9th Mixed Brigade (People's Army of the Republic) - 9.ª Brigada Mixta (Ejército Popular de la República)
|9th Mixed Brigade|
|Active||January 23, 1937 - February 9, 1939|
|Rama/s||Regular People's Army|
| Gonzalo Pando |
Joaquín Rodríguez López
|Wars and battles|
|Spanish Civil War|
The 9th Mixed Brigade , originally founded as 1st Bis Brigade , was a unit of the Popular Army of the Republic that fought during the Spanish Civil War . Throughout the war it remained integrated into the 11th Division and would take part in the main battles that took place throughout the war.
Constituted on January 23, 1937, it was originally created as a split unit of Major Enrique Líster's 1st Mixed Brigade , which is why it was originally called “1st Bis Brigade”. [ 1 ] It was composed in its majority by militants of communist ideology. The Lister Brigade had given up several battalions: the "José Díaz", the "Heredia" or the "Thälmann". [ 2 ]
On February 16, it was deployed in the Vallecas area , [ 3 ] but it was sent to the front to participate in the Battle of Jarama, integrated into the so-called "C" Division - later renamed the 11th Division . On the 19th, he fought hard for the Pingarrón's position. A few weeks later he marched to the Guadalajara Front to face the offensive of the Italian troops of the CTV . On March 11, the 9th BM managed to stop the enemy advance near Torija and stabilize the situation. [ 4 ]
In July he participated in the Battle of Brunete together with the mixed 1st and 100th brigades , which were made up of veteran troops of the division. [ 6 ] On July 5, the operation began, with the 9th BM managing to pass Brunete and continue its advance towards the Guadarrama River . However, the next day it collided with stiff resistance from a battalion of the "San Quintín" Regiment , leading to a tough fight between both units. In the combat that followed, numerous officers of the brigade were killed, including the unit's commander, Gonzalo Pando , or the chief of the "José Díaz" Battalion. [ 7 ]He remained in his defensive positions during a good part of the battle, but on July 24 he had to withdraw before the Franco superiority. Shortly after the fighting would end.
The following month he went to the Aragon Front along with the rest of the 11th Division, participating in the dissolution of the Regional Defense Council of Aragon , as well as in the failed offensive in Zaragoza . In December he participated in the first part of the Battle of Teruel , participating in the attack that surrounded the city. On January 22, 1938, the brigade left Teruel and established itself in the rear along with the 100th Brigade , but on February 9 they had to return to face (without success) a new Franco offensive in the area. [ 8 ] The following month he could not avoid the collapse of the Front of Aragon, having to withdraw towards Catalonia.
On July 25 he crossed the Ebro river through the Illetas area in what was the first phase of the Ebro Offensive . That day he occupied Miravet and Benisanet , and the next day he was fighting in the elevation of Puig Caballé. By August 2 his positions were firmly established in the Sierra de Pandols , where over the next few days he sustained numerous bloody battles in which even the commander of the brigade, Matías Yagüe, died . [ n. 1 ] The greatest Yagüe would be proposed for the Madrid Laureate Plaque. On August 11, the unit's casualties were so high that it had to be relieved and sent to the rear to reconstitute. On September 6 he returned to the front line, covering the withdrawal of the 100th Mixed Brigade from level 565. [ 10 ] The following day the positions of the 9th BM were located in the Sierra de Lavall de la Tower. He continued to resist Franco's counterattacks until at the beginning of November he had to withdraw to the other side of the river.
When the Catalan Offensive began on December 23 , the brigade was located near Alcanó and from there it offered strong resistance: in the first days of fighting its anti-tank guns destroyed 12 Italian armored vehicles. But at the beginning of January the entire front gave way and he had to retreat north. On February 2 he tried to defend Gerona , without success, continuing his march towards the French border. At dusk on February 9, he went to France, disappearing the unit.
- Mayor of the militias Gonzalo Pando Rivero ;
- Militia Major José Montalvo Villares ;
- Militia Major Joaquín Rodríguez López ;
- Militia Major Matías Yagüe ; [ 11 ]
- Militia Major Gregorio Ramírez ;
- Chiefs of Staff
- Engel, 1999, pp. 8, 16.
- Engel, 1999, p. 16.
- Alcofar Nassaes, 1973, p. 379.
- Modesto, 1978, p. 143.
- Hurtado, 2013, p. 44.
- Salas Larrazábal, 2000 , p. 1216.
- Engel, 1999, p. 17.
- Corral, 2005, pp. 148-149.
- Besolí et al ., 2005 , p. 166.
- Engel, 1999, p. 18.
- Cabrera Castillo, 2002, p. 316.
- Modesto, 1978, p. 272.
- Alpert, 2013, p. 325.
- Alcofar Nassaes , José Luis (1973). "Spansky." Foreigners who fought in the Spanish Civil War I . Madrid: Dopesa.
- Alpert, Michael (2013). The Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. Cambridge University Press.
- Álvarez , Santiago (1989). Political commissars in the People's Army of the Republic . Editions do Castro.
- Besolí , Andreu; Sesalí , David; Hernández , Xavier; Íñiguez , David; Luque , Joan Carles (2005). Ebro 1938 . Barcelona: Inedita Editores. ISBN 84-96364-27-5 .
- Cabrera Castillo , Francisco (2002). From the Ebro to Gandesa. The battle of the Ebro, July-November 1938 . Battlement.
- Corral , Pedro (2005) . If you want to write to me. The battle of Teruel . Pocket-size. ISBN 84-9793-626-4 .
- Engel , Carlos (1999). History of the Mixed Brigades of the People's Army of the Republic . Madrid, Almena. 84-922644-7-0 .
- Hurtado , Víctor (2013). The International Brigades . DAU editions. ISBN 978-84-941031-1-7 .
- Modesto , Juan (1978). I'm from the Fifth Regiment . Editorial Laia.
- Salas Larrazábal , Ramón (2000). History of the People's Army of the Republic . The Sphere of Books. ISBN 84-9734-465-0 .