to Danzig, where demobilization began in spring and the regiment was disbanded. The 1st Leib-Hussar Regiment No. 1 had retained cavalry status until the end of the war.

The tradition took over in the Reichswehr the 1st Squadron of the 5th (Prussian) Reiter Regiment in Belgard .

Commanders

Rank Name Date [1]
Oberst Dietrich Bogislav von Pfuhl 1806
Oberst Friedrich von Szerdahely 1809
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Wilhelm von Sandrart March 20, 1812 to April 9, 1816
Lieutenant colonel Leopold Dallmer September 12, 1816 to March 24, 1817
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Karl von Krafft March 25, 1817 to May 5, 1830
Oberst Karl von Canitz and Dallwitz 0 May 6, 1830 to February 2, 1833
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Gustav von Below 0 February 3, 1833 to May 4, 1838
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Karl von Broesigke March 30, 1839 to July 17, 1843
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Karl von Gerhardt March 30, 1844 to March 30, 1846
Lieutenant colonel Friedrich von Tyszka March 31, 1846 to March 8, 1848
Major Bernhard Clairon d’Haussonville 0 March 9 to May 6, 1848 (in charge of the tour)
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Bernhard Clairon d’Haussonville 0 May 7, 1848 to March 21, 1853
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Ludwig von Wrangel 0 April 7, 1853 to March 19, 1856
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Bernhard von Blumenthal March 20, 1856 to November 18, 1859
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Heinrich von Eckartsberg November 19, 1859 to May 14, 1862
Lieutenant colonel Rudolf von Krosigk May 15, 1862 to June 27, 1864
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Karl von Kehler June 28, 1864 to July 25, 1867
Major/Oberstleutnant/Oberst Leberecht von Hanstein July 26, 1867 to February 16, 1874
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Eugen von Oetinger February 17, 1874 to December 11, 1882
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Fedor von Bercken December 12, 1882 to April 16, 1888
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Theobald von Geldern-Egmond zu Arcen April 17, 1888 to June 16, 1893
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel August Mackensen June 17, 1893 to January 26, 1898
Lieutenant colonel Oskar von Parpart January 27, 1898 to January 26, 1900
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Richard of Colomb January 27, 1900 to March 19, 1906
Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel Willem Clifford Cocq by Breugel March 20, 1906 to September 14, 1911
Oberst Wilhelm of Prussia September 15, 1911 to December 11, 1913
Oberst Georg Heinrich von Eicke December 12, 1913 to June 29, 1916
Major Willi Sametzki June 30, 1916 to December 29, 1918
Lieutenant colonel Carl von Borcke December 30, 1918 to 1919

Uniform

Mackensen in Regimentsuniform

The black Attila had a white lacing. The fur hat was also black, trimmed with light gray trimmings and equipped with a ponceau red Kolpak. On the front of the fur hat there was a new silver skull with crossed bones, in greatly reduced form also between the trim strip and the upper cockade. The state cockade was white and black, as was the lance flag (the skull differs in shape and size from that of the Brunswick Hussar Regiment No. 17 ).

Regarding the color of the uniform, there is no reliable information, but two variants have been handed down:

a) For the uniform of the new regiment, the black fabric is said to have been used, with which the Potsdam Palace was lined in 1740 on the occasion of the memorial services for King Friedrich Wilhelm I.

b) The monks of the Leubus monastery had made a pact with the Austrians in 1740 and were to be punished by having to pay the costs of establishing the regiment as fines and equipping it with goods from the monastery. In the monastery mainly black fabrics with white skulls were made for use as towels .

As Prussia often improvised when creating new troops, both variations are not entirely impossible, but the latter seems closer to the truth.

Already ordered by AKO on February 14, 1907 and gradually introduced from 1909/10, the colorful uniform was replaced for the first time by the field-gray field service uniform (M 1910) on the occasion of the imperial maneuver in 1913. This was exactly like the peace uniform, but the lacing was gray. The leather gear and the boots were natural brown, the fur hat was covered by a fabric cover called reed-colored. The bandolier and the cartridge were no longer attached to this uniform.

Skull Hussars

"Totenkopfhusaren" was the popular name for the Brunswick Hussar Regiment No. 17 and for the 1st and 2nd Leibhusaren Regiment in Danzig (Langfuhr) because of the skull worn on the fur and cloth cap. This is an old symbol that neither pardon is given nor taken. They are not to be confused with the Belling's hussars called “The Whole Death” , who wore a complete skeleton with the inscription “ vincere, aut mori ” (“win or die”) on their hats.

literature

  • Hugo FW Schulz: The Prussian Cavalry Regiments 1913/1914. Weltbild Verlag 1992.
  • Jürgen Kraus , Stefan Rest (Ed.): The German Army in the First World War. Uniforms and equipment 1914-1918. Verlag Militaria, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-9501642-5-1 , (Catalogs of the Bavarian Army Museum Ingolstadt, Volume 2)

Weblinks

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Günter Wegmann (ed.), Günter Wegner: Formation history and staffing of the German armed forces 1815-1990. Part 1: Occupation of the German armies 1815–1939. Volume 3: The occupation of the active regiments, battalions and departments by the foundation or list until August 26, 1939. Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück 1993, ISBN 3-7648-2413-1 , pp. 98-99.