Aachen sanctuary tour - Aachener Heiligtumsfahrt
The Aachen Pilgrimage , even Aachener Pray ride or Aachen ride called that every seven years referred taking place pilgrimage to the four large Aachen sanctuaries from the Staufer Marienschrein ,  to this event in Aachen Cathedral and on the Katschhof are shown.
The first pilgrims came to Aachen at the time of Charlemagne . In the Middle Ages , the Aachen Shrine Tour developed into the most important pilgrimage in the German-speaking area.  : 13 Initially, after the canonization of Charlemagne, the focus was on the cult of Charlemagne and the veneration of the miraculous image . In the course of the Middle Ages, the textile relics then gained in importance for the Aachen pilgrimage.  : 14 Due to the Reformation in the 17th century, the importance declined and during the Enlightenment it was even forbidden, but the Aachen Shrine Tour still attracts numerous believers today. In 2014, around 125,000 pilgrims were counted. 
Course of the celebrations
The celebration of the Shrine Tour usually takes ten days in June and now offers a wide range of events from a wide variety of interest groups. The focus is still on the solemn services in the cathedral associated with the liturgical display of the relics, the so-called healing instructions or also healing shows, and especially the heavily frequented, festive pilgrimage services on the Katschhof. Numerous highest religious dignitaries from Germany, the Vatican and the world church are always present at the celebrationsinvited to help shape and participate in the liturgy. In addition to the mainly church events, comprehensive cultural framework programs with evening events, concerts, workshops , pilgrims' round tables and other options at numerous meeting places around the cathedral were offered in cooperation with the city, diocese and cathedral chapter, especially in the big anniversary year of 2014 .
Particularly worthy is the elevation ceremony  at the beginning of the sanctuary tour, during which, as part of a solemn pontifical vespers, the Marian shrine is held by two goldsmiths of the Aachen gold and silversmiths in the presence of the faithful, the local episcopate , the cathedral chapter and the visiting clergy, as well as after old Customs of the City Council of Aachen, which has had the so-called custody right to the storage of relics since the pilgrimage was introduced in the Middle Ages , and the precious, artistically crafted padlock is opened with several blows of the hammeris broken up. This will then be permanently exhibited in the corresponding collection of the Aachen Cathedral Treasury . These padlocks were without any special decoration up to and including 1881. For the first time in 1888, the Aachen collegiate goldsmith Bernhard Witte created locks with jewelry or coats of arms in order to give them a special meaning. 
After the shrine is opened, the first liturgical veneration takes place and the cloths are displayed by some of the cathedral capitals. According to an old custom, the protocol of the opening ceremony is read out by the mayor after the reliquary display. The conclusion is the celebratory excerpt, with the hymn of the city of Aachen - the Urbs Aquensis - being played.
As part of the sanctuary tour, the relics removed from the Marian shrine are presented to the public outside of the corresponding ritual display at fixed times in the choir hall of the cathedral in four glass showcases, in particular to the pilgrims as the primary target group.  After each show, the sanctuaries are traditionally saved in the so-called coat of arms chest of Richard of Cornwall  , a work made from cedar wood in Limoges in 1258 and decorated with numerous copper medallions in the form of embossed and enameled coat of arms fittings .
At the closing ceremony  at the end of the journey to the sanctuary, the cloth relics are returned to the Marian shrine and a new lock is installed, the key of which is then ritually sawed up by two master goldsmiths. According to the custodial law, the cathedral chapter receives the key head, the city council the key bit .
The Aachen sanctuaries probably found their way to Aachen under Charlemagne. The Franconian Reichsannalen report that a fabulous treasure trove of relics was sent from Jerusalem for the inauguration of the Palatine Chapel in 799 . 
The four textile sanctuaries from Aachen are seen as touch relics, in which the strength of the venerated people - in Aachen Christ and Mary - is said to have been transferred to the fabrics. It was not until 1237 to 1239 when the new Marian shrine was built and inaugurated that it became known what the Carolingian reliquary box used up until then actually contained. 
The four “great” sanctuaries
Be referred to as the four great Aachen sanctuaries
- the dress of Mary
- the diapers of Jesus ,
- the loincloth of Jesus and
- the cloth of the beheading of John the Baptist  .
They are kept in the Marian shrine, which is located in the Gothic choir hall of Aachen Cathedral. Each of the relics is wrapped with a colored silk ribbon, the color of which represents the relic. After the journey to the sanctuary, the relic is placed in a seven-meter-long silk scarf. The jewelry cloths and the inner and outer bursa , which Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain donated to the Aachener Marienstift in 1629were given, envelop the sanctuaries in addition to protection. Wrapped in tissue paper, the relics are wrapped again with the respective colored silk ribbons, which are then sealed. After the shrines wrapped in this way have been returned to the Marian shrine, the shrine is sealed with a jewelry lock and the lock is filled with lead.  : 38
A scientific study in the 1980s is said to have established the origin of the fabrics from late antiquity . More precise dating of material samples e.g. B. after the radiocarbon method are not considered out of consideration for the integrity of the objects.  The diocese of Aachen does not put the question of the authenticity of the textiles in the foreground; rather, the symbolic content and reference to the biblical stories through the cloth relics as a haptic point of reference and orientation for the believer are the real meaning of the veneration.
Dress of Mary
The dress of Mary is shown to this day in the Heiligtumsfahrt only one of the Aachen Textile relics without protective coating. The wide, natural-colored linen dress has two sleeves of different lengths. The dress is 153 cm high and 132 cm wide with the sleeves extended. In the area of the left sleeve strips of fabric were cut off and sent to Hildesheim, among other places, as relics. The fabric, which according to recent investigations was made between AD 400 and 750,  : 28 is in good condition except for traces of folding and some stuffed areas.
It has been reported about the origin of the dress since the 5th century that Mary commissioned the disciple John to distribute her clothes to pious neighbors. In 451 the dress, which was kept in a chest with a pious woman in Galilee , was stolen by two men on a pilgrimage and brought to Constantinople . Leo I had an annex built for the dress in Blachernae's St. Mary's Church and furnished it with plenty of equipment. For fear of looting and desecration of the sanctuary by Persian troops, the dress was brought to Hagia Sophia , from where it was sent to Charlemagne around 800. The dress of Maryis characterized in Aachen by the symbolic color white.  : 15
The diaper of Jesus is also referred to in older publications and representations as the Botzen of St. Joseph (Josefshosen). The brown, coarse milled wool is said to have been acquired by Licinia Eudoxia around 445 in Jerusalem. After the relic was temporarily buried in a Church of St. Mary in Constantinople, the material was later divided and part of it was passed on to Rome and one as a gift to Charlemagne.  : 17
Recent studies on the textile relic have confirmed that it was dated between the 5th century and the first half of the 7th century.  : 28 The diaper of Jesus (size: 68 cm high, 94 cm maximum width) is characterized by the symbolic color yellow and therefore wrapped with yellow silk fabrics and tapes.
The coarse, blood-stained linen cloth is said to have carried Jesus Christ on the cross. When the textile relic, which is wrapped in red silk ribbons, arrived in Aachen is largely unknown. Whether it already belonged to the reliquary treasure of Charlemagne, who is known to have been given relics from the birth and death of Jesus around the year 800, cannot be said with certainty. What is certain is that around 1095 it should no longer have been found with the other grave cloths in Constantinople.  : 21 The folded cloth 127.5 cm high and 151 cm wide at the bottom is wrapped with three red silk ribbons. Traditionally, the loincloth is placed on sick pilgrims on the pilgrimage to the shrine.
Headscarf of John the Baptist
The blood-stained cloth made of fine damask came into Franconian possession as early as the time of Pippin the Younger . Due to the blood stains, it can be assumed that the textile relic is a shroud.  : 35 About the origin of the square material it is reported that the head of John covered with the cloth was first buried in Herod's palace . In the second half of the 4th century it is said to have been found by monks and brought to Macedonia . Under Theodosius I.the transfer of the cloth to Constantinople in a church dedicated to John the Baptist took place. The Patriarch of Alexandria gave the cloth to a bishop who brought the relic to the Frankish king.  : 19f. In Aachen, the 282.2 × 131.5 cm large, folded cloth is wrapped with pink silk ribbons and is kept in pink silk cloths in the Marian shrine.
The three “little” sanctuaries
In addition to the four textile relics, three other relics kept in eastern sensoria have been shown during the journey to the sanctuary since the late Middle Ages . The Ostensorien were made in a goldsmith's workshop in Prague in the 14th century and came to Aachen as a gift from Charles IV . The relics themselves are considered to be the belt of Mary  , the belt of Christ  and the scourge rope of Christ  . They come from the reliquary of Charlemagne and came in 799 as a gift from the Patriarch of Jerusalem by a monkto Aachen.  : 22
The right of custody,  also known as the right of concustody  , in the form implemented in Aachen for centuries, is unique in Europe.  As a result, the city of Aachen as secular and the cathedral chapter or earlier the collegiate chapter as the spiritual authority have been jointly and equally responsible for the safekeeping of the sanctuaries for over six centuries.  What had to be preserved was previously the coronation insignia of Richard of Cornwall , who in 1262 proclaimed the donation and the right to custody of the city. Since these insignia were stored with the relics, the city drew the conclusion that it also had a corresponding right to the sanctuaries.  The fact that the sanctuaries in Aachen were not only of paramount religious importance, but also had a power-political and economic component, is shown in the history of the sanctuary tour: Formative for the development of Aachen as a coronation city and pilgrimage center, thus also for economic development , it was very important to the city magistrate to gain control over the processes around the sanctuaries and to maintain them. 
After the sanctuaries were transferred to the Maria Shrine, which was initially unsuitable for opening, the sanctuaries were later surrounded by a wooden protective box, which, however, suffered over the years and, from the point of view of the city, did not offer sufficient security, which led to disputes between the chapter and the city council .  The dispute escalated in 1419 when the pen failed to comply with the city's request for an appropriate storage container to be made.  : 32 In the next chapter in a as was Laudum designated documentary judgment of Duke Adolf of Julichof June 13, 1425 obliged to make a copper box to protect the relics.  At the same time the was mayor , the aldermen , and the city council granted the right to be present at the opening and closure of the shrine and determine the measures provided for opening goldsmith to this and the oath decrease. 
In the absence of a corresponding copper box up to 1680, however, there were further disputes, also against the background of the fact that instead an outer colored wooden box had been commissioned by the monastery chapter to protect the Marian shrine; this in turn was secured by a lock, the iron smith was chosen by the chapter to open in the absence of the magistrate .  This right was later assigned to the chapter and the handover of the keys was also determined according to the existing custom in such a way that the rhombus , i.e. the key handle , the pen chapter and the beard of the city administration were to be handed over. 
When this was not done in 1678, the city resorted to a drastic measure, which it used again later: It diverted the Paubach , the water supply for the abbey residents, and cut the coal supply, so that a serious emergency threatened the winter due to a lack of heating material.  This shows the importance of such a symbolic act as the sharing and handing over of keys at that time, insofar as this involved the validity of state influence in church affairs. 
As a result, in June 1680 an agreement was finally reached in the Aachen Jesuit College , including on the valid form of handing over the keys.  But soon there was another dispute on both sides, which in 1759 led to a complaint by the city to the Imperial Court of Justice and a mandate from Emperor Franz I , according to which the mayor should claim the right to the goldsmith to take the oath at the town hall.  Again, in addition to the denial of access to the sanctuaries - the monastery chapter had even ordered a squadron of Jülich soldiers for this purpose in 1748, their deployment only through the mediation of the amWenzel Anton Graf von Kaunitz-Rietberg , who was attending the Aachen Peace Congress , was also prevented from taking part in the lawful form of handing over the keys, as the chapter had in the meantime become accustomed to repeatedly disdain for the city representatives' claim to the right of safekeeping by throwing the key bit down in a disrespectful manner To give expression.  Ultimately, this repeated escalation of the conflict led to a renewed capping of the water and coal supply and also to the denial of civil and craft rights of the goldsmith who refused to take the oath before the secular authorities. 
A later point of contention was the considerable lack of space in the minster church. In 1909, the city was first given a say in the placement of its representatives during the Shrine Tour. 
On August 14, 1915 and June 18, 1922, the sanctuaries removed from the Marian shrine for security reasons were each in the presence of a special municipal delegation (once in strictest secrecy about the threats of World War I , the second time - after the entire monastery treasure had been housed in Paderborn - on the other hand in a solemn form). 
In 1937 the National Socialist city council renounced the exercise of the right to custody during the sanctuary tour.  Over 800,000 people took part; this was perceived as a silent protest against the Nazi regime . On Palm Sunday 1937 Pope PIUS XI. Have the circular read from all pulpits with burning concern about the situation of the Catholic Church in the German Empire.
During the "Little Shrine Tour" (July 19-22, 1945), Provost Dr. Hermann Müssener said that the traditional legal situation had changed due to the waiver of the right to exercise the custodial right during the sanctuary trip in 1937. The then Lord Mayor Wilhelm Rombach spoke to Müssener; the rights to the storage of the Aachen cloth relics continue to apply as they did before 1937. 
History of the Sanctuary Tour
Already in the time of Charlemagne, the reliquary attracted numerous pilgrims, especially for the church festival on July 17th, which was connected with an indulgence . The canonization of Charles in 1165 and the production of Karls and Marie shrine early 13th century were the importance of Aachen ride rise further.
Presumably since 1239, during the reign of Emperor Frederick II , the pilgrimage to the Aachen sanctuaries was referred to as a sanctuary trip. Since 1322 the display of the relics from the tower galleries of the Aachen Minster can be proven.  This custom of healing instruction has been preserved up to our time. The seven-year cycle was introduced in 1349 under the influence of the devastating plague epidemic in Europe; previously the pilgrimage took place at irregular intervals of one to five years.
The attractiveness of the Aachen sanctuary tour among pilgrims in the Middle Ages is based on the expectation of the perfect, sin-eradicating indulgence that was granted on the occasion of the sanctuary tour. A special custom for Aachen was the so-called blowing out of freedom : During the sanctuary tour, jurisdiction in Aachen was suspended and people who had been banned from the city for minor offenses were allowed to enter the city without fear of persecution or expulsion.  : 28f.
The number seven was probably based on the biblical sabbath year ( Ex 23.11 EU , Dtn 15.1-11 EU ) and also with reference to the number of all Aachen sanctuaries, i.e. the four "large" and three "small" relics, chosen, in which a balance of guilt towards fellow human beings and above all towards God is achieved.  : 26f. However, it is also found with reference to the seven days of creation ( Gen 2.2 EU ) or the seven wonders of the world as a code for abundance, wholeness, perfection, and also in the seven works of mercy, seven sacraments , the seven pilgrimage churches in Rome and numerous allusions to the Revelation of John .  Seven is the number of Mary, to whom seven pains and seven joys are ascribed in connection with the birth of Jesus (Isaiah chapter 7: Isa 7,14 EU ).  : 181 The ladybird got its name because it has seven dots on its back.  : 181In addition, July 16 was chosen as the opening day, the day of the seven brothers in the seventh month of the year. The sanctuary trip also lasted two times seven days and the sanctuaries were shown in seven places in the cathedral.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, Aachen developed into the most important German pilgrimage site thanks to the pilgrimage to the sanctuary, and the pilgrimage to Aachen became one of the three most important pilgrimages in the West alongside those to Santiago de Compostela and Rome .  With the inclusion of the Kornelimünster , Burtscheid , Düren , Trier and St. Adalbert Aachen monasteries , the pilgrimages also became an extraordinary and important economic event. At that time, over 100,000 pilgrims are said to have come to Aachen for the shrine tour.
The importance of the Aachen trip declined due to the Reformation, but already at the beginning of the 17th century there was a renewed revival due to the Counter Reformation . During the Age of Enlightenment, there was no sanctuary tour in Aachen: Emperor Joseph II of Austria banned it in 1776. When the French revolutionary troops approached in 1794, the Aachen sanctuaries were brought to Paderborn to safety. With her return in 1804, the tradition of the Aachen drive was reintroduced.
In 1937 the Nazi press warned against participating in the shrine tour: “Anyone who marches on May 27 with the so-called procession, which today is nothing more than a demonstration against the Third Reich, deliberately places themselves in the ranks of the separatists, the child molesters , the perjurer, the traitor. ”  Despite such attempts to disrupt, around 800,000 pilgrims came to Aachen. This year's sanctuary trip went down in history as the “pilgrimage of silent protest”.
The celebrations for the Shrine Tour 2014 were under the star of Charlemagne. The events, which took place from June 20 to 29, 2014, were framed by the celebration of the 1200th anniversary of the emperor's death. Based on Gen 12.1 EU ("Move out of your country [...] to the land that I will show you") the motto of the sanctuary trip was "Faith in motion". 
Aachhorns and pilgrims' bottles
During the showing of the shrines, many pilgrims became ecstatic and shouted "Mercy" and "Have mercy on us" together. For this purpose, small clay horns, mostly glazed in red or blue, were blown, which pilgrims were able to purchase as mass-produced goods at small stands near Aachen's Marienkirche.  The pilgrims hoped that this would transfer the power of the relics to the horn. The slightly curved, rarely posthorn-like horns were made in the Rhenish pottery centers in Raeren and Langerwehe . The horns could only produce a single tone, so playing melodies was impossible. In addition to earthen clay horns, wealthy pilgrims also carried instruments made of cow horn or buffalo horn.
After their blessing, the aachhorns were taken home by many pilgrims as a souvenir of the instruction. In later times the custom gradually disappeared. In the 19th century, the pilgrim horns were almost exclusively blown by children. Aachhorns sold in Aachen for trips to the sanctuary were found in archaeological excavations in the Thames ,  : 28f. in Greifswald  or in Bamberg . 
In addition to the clay horns, the Rhenish ceramic factories also produced flat ceramic bottles with medallions from the pilgrimage to the shrine.
Pilgrim and mirror signs
Devotional items in the form of pilgrims' signs have been sold to pilgrims as a visible sign of participation in the sanctuary tour since the 12th century. The small, thin flat cast badges were made from easily fusible metals and are only preserved today due to their fragility.  : 64 From about 1300 until the late 14th century pilgrims were signs as lead - tin - Grid-cast made. In a filigree frame, the sanctuary to be venerated was mostly clergy, Angels and the saints venerated in Aachen. From 1350, four small hooks were usually attached to the frames of the Aachen pilgrimage signs, which were used to hold a plaque, and later a mirror. After the sanctuaries could no longer be touched, but were shown from the tower gallery, the convex mirror was used to capture the “power” and “radiation” of the sanctuaries from a distance.  : 8f. The first mirrors were used on the sanctuary trip in 1440. Due to the high number of pieces - up to 100,000 pilgrim signs were required for the medieval sanctuary trips - the production could no longer be done exclusively by local craftsmen. So in 1438 Johannes Gutenberg becamefrom Strasbourg allowed the establishment of a community of property for the production of Aachen devotional objects by the Aachen authorities. In order to ensure mass production, goldsmiths and die cutters cut hollow forms in soapstone or slate , which were then filled with the metal alloys. In the 15th century, three-circle pilgrimage signs were increasingly produced, in the middle of which the mirror was placed, which in the 16th century was often replaced by the Aachen city arms .
Few of the pilgrimage signs have survived due to their fragility. In Aachen itself a pilgrim's mark was only found during excavations at Ursulinerstraße 5, but it is also lost today. Numerous pilgrimage signs from the 14th and 15th centuries were found in the area of today's Netherlands ( Nieuwland , Dordrecht , Zutphen ), but there are also known finds of Aachen pilgrimage signs at Hohenbaden Castle and Alvastra Monastery (Sweden).  From 1450 Aachen pilgrim signs in rectangular frames are known, from 1475 pendants and medallions with the representation of the shrines dominated.
The eyelets occasionally attached to the side of the pilgrim and mirror signs were used to attach the devotional items to luggage or clothing and should thus represent a visible sign of participation in the pilgrimage. As a rule, the pilgrim sign enabled free board and lodging in hostels on the trip. After all, this was also the reason why pilgrim signs were forged en masse . However, the “legally valid” proof of being a participant in a pilgrimage was not the pilgrim's mark, but the pilgrimage slip issued in Aachen.  : 64
Most of the figurative traditions of pilgrim and mirror signs are preserved as decorations on bells. More than 90 bells are known,  : 64 that were decorated with the filigree plaques. The bell with the oldest pilgrimage sign was discovered in Heiligenstadt ; a mirror mark from 1370 was processed in it.
In addition to the decoration of the bells with the pilgrim signs, the processing had above all a deeply religious cause. It was assumed that the beneficial effect of the relic (reliquie représentative ), which was captured with the mirror, had also been transferred to the bell through the casting of the bell and that with each ring the blessing was transferred to those who heard the sound of the bell. 
Silk cards and souvenir pictures
The so-called silk cards have been a special souvenir of the Aachen sanctuary tour since the 19th century.  : 66 The colored cloths assigned to the respective relic, in which the sanctuaries in the Marian shrine were kept for seven years, are broken into small pieces after they have been removed cut, stuck on cards and the authenticity was certified by the cathedral treasurer. For many pilgrims, these cards were of particular importance because it was assumed that the power of the shrines was transferred to the small strips of fabric through touch.
In addition to the pilgrimage signs and silk cards, a large number of souvenirs of the pilgrimage to the shrine had been produced in Aachen since the Middle Ages, which were initially sold in small stalls at the cathedral and later throughout the city.
Souvenir cards, pilgrim candles, badges and pins were popular with the pilgrims, and from the end of the 19th century also photo series that were published in honor of the sanctuary tour with the sights of Aachen. In recent times, pilgrim shawls have been handed out to this day, which the Domschweizern brought into contact with the relic.
- Sanctuary tour Kornelimünster
- Sanctuary tour Mönchengladbach
- Sanctuary tour Maastricht
- Noli me tangere (small box)
- Christian Quix : Historical description of the Münsterkirche and the Sanctuary Tour in Aachen together with the history of the Johanni rulers. Math. Urlichs, Aachen 1825 ( archive.org , GenWiki )
- Franz Bock : The reliquary treasure of the Liebfrauen-Muenster in Aachen in its artful containers, in memory of the Shrine Tour in 1860. Self-published by the author, Aachen 1860. ( archive.org )
- The Aachen Sanctuary Tour. A feast for the pious pilgrims on the same. Urlichs, Aachen 1867 ( digitized version ).
- Description of the sanctuaries, which were gathered there by the great Emperor Charles in the coronation church, and which are publicly presented for worship every seven years during the journey to the sanctuary. Leuchtenrath, Aachen 1867 ( digitized version ).
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- Johann Hubert Kessel: Historical communications about the sanctuaries of the collegiate church in Aachen, together with a picture and description of the containers and bezels that contain them: Festschrift for the sanctuary tour of 1874. Cologne 1874 ( digitized version ).
- Charlemagne's sanctuary at Aachen. Brief description of the same with reflections and prayers at the public display; in memory of the Aachen Sanctuary Tour in 1874 with 30 explanatory woodcuts. Schwann, Cologne 1874 ( digitized version ).
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- Christoph Stender (text), Michael Lejeune (pictures): Locked and open. The castles of the Marienschreins and the sanctuary tour to Aachen. Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-7954-2835-8 .
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- Richard von Cornwallis's arms in the picture index of art and architecture .
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- Monica Paredis-Vroon: Metabolism: The four Aachen sanctuaries from a textile restoration point of view. In: Gormans, Markschies: Venite et videte. Art-historical dimensions of the Aachen sanctuary tour. Pp. 22-47.
- Other icons? Thoughts on the Aachen Shrine Tour - Bishop Klaus Hemmerle on the history of the relics.
- Stefanie Seeberg: Mary's dress, diapers and loincloth of Christ - On the history of the veneration and perception of textile relics of Christ and Mary in the Middle Ages and early modern times. In: Gormans, Markschies: Venite et videte. Art-historical dimensions of the Aachen sanctuary tour. Pp. 48-93.
- Statements of the diocese and the Aachen Cathedral Treasury in the Aachener Zeitung of May 28, 2007 .
- Monica Paredis-Vroon: Metabolism. The four Aachen sanctuaries from a textile restoration perspective . In: Gormans, Markschies: Venite et videte. Art-historical dimensions of the Aachen sanctuary tour. Pp. 23-47.
- Reliquary for the Belt of Mary in the Image Index of Art and Architecture .
- Reliquary for the Belt of Christ in the Image Index of Art and Architecture.
- Reliquary for the scourge rope of Christ in the picture index of art and architecture.
- Kustos (from the Latin custos 'guardian')
- cf. Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, p. 137.
- Stender, Lejeune: Locked and opened. The castles of the Marienschreins and the sanctuary tour to Aachen. P. 23.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, p. 138.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, p. 139.
- Stender, Lejeune: Locked and opened. The castles of the Marienschreins and the sanctuary tour to Aachen. Pp. 23-24.
- See Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, p. 140 mw N.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, pp. 140–141 mw N.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, p. 141.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, p. 143 mw N.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, p. 144.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, pp. 144–145 mw N.
- See Stender, Lejeune: Locked and opened. The castles of the Marienschreins and the sanctuary tour to Aachen. Pp. 24-25.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, p. 145 mw N.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, p. 147 mw N.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, pp. 148–149 mw N.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, p. 149.
- See Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, pp. 154–156 mw N.
- Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, p. 156 mw N.
- Letter from the then Lord Mayor Quirin Jansen to Bishop Vogt from July 7, 1937. Cf. Hans Siemons: The custodial right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, pp. 157-160 mw N.
- See Hans Siemons: The custody right of the city of Aachen to the four great sanctuaries and to three royal insignia. In: Journal of the Aachen History Association. Vol. 102, Aachen 1999/2000, pp. 160–163 mw N.
- Uta Scholten: "Oh, I have seen the proportioned columns that Carolus had brought from Rome ...". The Marienkirche in Aachen as reflected in the pilgrimage to the Shrine. In: Gottfried Kerscher (Ed.): Hagiography and Art. The cult of saints in writing, images and architecture. Reimer, Berlin 1993, ISBN 978-3-496-01107-1 , p. 200.
- See Kurt Josef Wecker: Thoughts and impulses on the sanctuary trips in the diocese of Aachen. ( Memento of April 7, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Article on the diocese website .
- Hans Jürgen Roth: House of two worlds - 1200 years of Aachen Cathedral . B. Kühlen, Mönchengladbach 1999, ISBN 3-87448-203-0 .
- Quoted in: Thea Winandy: Every seven years: Die Heiligtumsfahrt . In: Merian , issue 1/30 (January 1977): Aachen , p. 86.
- Information on the 2014 Shrine pages.
- Philippe de Vigneulles, based on the handwriting of the author by Heinrich Michelant (ed.): Memorial book of the Metz citizen Philippe von Vigneulles. From the years 1471–1522. Stuttgart 1852, pp. 173-180.
- Eduard Teichmann: To the sanctuary of Philippe von Vigneulles in the year 1510. In: Journal of the Aachener Geschichtsverein. Vol. 22, Aachen 1900, p. 152.
- Günter Mangelsdorf : The Aach Horn of Greifswald - a contribution to medieval Devotionalienkunde. In: Ground monument maintenance in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Jahrbuch Volume 39, 1991, pp. 219-225.
- Lutz Jansen: Aachen pilgrims in Upper Franconia. A remarkable ceramic find from the late Middle Ages from Bamberg. In: Archaeological correspondence sheet . Vol. 25, No. 4 (1995), pp. 421-434.
- Peter Rong: Medieval Aachen pilgrim signs from the 14th to 16th centuries. Aachen 2000, ISBN 3-00-006058-8 , 172 pp.
- Jörg Pöttgen: Bells in the late Gothic. Workshops from 1380 to 1550. Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne 1997, ISBN 3-7927-1699-2 , p. 200.