45 RPM (45 revolutions per minute ) is an acronym for recordings on discs. It is used as a designation for a music recording format. At first the simplest of seven inches were recorded at this speed, but later also adopted that of 33 RPM . The maxi singles are like a single, they also use 45 RPM, but in a twelve inch format . Generally, a single has one song per face, and a maxi single has two songs per face at most.
Nowadays, record companies continue to publish records at both 33 RPM and this speed, although 33 RPM is the most used.
Both the 33 RPM microgroove disc and the 45 RPM discs are made of vinyl plastic , which is flexible and unbreakable in normal use. [ 1 ] However, vinyl recordings are more prone to scratching. Beginning in 1939 , Dr. Peter Goldmark and his staff at Columbia Records went to work on the problems of recording and creating ways to make the grooves on the record smaller and closer together in order to achieve longer duration. in a recording. [ 2 ]Later, in a smaller number, discs with a normal hole of both 7 "and 12" were produced by some companies.
On March 31, 1949, [ 3 ] RCA Victor began selling the first singles with a different speed, 45 RPM, and disks 7 "diameter well with a hole in the center bigger, so they can be reproduced in the new systems far, "jukeboxes" or Jukebox . on April 4 of that year Capitol Records began publishing his first recordings at 45 RPM. [ 4 ]
45 RPM singles had their heyday with the rise of rock and roll , 45 RPM singles outselling 78 RPM singles in early 1958 . This format was the main one when the British invasion with The Beatles appeared , which marked their "golden age", due to the massive sale of these singles. In the following decades the sale of all types of records increased considerably, but it was in the late 1960s that sales of singles declined, at this time in the United KingdomLP sales exceeded singles. In the early years of The Beatles they needed to sell 750,000 copies to reach No. 1 in sales, while a decade later this figure was only 150,000 copies, as an example. [ 5 ]