41st century BC Chr. - 41. Jahrhundert v. Chr.
- 4026 v. Chr.:
- 4004 v. Chr.:
Age / Epoch
- Late Atlantic (AT3), transition from lower level I (4550 to 4050 BC) to lower level II (4050 to 3710 BC), with water levels rising again.
- Early Neolithic in Central Europe .
Developments, inventions and discoveries
- Cultivation of sorghum and rice in Sudan .
- First diving in Egypt around 4000 BC Chr. Nails made of copper . 
- First urban dwellings in Ur and Uruk (Sumer) as well as in Tell Hamoukar ( Syria ).
- Development of the loom in Iraq .
- In Ur is lapis lazuli introduced.
- Around 4000 BC Chr .:
Cultures in North Africa
Cultures in Egypt
- The Badari culture (4400-4000 BC) disappears at the end of the 41st century
- The heyday of the Naqada culture in Upper Egypt (Naqada I - 4500 to 3500 BC)
Cultures in Mesopotamia and the Middle East
- Sumer : Transitional phase from the Obed period (LC-1 or Uruk XVI to Uruk XIV) to the early Uruk period (early LC-2 or Uruk XII).
- Obed culture in Mesopotamia (5500 to about 3500 BC) - Obed III
- Uruk period (from 4000 to 3100/3000 BC), with a transition phase from 4200 BC Chr.
- Nineveh (from 6500 BC) in northern Mesopotamia - Nineveh 3
- Tappe Sialk (6000 to 2500 BC) in Iran - Sialk III
- Amuq (6000 to 2900 BC) in Turkey - Amuq E.
- Mersin (5400 bis 2900 v. Chr.) In Anatolien - Mersin 24-15
- Eridu (from 5300 to approx. 1950 BC) in Mesopotamia - Eridu 19-9
- Tappa Gaura (5000 to 1500 BC) in northern Mesopotamia - Tappa Gaura 20-12 or XI to Xa
- Susa (ab 4000 v. Chr.) im Iran – Susa I
- Tell Hammam et-Turkman in Syrien - Va / Vb
Cultures in East Asia
- Early Jeulmun period (6000 to 3500 BC).
- Jōmon period (10,000 to 300 BC) - the earliest Jōmon period - Jōmon II (8,000 to 4,000 BC) - is coming to an end.
Cultures in Europe
- Northeast Europe :
- Eastern Europe :
- Southeast Europe :
- Cucuteni Culture (4800 to 3200 BC): Early Phase A / B (4200 to 4000 BC)
- Gumelniţa-Kultur (4700 bis 3700 v. Chr.): Phase Gumelniţa A2 (4500 bis 3950 v. Chr.)
- The Varna culture (4400 to 4100 BC) in Bulgaria disappears at the beginning of the century.
- Boian culture in Romania and Bulgaria (4300 to 3500 BC) - Phase III - Vidra phase, 4100-4000 BC Chr.
- Central Europe ( Early Neolithic - 4400 to 3500 BC):
- Lengyel culture (4900 to 3950 BC) in Hungary , Austria and the Czech Republic
- Tiszapolgár culture (4500 to 4000 BC) in Hungary and Slovakia
- Rössen culture - 4500/4300 to 3500 BC In East Germany
- Gatersleben culture - 4300 to 3900 BC In East Germany
- Jordansmühler culture (4300 to 3900 BC) in eastern Central Europe
- Aichbühler Group (4200 to 4000 BC) in southern Germany
- Schussenrieder Group (4200 to 3700 BC) in southwest Germany
- Baalberg culture (4200 to 3100 BC) in central Germany
- Funnel beaker culture (4200 to 2800 BC) in northern Central Europe
- Western Europe :
- Nord- und Mesoamerika :
- South America :
- Roberts, J.: History of the World. Penguin, 1994.
- M. Voigt, R.H. Dyson: The Chronology of Iran, ca. 8000-2000 BC, In: R. W. Ehrich (Herausgeber): Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, Chicago/London, S. 122–178, besonders Table 2