20 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank gun M1930 - 20-mm-Flug- und Panzerabwehrkanone M1930

The 20 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank gun M1930 was a machine gun developed by Rheinmetall and produced in small numbers in the then Soviet Union in the early 1930s. The Russian-language name of the weapon is 20-мм автоматическая зенитная и противотанковая пушка обр. 1930 г. , the factory index is 2-K (2-К).


In the early 1930s, the Red Army did not have small-caliber anti-aircraft guns. Such weapons were not available in the Imperial Russian Army . There were also no large-caliber machine guns that could have been used for air defense. However, the increased performance of the aircraft required the development of powerful weapons with which low and high-speed aircraft could also be fought. A similar picture emerged in the field artillery, here too there was a lack of powerful small-caliber artillery. With the participation of Vasily Alexejewitsch DegtjarjowA modern 25-mm cannon was developed in 1929 and tested in two copies in 1929/30, but not adopted into the armament of the Red Army. Due to the lack of experience of the Soviet designers, it was therefore decided to buy appropriate weapons abroad and manufacture them in the USSR. [1]

Germany was subject to restrictions on the development of weapons due to the Treaty of Versailles . German companies switched to countries such as Sweden and Switzerland to develop weapons. Cooperation with the Soviet Union also intensified. Rheinmetall had opened the office for technical work and research (Бюро для технических работ и изучений (БЮТАСТ)) in the USSR , through which prototypes and production documents were sold. In 1930 the company supplied two samples of a 20 mm cannon and complete technical documentation through the office. The price for a weapon was 24,000 Reichsmarks. Rheinmetall suggested putting the gun on a motorcycleto be installed with a sidecar. The weight of the motorcycle, the cannon with 300 rounds of ammunition and two soldiers should be 775 kg. [1]

The weapon was officially introduced into the Red Army as the 20-mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank gun M1930 (20-мм автоматическая зенитная и противотанковая пушка обр. 1930 г.) [1] . The series production was supposed to take place in plant no.8, therefore the weapon received the plant index 2-K. However, the guns produced did not meet the requirements either quantitatively or qualitatively. In 1932, instead of the ordered one hundred guns, a total of three guns were produced, and another 61 guns in the following year. The plant failed to develop a technology for series production. Every single weapon was made by hand. The quality was extremely low, in 1936 there were only 31 cannons plus eight training weapons in the Red Army. [1]

In Germany, the further developed design was produced in large numbers as the 2 cm Flak 30 and used by the Wehrmacht . [1]


The weapon was a recoil loader with a locked mass lock. The barrel with a length of 72.5 calibers had a muzzle brake . The pipe return of 60 mm was dampened by a mechanical pipe brake working with spring force. The ammunition was supplied via a magazine with 20 shell cartridges. The straightening drive only allowed an elevation range between −6 and + 10 °; to fight against air targets, the weapon had to be aimed by hand. The visor allowed combat against aircraft at a maximum speed of 300 km / h. The weapon could be placed on a sled or a wheel carriage. The wheels of the carriage were made of wood and had iron tires. A limber was used for the transportused, to which two horses were harnessed. [1]


In November 1931, the development of a 20 mm flak twin based on the 2-K was ordered. One variant was to be developed on a wheel carriage with a weight of 550 kg, another on a base carriage. The height adjustment range was specified as 0 to + 80 °, the side adjustment range with 360 °. A shield with a thickness of 4 mm was provided to protect the crew. [1]

At the same time, a self-propelled version of the gun was developed. A three-axle Ford truck served as the base vehicle. The gun was installed on the loading area. The directional range against aerial targets was 360 °, against targets on the ground due to the driver's cab it was only 270 °. A combat set of 1000 cartridges was carried. The gun could easily be removed from the loading area and placed on the floor. [1]

In addition, the cannons were still intended as armament for the T-27 tankette . The weapon was installed in place of the machine gun. The lateral straightening range was 15 °, the maximum tube elevation was 10 °. However, the weapon could not be used for anti-aircraft defense. [1]

Technical specifications

20 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank gun M1930 [2]
General properties
classification Anti-tank and anti-aircraft gun
Name of the manufacturer 2-K
Manufacturer Zavod No. 8 (Plant No. 8, Russian Завод № 8)
Weight 172,2 kg
team 4 Mann
Years of construction 1932–1933
quantity 64[3]
caliber 20 mm
Pipe length 1.450 mm (L/72,5)
Height of the line of fire 1.000 mm[4]-5
Fire dates
Höhenrichtbereich −5 ° to + 84 °
Side straightening area 360°
Feuerrate 130-135 rounds / min


The weapon was only used in very small numbers in the Red Army. On November 1, 1936, its inventory included 13 cannons on wheel mounts, 18 cannons on ZIS-6 trucks and eight training weapons. [1]

See also


  • Alexander Shirokorad : Anti-aircraft guns in Aviation and astronautics + Technics and weapons , Ausgabe 10/1996 (russisch)


Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i j Alexander Shirokorad: Anti- Aircraft Machine Guns in Aviation and Astronautics + Equipment and Weapons , Ausgabe 10/1996 (russisch)
  2. Information according to Schirokorad
  3. ^ A further two cannons from Rheinmetall provided as prototypes
  4. with tube elevation 0 °