Schneider 75/28 field gun model 1906 - Cañón de campaña Schneider 75/28 modelo 1906
|Schneider 75/28 field gun model 1906|
A 1906 model of the Royal Guard
|Country of origin||France|
|In service||1907 - present|
|Maker||Schneider et Cie (lote inicial)|
|Produced||1906-1909 (starting batch) [ 1 ]|
|Quantity||200 (starting lot)|
|Barrel length||2.244 m L/28|
|Rate of fire||20-25 shots / minute|
|Effective range||0-5000 m|
|Maximum speed||520 m/s|
The Schneider 75/28 model 1906 field gun was a rapid-fire cannon designed by Schneider et Cie for use by the Spanish Army . The 1906 model was the first rapid-fire cannon in widespread use in Spanish field artillery regiments, and it remained in service for more than four decades.
The rapid evolution of artillery technology at the end of the 19th century, with the innovative manufacture of steel and rapid fire cannons, made the Spanish artillery park require urgent renovation. While individual infantry weapons were already up to par or exceeding those of other powers, field artillery was still largely equipped with bronze and cast iron and steel parts of outdated, low-rate of fire designs. [ 2 ] Already in 1901 it was decided, as an interim measure, to buy pieces of a more modern design: forged and tempered steel, and with accelerated or rapid fire. They ended up buying 144 75mm guns: 96 from Saint-Chamond , 24 from Krupp and 24 from Schneider-Cannet. [ 3 ] These three types were specified so that they could share the same ammunition, they even used the same armons produced by Krupp, but they were not identical, [ 4 ] with the Schneider-Canet being able to fire faster than the Saint-Chamond and the Krupps. [ 5 ] The number acquired was only sufficient to equip the batteries of six regiments, when the number of divisional mounted regiments was twelve and it was also necessary to equip the regiment on horseback and extra-peninsular loose mounted batteries. [ 6 ]
A new board of artillery chiefs and officers was commissioned in 1903 to visit the main European manufacturers and examine and test the most advanced models and also to evaluate the possibility of co-producing the new materials in Spanish factories. After negotiating with the suppliers, and at the proposal of the then Minister of War, Valeriano Weyler , the purchase of 200 rapid-fire 75mm cannons of the latest model from Schneider et Cie was approved., along with 48 observatory retrotrenes, and the rights to manufacture in Spain the other retrotrenes, the harmonics and an indeterminate number of additional cannons. Schneider's design was adapted to increase its compatibility with recently acquired 75mm stock, including that it could use the same ammunition, this configuration being referred to as "model 1906" . [ 8 ] [ 9 ]
The first four guns and four harmonons arrived in Madrid on July 27, 1907 and were subjected to highly satisfactory tests, requiring only minor modifications. At the same time , the manufacture of ammunition and harmonic carts began at the Trubia Arms Factory in order to equip all the parts to be received. [ 10 ] Other national factories, including the Royal Artillery Factory of Seville , also prepared to produce different elements of the new model. [ 11 ]
The new cannon was declared statutory by royal circular order of March 16, 1908 with the official name of "steel field cannon of 7.5 cm, rapid fire, model 1906" , abbreviated as "C. Ac. Cpa. 7.5 cm., Tr, mod. 1906 ' . [ 12 ] By royal circular order of April 4 of the same year, it was specified that the supply of projectiles would consist of shrapnel grenades, ordinary single-wall grenades and ground-breaking grenades. The first had to be 64% of the crew, the second 16% and the third 20%, with the breaker grenades having to be transported in a fifth ammunition cart and should not be used during rapid fire. [ 13 ]
The baptism of fire of the new guns did not take long, since the situation in Melilla in 1909 required the sending of reinforcements that included batteries of the new model. His performance in combat was considered very satisfactory. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] shipments Schneider concluded in 1909, [ 1 ] also being received complete documentation in order to make more parts. [ 11 ] In 1910 the production of another 72 pieces had been commissioned in Spain. [ 16 ]The first pieces of national construction were completed in 1911, with Trubia producing complete batteries and supplying tubes, sleeves, cradles, plates and steel to the Seville Factory to also produce the pieces there. The Seville Factory also produced grenades for the cannons, while the Seville Maestranza and Barcelona Park produced wheels, the Granada Factory , smokeless gunpowder and explosives, and the Seville Fireworks, fuzes. [ 17 ] By 1928 Seville had already completed the production of a total of 101 batteries. [ 18 ]As the pieces were received, the Model 1906 guns were assigned to equip the batteries of the twelve mounted artillery regiments and the horse one, with two groups of three four-piece batteries per regiment, as well as six extra-peninsular mounted batteries. [ 6 ]
The cannons were used in the subsequent Rif War , with some of them falling into the hands of the enemy, such as one that was emplaced on Mount Gurugú and that the Rif people used to bombard the Spanish positions in Melilla and its surroundings. That gun was recovered when the Gurugú was conquered on 29 September 1921. [ 19 ]
With the Azaña reform , the 1906 model guns came to equip one of the two regiments of each of the eight organic divisions , with two active groups of three batteries of four pieces in each regiment, [ 20 ] as well as the three groups in the horse artillery regiment of the Cavalry Division. [ 21 ] During the Civil Warboth sides used the 1906s from the regiments from their respective initial zones, and others from artillery parks. Due to the initial lack of antiaircraft guns in the rebel zone, a number of model 1906 pieces were adapted for this use, articulating the trunnions of the cradle on a carriage built with iron joists that in turn rotated around a base mounted on an iron rim. The model thus modified was nicknamed Pichi and achieved more than one downing of enemy aircraft. [ 22 ] After the war ended, the Army had a total of 412 pieces of the 1906 model. [ 23 ]Model 1906 cannons continued to equip the Spanish Army for a time, being retired when more modern materials of American origin were received in the 1950s. Some pieces of the Model 1906 were preserved for ceremonial purposes, such as those that still equip the battery. of the Royal Guard . [ 24 ]
The model 1906 represented when the most modern technology of rapid fire field artillery was acquired, inaugurated with the famous 75 mm canon modèle 1897French. The 1906 was lighter, featured a different locking mechanism, and incorporated the latest advances in ease of use, protection, and aiming. During the years prior to the acquisition of this material, field artillery technology advanced substantially in terms of firing speed. One of the most significant advances was the invention of smokeless powders, which not only made it possible to maintain uninterrupted observation of the enemy between shots, but also reduced the accumulation of deposits in the barrel of the barrels, eliminating the need to clean the barrel. tube between shots. Another advance was the unitary ammunition that incorporated both the load and the projectile, using a metal cartridge that facilitated easier closures with a single opening or closing movement. with the cartridge itself helping to contain the pressure of the gases. Another was the use of hydro-pneumatic mechanisms to absorb part of the recoil energy and to smooth the transfer of linear momentum, by displacing the barrel and its sled in a cradle , being able to return the piece to its initial position, maintaining the firing direction after the first shot buried the plow and thus eliminating the need to re-aim. This also allowed the aiming devices to be mounted on the cradle, rather than on the tube, with less disturbance after firing, both remaining aligned and facilitating aim adjustment. Other advances were the use of automatic fuze graduation devices, indirect aiming methods,shrapnel and the smashing grenades. [ 25 ]
The new material incorporated a forged and tempered nickel-steel barrel, with an inner tube and two sleeves, made of shank and stock, joined by a band. The bore was striped dextrosumwith 30 lines of progressive pitch, from 1 ° 20 "to 7 °. The closure was a screw system with two smooth and two threaded sectors and could be opened or closed with a single movement, the sheath being automatically ejected at the end of the opening movement. The barrel was coupled to a steel sled in which were the five cylinders that made up the brake and recuperator. The brake was hydraulic and the recuperator was hydro-pneumatic. The sled traveled on a chrome nickel steel cradle, absorbing some of the recoil energy and communicating the linear momentum to the cradle in a more gradual manner. The cradle was articulated to the gun carriage, made of sheet steel, to which the plow that immobilized the piece was attached. Attached to the gun carriage were also the shield, in two pieces, the axle of the wheels, wheel brakes and seats for the prompter and other server. The wheels were made of wood with a steel axle, hub and rim. The cradle could move from -5 ° to 16 ° in height on the gun carriage, and from -3 ° to 3 ° in the horizontal sector. The shooting angle at height could be extended by placing the piece on sloping ground, such as on a hillside.
The aiming mechanism was coupled to the cradle, with separate control of the lift and steering systems. Aiming could be direct, with a graduated scale for distance, or indirect, with the addition of a goniometer to measure the angle of separation between a reference point and the required direction of fire. Indirect aiming allowed shooting from a more protected position, not visible to the enemy. [ 28 ]
Initially, the transport of the piece was carried out by hooking the piece to a harmonic drawn by six horses; each harmonon could carry 38 projectiles. Additionally, another ammunition cart with a similar harmonic and a retrotain with 60 other rounds was also assigned to each piece. The retrotain could be of two types: ordinary grenades and shrapnel or ground-breaking grenades. The retrotain was protected on all sides by sheet steel. In the first type it included a box of spare parts, boxes of fuzes, fuze grader and injection pump, in the one of breaker grenades it included boxes with spare baits and primers and also with detonators.[ 29 ] Each battery was equipped with four pieces. In peacetime, the roster for each battery included fifty draft horses and thirteen mounts, with four draft horses assigned to the ammunition cart for each piece, another four for each of the two battery carts, and two more in reserve. . In wartime, each battery had to receive four more carts of ammunition, with all carts being pulled by six horses in this case, for a total of ninety draft horses per battery, six of them in reserve. [ 30 ] The regiment on horseback had additional riding horses so that all the men in the battery could be mounted, either on draft horses or riding horses. [ 31]
The interior layout of the 1906 model was the same as that of the other Spanish 75mm field pieces purchased in 1902, allowing the same ammunition to be used in all four models. [ 32 ] The cannon could fire three different types of projectiles, all weighing 6.5 kg: an ordinary grenade, a shrapnel and a breaker. The shrapnel, also called a shrapnel, contained three hundred lead pellets that were released by the explosion, at a delay adjustable by a graduated fuze, from a powder charge at the rear of the projectile. The breaker grenade had a greater amount of explosive, being used to attack enemy buildings and materials. [ 33 ]
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