GT8-100C/2S - GT8-100C/2S
|GT8-100C / 2S / DB series 450|
Light rail car 813 in 2005
|Manufacturer:||DUEWAG , ABB Henschel|
|Year of construction (s):||1991–1995|
|Axis formula :||B'2'2'B'|
|Gauge :||1435 mm (Normalspur)|
|Length over coupling:||37.610 mm|
|Trunnion Distance:||10.100/9.770/10.100 mm|
|Bogie axle base:||2.100 mm|
|Learning Mass:||58,6 t|
|Service mass:||73,5 t|
|Top speed:||90 km / h|
|Continuous output :||2 × 280 kW|
|Braking delay:||1,6 m/s²|
|Driving wheel diameter:||770 mm|
|Power system :||15 kV 16.7 Hz and 750 V =|
|Power transmission:||Oberleitung, SA Siemens 8 WL0 284-4Y G80 |
|Number of traction motors:||two|
|Brake:||Motor brake , spring-loaded brake , magnetic rail brake|
|Seats:||100 (801–808), 97|
|Standing room:||115 (801–808), 115|
|Floor height:||1.000 mm|
|Classes :||2nd class only|
The electric railcar type GT8-100C / 2S is the vehicle for the two-system - light rail OPERATION in Karlsruhe Stadtbahn . Four cars were owned by DB Regio and were used as series 450 / 850 queued. The GT8-100C / 2S was the world's first two-system vehicle in series production.
The vehicles are eight-axle, three-part articulated multiple units with two Jakobs bogies . The two outer conventional bogies at the bow and stern are driven by two direct current motors with 280 kW. The mechanical construction of the vehicles on the used in Karlsruhe since 1983 LRVs GT6-80C and GT8-80C derived which themselves from DUEWAG stadtbahnwagen b were derived. In contrast to these light rail vehicles , however, they are bidirectional cars . Furthermore, unlike their role models, they are symmetrical in the front area. The car bodies are made of all-steel construction.Scharfenberg couplings allow operation in multiple traction, including double and triple traction as well as mixed double traction with the GT6-80C, GT8-80C and GT8-100D / 2S-M.
The vehicles are designed for use in accordance with BOStrab in the tram network of the Karlsruhe transport company and for use in the railway network in accordance with EBO . They have wheels with a mixed tire profile that is suitable for both tram and rail traffic. They also have a safety driving circuit , punctual train control for use in the railway network and inductive point control for traffic in the tram network. The car body profile takes into account the different vehicle gauge lines of both systems.
Since the wagons are very light compared to conventional railway wagons and only have a reduced longitudinal stiffness (600 kN instead of 1500 kN), for safety reasons they may only be used on EBO routes, on which a maximum speed of up to 160 km / h applies. As an additional safeguard, the ends of the railcars are reinforced at the level of the buffers of conventional rail vehicles. The weaker passive safety is compensated for by the stronger active safety (quick-acting brake).
The electrical equipment of the GT8-100C / 2S was largely taken over from the GT8-80C and consists of a DC traction motor per drive bogie as well as a DC converter control .
As a two-system car, the trams have the necessary technical equipment to operate both under the overhead tram line with 750 V DC voltage and under the railway contact line with 15 kV 16.7 Hz AC voltage. These devices are located on the roof of the car and under the floor of the middle section of the vehicle and consist of a single-arm pantograph suitable for both systems , a power system test system, a pneumatic system selector switch, a transformer and a rectifier with smoothing choke.  The transitionbetween the two power systems takes place automatically. Regeneration through the recuperation brake is only possible with 750 volts DC. 
The vehicles were delivered in the same color scheme as the GT6-80C and GT8-80C with a yellow car body, dark gray window band and red decorative lines on the roof edge and on the apron. Individual cars deviate from this scheme. Car 836 has had a white paint job since delivery and initially advertised the KSC and later the KVV . Car 803 was painted yellow with different decorative lines for several years.
The delivery of the vehicles of the type GT8-100C / 2S took place in the years 1991 to 1994 in a total of two delivery series. The delivery was preceded by a longer development phase, as these were the first dual-system light rail cars worldwide. As part of this development, the 501 direct current tram from Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft (AVG) was provisionally converted into a two-system vehicle in 1986 and tested for several months. In order to keep the development risks as low as possible, the mechanical and electrical structure of the GT6-80C was largely adopted in the construction of the GT8-100C / 2S. The vehicles were created by a consortium of DUEWAG and ABBmanufactured, with the car bodies from DUEWAG, the bogies and joints from ABB, the transformer from Siemens and the other electrical equipment from ABB. The final assembly took place at DUEWAG.
|Delivery series||Wagennummern||Construction year||number||particularities|
|1||801–810||1991||10||809 and 810 with toilet|
|2||811–836||1994 (811–833), 1995 (834–836)||26||836 with white paint scheme|
The 816, 817, 819 and 820 cars were owned by DB Regio until June 2019 and were incorporated as the 450 series . They have the road numbers 450 001 and 450 003 to 450 005. The light rail car 450 005 (816) was bought from AVG in 2001 as a replacement for car 818 (450 002), which suffered total loss after an arson attack and was scrapped.
The Deutsche Bahn light rail vehicles differed from the cars of the Karlsruhe transport company and the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft only in the DB logo on the front sides and the company numbers. In addition to the DB numbers, these wagons also have numbers based on the VBK and AVG scheme.
Loan to Abellio
To change operator on the S5 between Pforzheim to Bietigheim-Bissingen and the S9 between Bretten and Mühlacker on June 9, 2019, it was no longer necessary to compensate for kilometers through vehicle ownership, as DB Regio had lost the corresponding sections in the tender. The vehicles were therefore acquired by AVG and, due to bottlenecks in vehicle delivery, were loaned to Abellio by Bombardier as replacement vehicles . However, as planned, they are only used there on the Bruchsal - Mühlacker route, which they have already operated on. The red DB logo on the front has been replaced by a silver AVG logo.
- 801–836 - Installation of ticket machines, thus one seat less.
- 801–836 - Installation of surveillance cameras.
- 809, 810 - Removal of the toilets from the middle section.
- 836 - White special paint (for KSC advertising, later KVV advertising).
- Installation LED - matrix displays at the front, rear and sides (since 2013).
- 818 (450 002) - Destroyed by fire in 2001. Scrapped in 2002. 816 (450 005) replacement vehicle for DB AG.
- 804 after a serious accident on June 16, 2017 while catching ducks. Scrapped in 2018
- 809 scrapped after an accident in 2018.
- 831 scrapped after an accident in 2018.
Since the intended route was not yet completed when the first vehicles were delivered, some vehicles initially operated as local trains between Karlsruhe main station and Pforzheim using alternating current from June 2, 1991 . The remaining cars were used in direct current operation on the tram line A on the Albtalbahn , the Busenbach – Ittersbach and the Hardtbahn . With the opening of the Stadtbahn operation on the Kraichgau Railway between Karlsruhe and Bretten, the cars were used on the Stadtbahn line B (known as the Stadtbahn line S4 since 1994), with one car still commuting between Karlsruhe and Pforzheim at times.
With the expansion of the Karlsruhe light rail network , the area of application of the vehicles gradually expanded to today's lines S31, S32, S4, S5, S51, S52, S6, S7, S71, S8, S81 and S9. Individual trips also took the wagons as planned on the routes between Bruchsal and Bad Schönborn-Kronau and between Heilbronn and Neckarsulm.
The vehicles operate as solo cars, in double traction and on some EBO route sections also in triple traction. There is no fixed assignment of the cars to individual lines. The cars are used in a shared vehicle pool, with the cars being used on all lines. They are serviced in the depots of the VBK and AVG as well as in the joint main workshop at the Karlsruhe Rheinhafen.
With the opening of the " Kombilösung " tram tunnel in Karlsruhe , the area of application for these cars will be limited to those lines that do not use the tunnel due to the lack of approval. A complete retirement is only planned with the delivery of the next generation of vehicles VDV-TramTrain , which is still in the conception (as of December 2019) .
Car 808 got the test facility for autonomous driving in 2018. With its red, white and blue paintwork, it differs significantly from the other cars.
- Klaus Bindewald: The Albtal Transport Company. Exemplary local transport system worldwide. regional culture publisher, Ubstadt-Weiher 2007, ISBN 978-3-89735-475-3 .
- Dieter Höltge: Trams and light rail vehicles in Germany. Volume 6: Bathing. EK-Verlag, Freiburg (Breisgau) 1999, ISBN 3-88255-337-5 .
- Klaus Bindewald: The Alb Valley Railway: History with a future. From the narrow-gauge railway to the modern light rail. regional culture publisher, Ubstadt-Weiher 1998, ISBN 3-929366-79-7 .
- Helmut Iffländer: The Alb Valley Railway . From the tourist train to the modern local transport company. Andreas-Braun-Verlag, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-925120-03-3 .
- Meeting point for local rail transport in Karlsruhe: list of trams - light rail vehicles GT8-100C / 2S 1st series
- Meeting point for local rail transport in Karlsruhe: List of trams and light rail vehicles GT8-100C / 2S 2nd series
- Martin Karr: Multi-system concepts for railways in Europe. Chapter B.3.4 Karlsruhe - Project II . 1998, accessed January 20, 2017 .
- Jochen Allgeier: The emergence of the Karlsruhe light rail system 1957 to 2004 . Karlsruhe February 6, 2013, 126.96.36.199 "The two-system light rail vehicles of the first generation", p. 452–453 (kit.edu [PDF; 38,8 MB]).