July 7 (national episode) - 7 de julio (episodio nacional)
|by Benito Pérez Galdós|
Illustration for July 7 (The Garland and National Episodes, 1881).
|Text in Spanish||July 7 on Wikisource|
July 7 is the fifth novel of the second series of the National Episodes by Benito Pérez Galdós , written between October-November 1876 and published that same year. Tells the absolutist attempt foiled military coup with the support of the ' King Felon ' - [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] triggered the revolt of the Royal Guard perpetrated in 1822 against the government of the constitutional courts of the call Liberal Triennium (1820–1823). [ 4 ]
In this episode, Galdós turned once more to Mesoneros Romanos , [ 5 ] as noted in a letter written to the manners of Madrid , dated October 25, 1876: «I am on July 7, more disoriented, more ignorant, more confused than ever. So I will not spend Thursday or Friday without allowing me to go to your house so that your pleasant conversation with you may suggest some happy idea to me ». [ 4 ] [ a ]
Narrated in the third person, the plot follows the adventures folletinescas of the antihero Salvador Monsalud , and a large chorus of characters like Solita, [ b ] his father (the absolutist Urbano Gil de la Cuadra, who embodies the ideological model that represented before Baraona, in La Segunda casaca , or Vinuesa in El Grande Oriente ) and Soledad Anatolio Gordón's nephew and fiancée, or liberals with an opposite attitude such as the merchant Benigno Cordero, Professor Patricio Sarmiento, the political leader Martínez de San Martín, «called by the populace 'Tintín de Navarra' », or a new character like the Duke of the Park. Also noteworthy is the monitoring of the satires published in El Zurriago , a "polemic and revolutionary" newspaper, as well as incendiary for Galdós' taste. [ 6 ]
Finally, the writer himself explains the core of those years of illusions and misfortunes, [ 7 ] with a conclusion that closes the ninth chapter of the novel:
The king was absolutist, the government was moderate, the congress was democratic, there were anarchist nobles and servile commoners. The army was liberal in some corps and realistic in others and the militia embraced all social classes in its vast crowd.Chapter IX, Galdós (1876)
- The spirit of the century by Francisco Martínez de la Rosa (real protagonist of the events), or the Memories of Fernando Fernández de Córdoba have also been cited as historiographical references, possibly consulted by Galdós for this episode .
- Critics agree to recognize Solita (who in this episode will lose father, boyfriend and protector), as a metaphor for that orphaned Spanish reality "dominated by elites."
- Gullón, 1987, p. 53.
- González Duro, 2006 .
- Díaz de Quijano , Fernando (January 19, 2018). "Fernando VII: the definitive biography of the" felon king " " . Review of the book by Emilio La Parra López at elcultural.com . Retrieved March 29, 2018 .
- Martínez Cañas , Ricardo (2002). "The constitutional triennium in the work of Pérez Galdós" . Doctoral thesis at eprints.ucm.es . p. 166 et seq . Retrieved March 27, 2018 .
- Mesonero, 1880, pp. 326 y ss..
- Zavala , Iris Milagros (1967). «The press exalted in the constitutional triennium:" El Zurriago " » . Bulletin Hispanique 69 (3-4): 365-388. ISSN 1775-3821 .
- Zambrano, 1982, p. 112.
- Gullón , Ricardo (1987). Galdós, modern novelist . Madrid: Taurus. ISBN 8430620133 .
- González Duro , Enrique (2006). Fernando VII, King Felón . Madrid: Oberon. ISBN 9788496511019 .
- Mesonero Romanos , Ramón (1880). cervantesvirtual.com, ed. Memories of a seventies, native and neighbor of Madrid . Retrieved March 27, 2018 .
- Zambrano , Maria . Galdós's Spain . Barcelona year = 1982: La Gaya Ciencia. ISBN 9788470802034 . Archived from the original on April 15, 2018.