1/24 States - 1/24 Stater

Obverse Typ Janus 1
Reverse type Janus 1

The 1/24 stater is a gold coin in the southern German Celtic currency system.

Name and age

The designation 1/24 indicates the division or denomination of a whole stater (the full stater ). At the beginning of the southern German ( Vindelican ) coinage there are the so-called 1/24 staters. Their weight is in the uniform range between 0.3 and 0.35 g and thus represents a twenty-fourth part of the full stater of around 8 g. [1] Based on finds in a woman's grave near Giengen an der Brenz , they can be classified as La -Tène C 1a between 260 and 210 BC To date. [2] Thus, they are probably the first ever coins minted in Germany .

Rainbow bowl

It was only shortly afterwards that the full staters, the so-called rainbow bowl, began to be minted . In Oppidum of Manching a Celtic purse was found, the four Vindelici and contained a boischen 1/24 Stater, and a 1/4 Stater smooth type. The first rainbow bowls were the smooth and therefore non-image types. It is possible that the Vindelikers took over this nominal coin from the Boiern , who minted the 1/24 stater earlier in what is now Austria and the Czech Republic . The Vindelic 1/24 staters are mainly found in the Swabian-South Bavarian region. From the settlements in Manching and Stöfflingmost of the specimens are known. The southernmost piece comes from a Hellenistic burial ground in Sicily and documents corresponding trade relations. [2] There is a mint from Manching that can be used for minting, and Manching can therefore be accepted as a mint.

Reason

The Celtic coinage is mostly imitating in the choice of motif, and Greek or Roman models can be used. In the case of the 1/24 stateres, however, no clear model can be proven, which is why they are considered a Celtic self-creation. The Vindelic 1/24 staters can be grouped into six different type groups due to their representation and their scattering. There are types Janus 1 and 2 as well as Manching A and B and Stöffling 1 and 2. [3]Types Janus 1 and 2 both show a Janus head on the obverse. Both have a horse on their lapel, which is aligned to the right in type 1 and to the left in type 2. The types Manching A and B show a beardless head to the right on the obverse. On the lapel is a human-headed horse (androcephalic) with its head turned back. With type A the horse jumps to the right and with type B to the left. The type Stöffling 1 shows three small, joined heads on the obverse and an androcephalic horse to the left on the lapel. The type Stöffling 2 shows only abstract humps on both the obverse and the lapel.

literature

  • Karl Pink : Introduction to Celtic Coin Studies. With special consideration of the Austrian area. Third, revised and expanded edition. Edited by Robert Göbl . Deuticke, Vienna 1974, ISBN 3-7005-4399-9 .
  • Hans-Jörg Kellner : The coin finds from Manching and the Celtic found coins from southern Bavaria (= The excavations in Manching. Volume 12). Steiner, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-515-05275-5 .
  • Günter Dembski: Coins of the Celts . Skira et al., Milan 1998, ISBN 3-900-325-90-9 .
  • Michael Nick: Gift, Sacrifice, Means of Payment: Structures of Celtic coin use in western Central Europe (= Freiburg contributions to the archeology and history of the first millennium. Volume 12). Volume 1. Verlag Marie Leidorf , Rahden 2006, ISBN 3-89646-772-7 (also: Univ. Freiburg, Diss. 2001).

Weblinks

Commons : Stater - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Michael Nick: Gift, Sacrifice, Means of Payment: Structures of Celtic Coin Use in Western Central Europe (= Freiburg contributions to archeology and history of the first millennium. Volume 12). Volume 1. Verlag Marie Leidorf , Rahden 2006, p. 19.
  2. a b Bernhard Overbeck: Celtic coinage in old Bavaria. Annual report of the Aventinum Foundation for the years 1994–1995, issue 9/10. Aventinum Foundation, Abensberg 1996, pp. 14-17.
  3. ^ Michael Nick: Gift, Sacrifice, Means of Payment: Structures of Celtic Coin Use in Western Central Europe (= Freiburg contributions to archeology and history of the first millennium. Volume 12). Volume 1. Verlag Marie Leidorf , Rahden 2006, plate 1 fig. 1–6.