Friedhöfe Friedenstrasse / Landsberger Allee - Friedhöfe Friedenstraße / Landsberger Allee
Friedhöfe Friedenstraße / Landsberger Allee |
Georgen-Parochial-Friedhöfe II and V
as well as St.-Petri-Luisenstadt-Kirchhof
|Park in Berlin|
|Glance into one of the main paths|
|Newly designed||around 1950 and later|
|Surrounding streets||Friedenstraße , Diestelmeyerstraße, Matthiasstraße, Landsberger Allee , Richard-Sorge-Straße , Auerstraße, Weidenweg|
|Buildings||two mourning halls and numerous burial chapels|
|Parking area||13.300 m²|
The cemeteries in the Friedenstrasse of three Protestant parishes in Berlin are located in the Friedrichshain district ( Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg district ). The burial places were laid out in the 19th century. Many worthy citizens of the city found their final resting place here. The entire park-like complex forms a garden monument  , the two cemetery chapels and some graves are listed cultural monuments .
History of the cemeteries
The current three cemeteries are a remnant of the four originally laid out in front of the former excise wall. They emerged as a result of the rapid population growth in Berlin and the increasing number of burials, for which the small areas around the parish churches were no longer sufficient. On the instructions of Friedrich Wilhelm I , new burial grounds were to be built outside of Berlin from 1717, and the areas were to be selected so that the groundwater was deep enough. The search for suitable areas and the resistance of long-established families who had to give up their hereditary burials delayed the implementation by more than a hundred years. The new cemeteries were built as community facilities by the Georgen andParochial communities and the St. Petri community (added to the name of the location in Luisenstadt ). They were distributed over four rectangular areas lined up next to each other . The north-westernmost was the poor cemetery , where all people were buried for whom the city of Berlin or the parish had to pay the costs. It was closed in 1881, after which parts of the area came to the garden of the Resurrection Church . As a result of further later reductions and the creation of an access option from Landsberger Allee , the cemetery area is only slightly more than 13 hectares (year 2012).
In addition to the two burial grounds described here, the Georgen and Parochial communities also had cemeteries I ( Greifswalder Strasse in the Berlin-Prenzlauer Berg district , opened in 1827), III (in Roelckestrasse, Berlin-Weißensee district , opened in 1878) and IV (in Boxhagener Strasse, Berlin-Friedrichshain district , also opened in 1867). All are still in function.
The individual burial grounds
It has its direct access from the Friedenstrasse 82. Some parts were closed in the late 1980s and their area was used for the construction of a sports field and the construction of children's facilities. In the 1990s, residential houses were built along Diestelmeyerstraße on another former area of this cemetery. The remaining part is about 165 meters long and 45 meters wide and is the smallest of the preserved cemeteries in terms of area. On its north-east and south wall there are some wall graves in the neo-Renaissance style , including those for Heinrich Ludwig Lobeck (founder of the Berlin Life Insurance Company) and Julius Carl Friedrich Namslau (1842–1912; city councilor in Berlin).  An area directly on the north-west boundary has now also been closed, and some of their graves have already been cleared.
To the southeast, Georgen-Parochial-Friedhof V is joined by the burial place of the St. Petri Luisenstadt community. Its main entrance is at Friedenstrasse 81. About ten meters north of this entrance is the tomb for the Kraatz couple at the intersection of two paths. The forged metal sculpture ( marriage or woman and man ) was made by the sculptor Achim Kühn for the grave of the doctor Helmut KraatzMade on the Georgen-Parochial-Friedhof II on behalf of friends and students in 1982. Only after the metal work of art had been damaged and then repaired did the cemetery administration erect the entire tomb here in place of an earlier well in the late 1990s. At the end of this middle main corridor, the cemetery chapel of this parish ( St. Petri Chapel ), built in the neo-classical style , rises up , the building plans of which were provided by the city architect Walter Koeppen and which was inaugurated in 1911. A carillon with a large bronze bell was set up on a lawn to the east of this chapel .
On the south wall along the Friedenstrasse, on the west wall and on the north-west wall of this cemetery complex there are also family burials , tombs and wall tombs . The sites of Wilhelm Ferdinand Ermeler and his wife, by Ernst Hillig (co-owner of the Pfefferberg brewery ; died in 1891, represented by a larger-than-life marble figure with the brewer's star , the brewers' guild symbol ), by Hermann von der Goltz , provost in the St. Petri Congregation. Lesser-known families also had their family tombs erected here on the wall, including that of the Bause family in pyramid shapeparticularly noticeable (restored in the 21st century). In the literature  and on the homepage of this cemetery  other sights such as a free-standing marble figure of a kneeling mourner and a bronze stele from 1925 (artist Reinhold Boeltzig) as well as grave sites of well-known personalities are mentioned: Perry Friedman , folksinger; Daniel Amadeus Neander , Bishop of Berlin; Franz Felix Adalbert Kuhn , Indo-Europeanist and director of the Köllnisches Gymnasium ; Joachim Heinrich Wilhelm Wagener , banker. The burial chapel of the merchant Adolf Roesicke(1817–1886), buyer and longstanding operator of the Schultheiss brewery , was built in neoclassical style based on a design by Franz Schwechten and was completed in 1887.
Georgen Parochial Cemetery II
This cemetery area is the largest in terms of area and has its main entrance from Landsberger Allee 48-50, the side entrance is located at Friedenstraße 80. It was also redesigned (after 1945), the Diestelmeyerstraße originally crossing the cemetery area was shortened to the current piece on the Matthiasstrasse. When it was first set up, all four cemeteries only had access from Friedenstrasse (then Communication to Frankfurt ). The city administration did not create the Landsberger Allee entrance until the beginning of the 20th century. The municipal cemetery administration for all three facilities was later set up on the site in a low-rise building. In connection with the construction of the UCI KinoweltIn the late 1990s, another area was lost and a small area along the wall to Landsberger Allee was released as a parking lot for visitors to the cemetery.
From 1865 to 1867, a cemetery chapel ( St. Georgen Chapel ) with an adjoining morgue was built on the local Georgen Parochial Cemetery II, based on a design by the city architect Paul Erdmann . It is a brick building in the arched style , based on Italian models. The building ensemble consists of a mourning area (vestibule and hall with apse ) and the three-aisled morgue. Building experts put the architectural style in a row with the Potsdam buildings by Ludwig Persius and August Stüler .  The complex, which was extensively renovated in the 21st century, is one of the oldest preserved cemetery chapels in Berlin.
On the north-east side of this cemetery area, including the back wall of a former residential building (today Friedrichshain Medical Center), numerous very old tombs and family tombs have been preserved. The oldest grave in the entire complex is that of Johann Carl Julius Albrecht (1794–1848), master stonemason , and his wife († 1851). It is assumed that Albrecht designed the tomb himself , a sandstone cube on a base with a strong cornice and on top with a cast iron urn.  It is located in the southeast corner of the cemetery in the urn grove "R". Other noteworthy and artistically designed graves are for Anton Friedrich Büsching (that ofThe tomb created by Johann Gottfried Schadow is in the Märkisches Museum, but is supposed to return to the Georgen-Parochial-Friedhof II), Ernst Carl Francke (1823–1895; timber merchant) and his family (a free-standing burial chapel designed by Werner Lundt and Georg Kallmorgen , 1903), Otto Lange († 1929) was erected directly in the access area on Landsberger Allee with a bronze figure The Mourners by the metal sculptor Hans Dammann , Alfred Gyss , Bernhard Rose or John Stave .  The writer Ronald M. Schernikau was also buried here in 1991 .
On an area in the southeast area, four collective graves were created for all those who died in the Second World War from the catchment area of the cemeteries. The two large lawns have flat nameplates and on each field there are granite blocks along the way with the names of the dead carved into it. A grieving sculpture each underlines this area. The figure on the southern field is a copy of a bronze sculpture by Hans Dammann, placed on an exposed brick wall. There are a total of 1050 victims of war and tyranny on the war cemeteries in this cemetery.
Numerous grave sites in the northeast area, surrounded by ornamental bars, now hardly reveal the names of the buried, and many of the wall grave sites have now been abandoned. The conversion of a very old family grave site on the south-west wall is worth reporting: The community of St. Marien has set up a "community facility for the deceased of the St. Marien / Mitte soup kitchen" with the names of four people on a polished panel on the back wall (without year numbers) are noted.
The no longer preserved cemetery
In Pufendorfstrasse, where a Hamburg investor plans to build a wing for 400 apartments from around 2020, archaeologists came across the remains of Berlin's formerly largest poor cemetery during preparatory excavations. The area is around 17,500 square meters and bordered or was under the foundations of the no longer preserved Bohemian brewery , of which only the old malt house has been preserved. Since July 2016, the private company archaeofakt has been intensively and carefully searching the area on behalf of the investor. All that was known from archival material was that the first communal burial site existed here at the gates of Berlin between 1800 and 1881, where initially victims of the plague and cholera had existedhad been buried in simple wooden coffins. Later the deceased poor of the city joined them. However, the exact location of the cemetery and the number of burials were not recorded. By the end of January 2017, 3,500 skeletons had been recovered from 1,500 graves. It is noticeable that most of the tombs were dug close together, with barely 20 centimeters of soil in between. Medical-anatomical examinations have already shown that there are also numerous anatomical corpses, i.e. dead people who came to communal graves after autopsies . Work should continue until summer 2017. The nameless dead are measured three-dimensionally, with a special process a 3D- Reconstruction created. These investigations should also make part of the contemporary history clear: circumstances of life and death, rampant diseases, treatment methods. Then all the people found are to be buried in a collecting container on a meadow in the Plötzensee cemetery. 
Accessibility by public transport
The main entrance on Landsberger Allee can be reached with the Metrotram lines M5, M6, M8, M10 and with the S-Bahn Berlin (lines S41, S42, S8 and S85) from the S-Bahn station Landsberger Allee . The three entrances to the cemetery on Friedenstrasse are served by buses on route 142. 
- Institute for Monument Preservation (Ed.): The architectural and art monuments of the GDR. Capital Berlin-II . Henschelverlag, Berlin 1984, p. 445 ff.
- Representation of the Friedhöfe Friedenstraße / Landsberger Allee on stiftung-historische-friedhoefe.de
- Exploring the Georgen-Parochial-Friedhof II - collection of pictures
- Garden monument Friedenstraße 80–82, cemeteries II and V of the Ev. Georgen parish and cemetery of the Ev. St. Petri Luisenstadt parish; Landsberger Allee 48–50
- some tombs on Georgen-Parochial-Kirchhof V (online) , accessed on April 24, 2012
- The architectural and art monuments ... , p. 446f
- some tombs on Georgen-Parochial-Kirchhof II (online) , accessed on April 24, 2012
- Kapelle St. PetriMausoleum RoesickeKraatz tomb
- The architectural and art monuments ... , p. 447
- plan of the entire cemetery complex of the Senate Department for Urban Development
- Georgen-Parochial chapelFrancke Mausoleum
- Karin Schmidl: With excavator, shovel and tweezers. In Friedrichshain, archaeologists are uncovering the graves of a former poor cemetery. The skeletons are examined and reburied. In: Berliner Zeitung , February 8, 2017, p. 10.
- Line overviews of the BVG day bus routes 130 to 168; call 142 ; As of April 2012