9K310 Needle-1 - 9K310 Igla-1
|Local name||9K310 Needle-1, 9K310F Needle-1F|
|NATO designation||SA-16 Gimlet, SA-N-10 Gimlet|
|Manufacturer||Construction office KBM|
|Combat weight||10,8 kg|
|drive||Solid - rocket engine|
|Service ceiling||3.500 m|
|Target location||passive IR|
|Warhead||1,27 kg Splittergefechtskopf|
|Lists on the subject|
The 9K310 Igla-1 ( Russian : 9К310 Игла-1 ) is a shoulder-mounted short-range surface-to-air missile from Soviet production. The NATO code name is SA-16 Gimlet .
In 1971, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union commissioned the development of a new, portable anti-aircraft guided missile that was to replace the 9K32 Strela-2 and 9K34 Strela-3 systems in the late 1970s .  The new air defense system received the designation 9K38 Igla . NATO named this system SA-18 Grouse. There were always delays in development. When the development was still not completed in 1978, an interim solution was decided. The already completed fuselage and the rocket motor of the new guided weapon were to be further developed into an interim system with the tried and tested seeker head of the 9K34 Strela-3. This system was named 9K310 Igla-1 . It was introduced into the Soviet land forces in 1981 and was given the name SA-16 Gimlet (" nail drill ") by NATO .
- 9K310 Igla-1 : Grundversion
- 9K310E Igla-1E: Exportversion
- 9K310M Igla-1M : Simplified export version 
- 9K310F Igla-1F : Version for the Navy.
The 9K310 Igla-1 system consists of the following components: 
- 9P322 transport and starting container
- 9M313 Lenkwaffe
- 9P519 launch and sighting device
- 9P238 Container with thermal battery and coolant for the seeker head
The 9M313 guided missiles are housed in sealed GRP transport and launch containers. At the launch canister that's 9P519 -Griffstück with integrated electronics, 9P238 - thermoelectric battery and a sighting device with daylight aiming optics mounted. The Igla-1 weighs 17.9 kg when ready for launch. The sighting device can 1L14 - identification friend or foe system can be connected.  The 9M336 guided missile is equipped with a passive infrared seeker head from LOMO . The seeker uses an indium antimonide - Semiconductorsand reacts to IR radiation between 3 and 5 µm wavelength.  Before the start, the seeker head is cooled with liquid nitrogen . The seeker head enables the acquisition of targets in bad weather or at night. Targets approaching frontally can also be fought. The fragmentation warhead weighs 1.27 kg and is detonated by an impact fuse, which means that the missile must hit the target directly.  As a drive is solid - rocket motor is ignited, when the ejected by a gas charge missile, the launch tube has left a few meters. The target tracking by the missile is based on the principle ofProportional navigation , ie the electronics calculate the angular velocity of the target and send control commands to bring the difference to zero. If the missile misses the target, it destroys itself after a certain flight time by self-destruction. 
The Igla-1 works according to the fire-and-forget principle, ie after firing the missile pursues its target independently. The Igla-1 can be used to fight aircraft, helicopters and drones . The vertical range of use of the guided weapon is 10 to 3,500 m with a horizontal combat range of 0.5 to 5.4 km.  Air targets approaching from the front can be fought up to a flight speed of 360 m / s.  The maximum airspeed for combating an airborne target that is flying away is 320 m / s. 
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- German Democratic Republic
- North Korea
- South Africa
- Czech Republic
- United Arab Emirates
In addition to the official users of Igla-1, the weapon is also suspected to be in the hands of separatist and extremist groups.
The SA-16 Gimlet was used in various armed conflicts in the Gulf region, Africa, South America, the Balkans and the Caucasus. Seven Alliance aircraft and four helicopters with the SA-16 Gimlet were shot down during Operation Desert Storm in Iraq .
At least two NATO aircraft of the SA-16 GIMLET fell victim to the clashes in the Balkans . During the clashes in the Caucasus, several Russian fighter planes and helicopters with SA-16 guided missiles were shot down by the rebels.
The downing of the presidential plane in Rwanda on April 6, 1994 , which triggered the subsequent genocide in Rwanda that left at least 800,000 dead, was carried out using SA-16 missiles. 
Between 2003 and 2006, after the US invasion of Iraq , at least six US helicopters with SA-16 guided missiles were shot down by the resistance fighters. In Iraq, the northern Iraqi army of the autonomous Kurdish region claims to have several hundred SA-16 Gimlet at its disposal.
- Land-Based Air Defence Edition 2005 Jane's Verlag
- The SA-16 GIMLET DTIG surface-to-air missile system - Defense Threat Information Group, August 2005
- On Arrows and Needles by Michal Fiszer and Jerzy Gruszczynski, Journal of Electronic Defense (JED), December 2002.
- RUSSIA'S ARMS 2004 CATALOG Military Parade Publishing House
- RUSSIA'S ARMS AND TECHNOLOGIES. THE XXI CENTURY ENCYCLOPEDIA Volume 9 – Air and ballistic missile defense The Publishing House – Arms and Technologies
- Anti-aircraft missile complex 9K310-Ä (Igla-1A). In: rwd-mb3.de. Missile and Weapons Service in Kdo.MB III, accessed on October 24, 2019 .
- Michal Fiszer & Jerzy Gruszczynski: On Arrows and Needles. Journal of Electronic Defense (JED), Dezember 2002.
- Tomasz Szulc: Russian Surface-to-Air Missiles by 2005. Military Technology Magazine. Volume 28, Issue 8, August 2004, S. 60–62.
- Pierre Lepidi: In Rwanda, 25 years after the genocide, the residence of the killed president has not revealed all its secrets. The World vom 5. April 2019