El Hor / El Ha - El Hor / El Ha
Before the First World War , the writer published under the pseudonym El Hor, and from 1918 onwards her works appeared under the stage name El Ha. The fact that this is one and the same person can be seen on the one hand from the fact that some of her prose works are ascribed to El Hor as the author at different points in time, but later to El Ha. For example, her two first publications The Lizard and The Murderer were both published in 1913 in the weekly Pan , and five years later reprinted under the new pseudonym El Ha in Der Friede . On the other hand, the following emerges from a contemporary newspaper report dedicated to her: "That too can be revealed: El Hor and El Ha are the same".  The article also shows that the person behind the pseudonym is a writer: "Let me say one thing, what attentive readers of your little reports have already guessed: it is a woman".  This can be proven by other sources, such as a review in which an "author" and "her work" is reported.  This acceptance is also confirmed in the wording of the publishing contract, which the author signed on the occasion of the publication of her book Die Schaukelsigned: "El hor [sic] grants the Saturn publishing house Hermann Meister in Heidelberg the right to publish its volume of sketches under the title 'Streichhölzer'".  This contract contains another important note that has at least a little illuminating effect on the obscure identity behind the pseudonym: it was signed in Vienna in 1913 . The author renounced her real name here, too, the contract is signed “El Hor”, but it can be deduced from this that she lived in Vienna at least around 1913.  Furthermore, Hartwig Suhrbier also deduces a person from the Habsburg Empire due to their "Southeast German" language usage. Christian Jäger also states that her “journalistic activities for the Prague press and the magazine Der Mensch indicate at least close contact with the Prague German context”.  Something similar can be deduced from a review of her book The Swing , which says: "The curious should be told in advance that behind the pseudonym there is a young lady who is well known to us Prague". 
Work and reception
What can be quite common for the publication practice of Expressionist circles can be related to the El Hor or El Hasche. She has published numerous texts, and thus a large part of her work, in renowned expressionist magazines, such as in Alfred Kerr's weekly Pan , but also in Saturn , Der Friede , the Schau- and later Weltbühne , in Licht und Schatten , the Prague press , and Man . The swing was published by Saturn Verlag in 1913 as an independent publicationwith a cover drawing by Herbert Grossberger , and 1920 shadow . 
Her work consists of short to the shortest prose pieces, the author herself is poetically called lines and dots, pen drawings or sketches, and thus underlines essential features of her work, which is characterized by a precise density and strongly pictorial expression. In addition to literary prose, El Ha has also published statements about contemporaries, for example she reviewed a book by her fellow writer Alfred Polgar , or dedicated an obituary to Peter Altenberg in the Weltbühne.  She also wrote tributes to the Viennese castle actor Joseph Kainz .
A contemporary reception can be reconstructed on the basis of articles and reviews, from their number and the consistently positive criticism one can conclude that El Hor or El Ha was a valued author. Paul Leppin wrote of El Ha that she was “the finest, most subtle genius of sketching since Peter Altenberg”.  And elsewhere he describes the prose sketches in the swing as "finely chiseled pieces, pampered and perverse gadgets, perfumed brutalities that are told with a remarkable naturalness".  Arthur Silbergleit expresses himself - also in a swingReview - as follows about the author: “She loves brevity and clarity of expression; she is content with a few lines and hints; the imagination of the art connoisseur is therefore often used to complete many a picture and to complement characteristics ”.  In her prose, Silbergleit continues, "often surprisingly sharp instantaneous images flash up", she combines "events from dream and everyday life in cinematic haste".  In doing so, he underlines the strong visual component of her work as well as the sensitivity with which she draws literary snapshots and hatches the psyche of her characters. Silbergleit speaks of "fine lines of the soul drawing" and closes his discussion with the following words:
To mark the richness of the design of this ribbon, the simple listing of its people [...] suffices: a stroller, an organ grinder, an old beggar, a junk dealer, a tramp and the knight Bluebeard. In order to express the diversity of these people and their experiences, the author naturally required an abundance of colors and tones or mood values. The fact that hardly any figure appears pale and mentally soundless speaks for El Hors's talent. We can therefore look forward to her further work with excitement. 
What is known about her life so far can be traced back to Hartwig Suhrbier's extensive research . He has re-edited her two books The Swing and Shadow in one volume and describes the results of his research efforts in its afterword. He begins this epilogue with the words:
No lexicon of German-speaking writers knows them. No history of German-language literatures knows about it. Her two pseudonyms only appear in two or three special registers that open up expressionist journals. 
In an article on expressionist prose by Austrian authors, Johann Sonnleitner describes why she, like so many other of her contemporary colleagues, was and is only noticed under difficult circumstances, and why she is often denied inclusion in the literary canon: “In In many cases there is ample reason to assume that after 1918 there was often only sparse publication opportunities for female authors and only with years of delays ”. As a consequence, these would have been“ more difficult than male competitors ” of these, "[f] finished typescripts from a female pen [...] often waited for years in the drawers for their publication". El Hor / El Has texts are - apart from one of their longer prose works, Die Närrin, which is part of the anthology The Red Wig - only available in second-hand bookshops or can be viewed online via the Expressionism literature database , which is not freely accessible. For this reason, “a complete edition of all the extremely idiosyncratic, diverse and mostly concise prose texts of this once respected and obviously well networked author” would be “absolutely desirable” according to Sonnleitner. 
The following catalog of works is a bibliography compiled by Hartwig Suhrbier.  The titles marked with * are an exception; these are taken from a compilation of Jäger's treatise on minority literature. 
- El Hor: The swing. Sketches. Saturn publishing house Hermann Meister. Heidelberg, 1913.
- El Ha: shadow . Hermann Meister publisher. Heidelberg, 1920.
- El Hor: The swing. Suhrbier, Hartwig (ed.). 1st edition. Steidl, Göttingen 1991, ISBN 3-88243-182-2 . [With an afterword by the editor]
Publications in magazines and newspapers
- The murderer, 1913. (Pan 3/15, pp. 361–362)
- The Lizard, 1913. (Pan 3/23, pp. 550–551)
- Ritter Blaubart, 1913. (Saturn 3/7, S. 201–203)
* Two sketches
- The passenger, 1913. (Saturn 3/12, pp. 342–343)
- The musician , 1913. (Saturn 3/12, p. 343)
- Thought splinters , 1913/14. (Light and Shadow 4/9, unpag. [P. 5])
- Judas Isachariot, 1914. (Saturn 4/1, S. 30–31)
- Hero and Leander , 1914. (Saturn 4/1, pp. 31–32)
- Schiller , 1914. (The Schaubühne 10–1 / 14, p. 398)
- Die Färrin, 1914. (Saturn 4 / 5–6, pp. 146–156)
- Romeo and Juliet , 1914. (Die Schaubühne 10–2 / 31–32, p. 94)
- Faith , 1915. (The Schaubühne 11–1 / 1, p. 3)
- Hamlet , 1915. (The Schaubühne 11–1 / 10–11, p. 228)
- The apparition , 1915/16. (Light and Shadow 6/9, unpag. [Pp. 10–11])
- * Queen Elisabeth, November 16 , 1917. (The Schaubühne, p. 467)
- * Mozart , January 13th, 1918. (The Schaubühne, p. 21)
* Pen drawings
- The old painter , 1918. (Der Friede 1/12, p. 289)
- Der Einsame , 1918. (Der Friede 1/12, p. 289)
- Landscape , 1918. (Der Friede 1/12, p. 289)
- The lantern lighter , 1918 (Der Friede 1/12, p. 289)
- Saint Elizabeth , 1918. (Die Weltbühne 14–1 / 21, p. 385)
* Lines and dots
- Catastrophe, 1918. (Der Friede 1/18, p. 433)
- * Panorama, 1918. (Der Friede 1/18, p. 433)
- May evening, 1918. (Der Friede 1/18, p. 433)
- Dog flowers, 1918. (Der Friede 1/18, p. 433)
- The package, 1918. (Der Friede 1/18, p. 433)
- My friend the organ grinder, 1918. (Der Friede 1/18, p. 433)
- The Sea, 1918. (Der Friede 1/18, p. 433)
- Die Kreatur, 1918. (Der Friede 1/18, p. 434)
- * Faith , 1918. (Man 8–10, p. 99)
- * Old mansion , 1918. (Der Friede 1/26, p. 627)
- * Timpe , 1918. (Der Friede 1/26, p. 627)
- The audience, 1918. (Die Weltbühne 14–1 / 24, p. 550)
- True anecdote, 1918. (Die Weltbühne 14–1 / 24, p. 550)
- Fennec. (Der Friede 2/31, p. 119)
- Event. (Der Friede 2/31, p. 119)
- * Der Idiot, 1918. (Der Friede 2/34, p. 237)
- The lovers , 1918. (Der Friede 2/34, p. 238)
- The artist , 1918. (Der Friede 2/34, p. 238)
- The jester and the carpet, 1918. (Der Friede 2/46, p. 478)
- The dead, 1919. (Der Friede 2/52, p. 624)
- * The Opal, 1919. (Der Friede 3/59, p. 167)
- * Orchids, 1919. (Der Friede 3/59, pp. 167–168)
- The old horse, 1919. (Der Friede 3/59, p. 168)
- Aaron, 1919. (Der Friede 3/66, p. 335)
- Josef Kainz, 1919. (Der Friede 3/66, p. 335)
- Experience, 1919. (Saturn 5/1, pp. 21-27)
- * Pen strokes
- Whispered to a heart, 1919. (Saturn 5/2, pp. 67–68)
- The old sex, 1919. (Saturn 5/2, pp. 68–70)
- The tavern, 1919. (Saturn 5/2, p. 70)
- Girl, 1919. (Saturn 5/2, pp. 70–71)
- The Walker, 1919. (Der Friede 3/73, p. 503)
- The Unkenteich, 1919. (Der Friede 3/73, p. 503)
- * Acquaintance, 1919. (Der Friede 3/73, p. 503)
- Peter Altenberg, 1919. (Die Weltbühne 15–1 / 26, p. 717)
- Dreams, 1919. (Saturn 5/7, pp. 279–281)
- Burial in the mountains, 1920. (Saturn 5/10, pp. 390–391)
- The Stranger, 1920 (Saturn 5/10, pp. 391–392)
- The kingfisher, 1920. (Saturn 5/10, pp. 392–393)
- Twilight, 1920 (Saturn 5/10, p. 393)
- Spiel, 1920. (Saturn 5/10, p. 393)
- Small time. (Die Weltbühne 16–1 / 7, p. 215)
- Mayerling, 1920. (Die Weltbühne 16–2 / 42, pp. 437–438)
- The wild boar, June 12 , 1921 (Prague press / Sunday supplement, p. 12)
- Dressage, June 12 , 1921 (Prague press / Sunday supplement, p. 12)
- World stage, 1921. (Die Weltbühne 17–2 / 27, p. 21)
- The kitten, July 10 , 1921 (Prague press / Sunday supplement, p. 13)
- Die Gans, July 10 , 1921 (Prague Press / Sunday Supplement, p. 13)
- Die Wette, September 18 , 1921 (Prague press / Sunday supplement, p. 11)
- The concert, September 18 , 1921 (Prague press / Sunday supplement, p. 11)
- The suicide, October 2nd , 1921 (Prague press / Sunday supplement, p. 12)
- The sexton, October 30 , 1921 (Prague press / Sunday supplement, p. 12)
- Saturn, December 18 , 1921 (Prague press / Sunday supplement, p. 13)
- The Magician, May 28 , 1922 (Prague Press / Seal and World, p. II)
- The Heidefürst, 20.8.1922 (Prague Press / Seal and World, p. II)
- The Prince Amandus, December 10th , 1922 (Prague Press / Poetry and World, pp. I – II)
- Faith, December 24th , 1922 (Prague Press / Poetry and World, p. IV)
- Monotony , March 4th , 1923 (Prager Presse / Dichtung und Welt, p. III)
Publications in anthologies
- El Hor: The fool . In: Vollmer, Hartmut (ed.): The red wig. Prose by expressionist female poets . 2nd edition. Diplomica Verlag, Hamburg 2012, pp. 45–55. ISBN 9783868156089 .
- El Hor: The Adventure. In: Haffmans, Gerd (ed.): The raven. Magazine for every kind of literature. No. XV, Haffmans Verlag, Zurich 1986, p. 130.
El Hor: Knight Bluebeard . In: Suhrbier, Hartwig (ed.): Bluebeard's secret . Eugen Diederichs, Cologne 1984, ISBN 9783424007800 , pp. 160-161.
- The same. 2nd edition Ullstein Taschenbuch, Frankfurt / M. / Berlin 1987, ISBN 978-3548208398 , pp. 160-161.
- Christian Jäger: Become a woman, become a poet, become a minority. Prague German authors. In: Christian Jäger: Minoritarian literature. The concept of small literature using the example of Prague and Sudeten German works . German Univ.-Verl., Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3824446073 , pp. 249-300.
- Martina Lüke: Battle of the sexes. Alienation and lust murder in the expressionist poetry of El Hor / El Ha. In: Seminar: A Journal of Germanic Studies 46.2. University of Toronto Press, 2010, ISSN 0037-1939, pp. 112-130.
- David Priglinger-Simander: The literary expressionism and the prose. A characteristic reworking of Expressionist prose based on the "Austrian" authors Grete Meisel-Hess, Nadja Strasser and "El Hor" or "El Ha" . Diploma thesis, University of Vienna 2019.
- Johann Sonnleitner: Expressionist prose by Austrian authors after 1918. In: Aneta Jachimowicz (Ed.): Against the canon - literature of the interwar period in Austria . Peter Lang Edition, Frankfurt a. M. 2017, ISBN 9783631672167 , pp. 301-314.
- Suhrbier, Hartwig: The swing . 1st edition. Steidl, Göttingen 1991, ISBN 3-88243-182-2 , pp. 107-111. (worldcat.org [accessed June 23, 2020]).
- Christian Jäger: Minoritarian literature. The concept of small literature using the example of Prague and Sudeten German works. German Univ.-Verl, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-8244-4607-3 , p. 249–300.
- Paul Leppin: "El Ha". In: Prager Presse / Seal and World June 18, 1922. In: Hartwig Suhrbier (Ed.): The swing . 1st edition. Steidl, Göttingen 1991, ISBN 3-88243-182-2 .
- Arthur Silbergleit: The swing. In: Der Tag, Berlin October 4, 1913. In: Hartwig Suhrbier (Hrsg.): The swing . 1st edition. Steidl, Göttingen 1991, ISBN 3-88243-182-2 , p. 103.
- Suhrbier, Hartwig: The swing . 1st edition. Steidl, Göttingen 1991, ISBN 3-88243-182-2 .
- Paul Leppin: The swing . In: Prager Tagblatt [morning edition] . December 7, 1913, p. 20–21 (onb.ac.at).
- Johann Sonnleitner: Expressionist prose by Austrian women authors after 1918 . In: Aneta Jachimowicz (Hrsg.): Against the canon - literature of the interwar period in Austria . Peter Lang Edition, Frankfurt a. M. 2017, ISBN 978-3-631-67216-7 , pp. 301–314.
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Expressionist author|
|DATE OF BIRTH||19th century|
|DATE OF DEATH||uncertain: after 1923|