74th Division (Franco's Army) - 74.ª División (Ejército franquista)
|Pablo Arias Jimenez|
|Culture and history|
|Wars and battles|
|Spanish Civil War|
The 74th Division was a Division of the Francoist Army that fought in the Spanish Civil War . Popularly known by the nickname " La Leona ", [ 1 ] the division came to operate on the Extremadura and Ebro fronts .
The unit was created between April and May 1937, from the forces of the old reinforced Madrid Division . [ 2 ] [ 3 ] In late May he received his final numbering. [ 3 ] Initially command of the unit fell to General Anatolio de la Fuente, who would later be replaced by Colonel Pablo Arias Jiménez . [ 4 ]
In November 1937 the unit became part of the "Grupo de diviones de Soria", together with the 75th Division . [ 5 ] It was deployed in the Guadalajara sector in view of its participation in the planned offensive on Madrid, which would end up being canceled by the start of the Battle of Teruel . [ 6 ] At the beginning of 1938 the 291st Battalion of Las Palmas ceded, receiving in exchange the Tercio de Montserrat . [ 6 ] [ n. 1 ] For the next several months the 74th Division remained in defensive positions.
In July 1938, integrated into General Andrés Saliquet's "Northern Group" , she participated in the Franco offensive to close the Merida Stock Exchange. [ 8 ] [ n. 2 ] The offensive began on July 20 and in just a few days the Francoist forces managed to encircle - and destroy - numerous republican forces of the Extremadura Army . [ 10 ]
After the start of the Battle of the Ebro, the 74th Division was sent as reinforcement to the new battle front. [ 11 ] In August he became part of the Army Corps of the Maestrazgo . [ 12 ] During these dates the division took part in numerous counterattacks; the Tercio de Montserrat stood out as the spearhead of the division, especially during the failed assault on the «Targa» position. [ 13 ] However, the division's counterattacks produced only small advances and always at the cost of high casualties. [ 14 ]At the end of October, facing the last counter-offensive, the unit temporarily ceded all its artillery to the 1st Division of Navarra . [ 15 ] [ 16 ] During the battle of the Ebro division had recognized a low of 1,635 dead and 1,064 prisoners. [ 17 ]
After his return to the front of the center, between January and February 1939 he took part in the battle of Peñarroya , resisting the attacks of the 38th Republican Division . [ 18 ] Later, the unit was assigned to the Toledo Army Corps , [ 19 ] participating in the so-called "Victory offensive . " After the end of the war the unit would be dissolved.
- Martín Vigil, 1990, p. 147.
- Martínez Bande, 1981 , p. 72.
- VV.AA., 1990, pp. 457, 489.
- Martínez Bande, 1981 , p. 121.
- Martínez Bande, 1981 , pp. 121, 123.
- Engel, 2000 , p. 133.
- Aróstegui, 2013, p. 695.
- VV.AA., 1990, p. 614.
- Martínez Bande, 1981 , p. 234.
- VV.AA., 1990 , pp. 614-615.
- Cabera Castillo, 2002, p. 229.
- Cabrera Castillo, 2002, p. 458.
- Besolí et al ., Luque , p. 187.
- Besolí et al ., Luque , p. 190.
- Engel, 2000, p. 15.
- Alonso Baquer, 2004 , p. 390.
- Martínez Bande, 1978 , p. 204.
- Martínez Bande, 1985 , p. 63.
- Martínez Bande, 1985 , p. 323.
- Alonso Baquer , Miguel (2004). The Ebro, the decisive battle of the hundred days . The Sphere of Books.
- Aróstegui , July (2013). Requetés fighters in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 . Madrid: The Sphere of Books. ISBN 9788499709970 .
- Besolí , Andreu; Sesalí , David; Hernández , Xavier; Íñiguez , David; Luque , Joan Carles (2005). Ebro 1938 . Barcelona: Inedita Editores. ISBN 84-96364-27-5 .
- Cabrera Castillo , Francisco (2002). From the Ebro to Gandesa. The battle of the Ebro, July-November 1938 . Battlement.
- Engel , Carlos (2000). History of the divisions of the national army . Almena Editions.
- Martín Vigil , José Luis (1990). The arrows of my Beam. A man, a memory . Ed. Planet.
- Martínez Bande , José Manuel (1978). The Battle of the Ebro . Madrid: San Martín.
- -- (1981). The battle of Pozoblanco and the closure of the Merida stock market . Madrid: Editorial San Martín.
- VV.AA. (1990). General history of Spain and America XVII . The second republic and the civil war . Madrid: Rialp Editions.