45th century BC Chr. - 45. Jahrhundert v. Chr.
Age / Epoch
- Late Atlantic (AT3), lower level 1 (4550 to 4050 BC), with water levels rising again.
- The early Neolithic (4400 to 3500 BC) begins in Central Europe .
Developments, inventions and discoveries
4600 to 4450 BC Chr .:
- In the cemetery of Varna there are extremely rich grave goods made of gold jewelry.
4500 v. Chr.:
- The beginning of civilization in Kiš in Mesopotamia.
- The Għar Dalam phase (5000 to 4500 BC) ends on Malta , whose Neolithic farmers possibly came from Agrigento in Sicily from 5000 BC onwards. Were immigrated.
- Development of agriculture in Germany and the Netherlands .
- First recorded use of the plow in Mesopotamia . Introduction of the hook plow in Europe .
- Domestication of the water buffalo in China.
- First sails appear.
- Draft animals are used for the first time in the lower reaches of the Danube .
- The Venus von Falkenstein , a Venus figurine belonging to the Lengyel culture , is made in the Lower Austrian Weinviertel .
- With the cultivation of native rice varieties in India , agriculture reaches the southern Ganges plain ( Mahagara and Tchopani Mando ). Cord ceramics finds.
- Wet soil settlements in Northern Italy (Molino Casarotto).
- Gangdolmen in southern Portugal .
- Incised drawings on rocks near the Finnish Alta ( Lapland ), dated between 4500 and 500 BC. Chr.
- Copper mining in Rudna Glava, Serbia . Malachite veins follow in the rock up to 20 meters deep .
- First cast copper in Eastern Europe; the manufactured copper objects serve as hierarchical status symbols.
- Salt is mined in Solnizata in Bulgaria and a village with 350 inhabitants is being built around the production site.
- In Central and Eastern Europe, richly furnished individual graves are being laid; A prime example is the discovery of Varna in Bulgaria , which is characterized by spectacular metal objects.
- Beginning of civilization in Crete , which already maintains contact with the Cyclades , the north coast of Africa and the Middle East .
- The ceramic Neolithic IA ends in Cyprus . Chirokitia settlement .
- Transition to predominantly cattle breeding in the wide steppe areas of southern Russia ( Black Sea area ), Kazakhstan ( Aral Sea ) and in the catchment area of the Yenisei with simultaneous cultivation of grain .
- The horse is domesticated in the steppes of Eurasia .
4450 v. Chr.:
- Age of the wooden figure of Mannetje van Willemstad , which was found between the roots of an oak tree in the Netherlands.
Cultures in North Africa
Cultures in Egypt
- Merimde culture (4800 to 4250 BC) in Lower Egypt.
- The Omari culture on the Nile in Lower Egypt, around 4600 to 4400 BC. Chr, disappears at the end of the century.
- Beginning of the Naqada culture (Naqada I - 4500 to 3500 BC) in Upper Egypt .
Cultures in Mesopotamia and the Middle East
- Obed period (5500 to 3500 BC) - Obed III
- Tappe Sialk (6000 to 2500 BC) in Iran - Sialk III
- Amuq (6000 to 2900 BC) in Turkey - Amuq D
- Mersin (5400 bis 2900 v. Chr.) In Anatolien - Mersin 16
- Eridu (from 5300 to approx. 1950 BC) in Mesopotamia - Eridu 19-9
- Tappa Gaura (5000 to 1500 BC) in northern Mesopotamia - Tappa Gaura 17-14
- Nineveh (from 6500 BC) in northern Mesopotamia - Nineveh 3
- The culture of Susiana (5500 to 4400 BC) in Iran - Susiana C - is coming to an end
Cultures in East Asia
- Laoguantai culture (6000 to 3000 BC), upper Yellow River
- Dadiwan Culture (5800-3000 BC), Upper Yellow River
- Beixin culture (5400 to 4400 BC) in Shandong
- Qingliangang culture (5400 to 4400 BC) in lower Yangtsekiang
- Hemudu culture (5200 to 4500 BC, later dating 5000 to 3300 BC), Zhejiang
- Baiyangcun culture (5000 to 3700 BC, is also dated to more recent: 3000 to 1700 BC), Yunnan
- Yangshao culture (5000 to 2000 BC), central and northern China
- Caiyuan Culture (4800-3900 BC), Northwest China ( Ningxia )
- Majiabang culture (4750 to 3700 BC), Lower Yangtze River
- Hongshan Culture (4700-2900 BC), Northeast China
- Early Jeulmun Period (6000 to 3500 BC)
- Jémon Age (10000 to 300 BC) - Early Jōmon Time - Jōmon II (8000 to 4000 BC)
Cultures in Europe
- Dnepr-Don culture (5000 to 4000 BC) in Ukraine and Russia
- Kurgan cultures (5000 to 3000 BC) in Kazakhstan and Eastern Europe
- Polish Culture (4900 and 3950 v. Chr.)
- The Sredny Stog culture (4500 to 3500 BC) begins north of the Sea of Azov .
- Neman culture (7000 to 3000 BC).
- Grübchenkeramische Kultur (4200 to 2000 BC) (however, radiocarbon dating : 5600 to 2300 BC)
- Narva culture (5300 to 1750 BC)
- The Sesklo culture (6850 to 4400 BC) in northern Greece is coming to an end
- Dimini culture (4800 to 4000 BC) in Thessaly
- Cucuteni culture (4800 to 3200 BC): phase A or Tripolje B 1 (4500 to 4200 BC)
- Gumelniţa-Kultur (4700 bis 3700 v. Chr.): Phase Gumelniţa A2 (4500 bis 3950 v. Chr.)
- Varna culture (approx. 4500 to 4100 BC) in northern Bulgaria
- Karanovo Cultures in Southern Bulgaria - Karanovo VI, Late Copper Age (4500 to 4000 BC)
- Band ceramic cultures (5600 to 4100 BC) in France , Belgium , Germany , Austria , Czech Republic , Poland , Slovakia , Hungary , Romania and Ukraine
- Ertebølle culture (5100 to 4100 BC)
- Swifterbant culture (5000 to 3400 BC) in the Netherlands , Belgium and Lower Saxony
- Beginning of the Tiszapolgár culture (4500 to 4000 BC) in Hungary and Slovakia,
- the Münchshöfen culture (4500 to 3900/3800 BC) in eastern Central Europe and
- of the Rössen culture (4500 to 3500 BC) in East Germany
- Chassey-Lagozza-Cortaillod culture (4600 to 2400 BC)
- Megalithculture :
Cultures in America
- Chinchorro culture (7020 to 1500 BC) in northern Chile and southern Peru.
- Middle Pre-Ceramic (7000 to 4000 BC) in northern Chile . Lower Alto Barranco and Alto Aguada along the Pacific coast and Rinconada in the hinterland.