Aachen district - Aachener Revier
The Aachener Revier is the northeastern part of the Limburg coal mining area, which extends from Belgium via the Netherlands to the Wurm and Inde valleys in Germany . Other names are - depending on your point of view - Aachen-Hückelhovener Revier (because of the geographical extent) or Aachen-Eschweiler Revier (because of the EBV ). Even if the area was primarily characterized by hard coal , the deposits and mining of lead, cadmium, iron and zinc ores in the Eschweiler-Stolberg area are also included.
The hard coal deposits in the Aachen region are separated by the Aachener Sattel, which runs from south-west to north-east. In the north, the coal fields are in the Wurm lowlands and extend on the German side east to Aldenhoven. The southern deposits are located under the Inde lowlands. Four tectonic faults run across the Aachener Sattel: From west to east these are the Richtericher Sprung near Aachen, Feldbiss, Sandgewand between Alsdorf and Eschweiler and the Frauenrather Sprung near Aldenhoven.  The north of the Rur occurrence located extending into the Meinweg- and Schwalm nice area .
History of hard coal mining in the Aachen district
Beginnings in the Middle Ages
The origins of hard coal mining in the district lie in the river valleys of the Inde and Wurm, which cut the seams . The Aachen mining area is considered to be the oldest coal mining area in Europe , as evidence from 1113 and from the 13th century can be found in Kohlscheid and in the documents of the Rolduc monastery in Kerkrade (NL). The first documented mention of the Eschweiler Kohlberg , which suggests coal mining, dates from 1394 as "Koylberg zu Eschwylre" . Furthermore, the first signs of the use of coal can be found among the Celts and Romans such as thePropsteier Villa and in Korkus .
Age of industrialization
In 1841 the railway connection Cologne-Aachen of the Rheinische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft was completed and in 1853 the railway line Aachen – Mönchengladbach opened. This offered new sales channels for coal in the district via the Rhine ports of Neuss and Cologne. At the same time, the production was also in competition with the hard coal of the Ruhr area and the coal of the Liège area.
The number of mines operated over the centuries cannot be precisely determined. In the 19th century, ownership increasingly concentrated in the hands of a few mining associations and stock corporations. The Eschweiler Mining Association (EBV), founded by Christine Englerth in 1834, played the leading role . This was also the main shareholder of the "Pannesheider Mining Association" founded in 1842. This in turn merged until 1858 with the " Association for Hard Coal Construction in the Wurmrevier " founded in 1836 , so that the EBV gained increasing influence here and finally merged with the Association in 1907. In addition, the Sophia-Jacoba colliery has been a new competitor in the area since 1914on the Rur coal and in 1919 the Carolus Magnus mine in Übach-Palenberg began production. The Carl Alexander mine in Baesweiler, which opened in 1921 , was taken over by the Eschweiler Mining Association in 1965.
Shutdowns and end of coal production in the Aachen district
The mining ended in 1997 with the closure of the northernmost mine, the Sophia-Jacoba mine in Hückelhoven . Today, the numerous mine dumps , colliery settlements , administration buildings, water towers and the still-preserved winding towers of the Anna and Sophia-Jacoba collieries are a reminder of centuries of mining in the region. Occasionally, when developing new building sites, shafts below the surface have to be filled. Individual testimonies to mining history have been prepared as museums of industrial history. Corresponding museums can be found in Aldenhoven , Alsdorf and Hückelhoven and in the Netherlands in Kerkrade and Heerlen. Landmarks such as the Millicher heap or the heap of the Carl Alexander mine have been approved by the mountain authorities as recreational areas and are provided with viewing platforms as part of a cross-border heap route ("Route de terrils") of the Euregionale 2008 .
Hard coal mines (Aachen region)
- Sophia Jacoba mine (Hückelhoven)
- Atsch mine (Eschweiler)
- Aue pit ( Aue )
- Birkengang Pit (Eschweiler)
- Pit Centrum ( Pump-Stitch )
- Christine Pit (Pump-Stitch)
- Ichenberg mine (Eschweiler)
- James Pit ( Münsterbusch )
- Propstei mine (Eschweiler)
- Pit Reserve ( Nothberg , the last mine in the Indian region closed in 1944 due to the war)
- Weisweiler Pit ( Weisweiler )
- Mine Adolf ( Merkstein )
- Grube Alte Furth (Bardenberg)
- Anna mine (Alsdorf)
- Carl Alexander Pit ( Baesweiler )
- Carl-Friedrich mine ( Richterich )
- Carolus Magnus Pit ( Übach-Palenberg )
- Emil Mayrisch mine ( Siersdorf (Aldenhoven) , the last mine in the worm area closed in 1992)
- Community mine (Alsdorf-Duffesheide, never in operation as an independent mine)
- Gouley pit ( Würselen -Morsbach)
- Teut mine ( Würselen -Morsbach)
- Kämchen mine ( Kohlscheid )
- Königsgrube (Würselen)
- Laurweg mine ( Kohlscheid )
- Fat Maria ( Mariadorf )
- Neue Furth pit (Bardenberg)
- Nordstern mine (Merkstein)
- Grube Spidell (Kohlscheid)
- Sichelscheid mine (Kohlscheid)
- Hankepank pit (Kohlscheid)
- Voccart mine (Herzogenrath-Straß)
Hard coal mines (Limburg (Netherlands)) from the 19th century
- 1838–1904, Neuprick , Kerkrade, 1 Schacht
- 1911–1973, Emma State Mine , DSM, Hoensbroek , 4 Schächte
- 1915–63, State Mine Hendrik , DSM, Brunssum , 4 Schächte
- 1917–1973, Oranje Nassau Mine III, Heerlenerheide, 1 Schacht
- 1927–1966, Oranje Nassau Mine IV, Heerlen, 1 Schacht
- 1899–1974, Oranje Nassau Mine I , Heerlen, 3 Schächte
- 1904–1971, Oranje Nassau Mine II, Schaesberg , 2 Schächte
- 1906–69, Wilhelmina Mine , Terwinselen, Kerkrade, 2 Schächte
- 1902–1970, Wilhelm-Sophia Mine , DSM, Spekholzerheide, Kerkrade, 5 Schächte
- 1815–1969, Domaniale Mine , Kerkrade, 6 Schächte
- 1905–1968, Laura Mijn , Eygelshoven , 2 Schächte
- 1926–1974, Julia Mijn , Eygelshoven, 2 Schächte
- 1926–1967, Maurits State Mine , Lutterade / Geleen , 3 Schächte
- 1962, Beatrix State Mine , Herkenbosch
Ores in the Aachen district
- Albert Pit
- Glücksburg mine
- Birkengang zinc hut
- Muensterbusch zinc hut
- Steinfurt zinc smelter
- Zinc hut Velau
Lignite in the Aachen district
The lignite opencast mines in the city triangle of Düren / Eschweiler / Jülich mark the western part of the Rhenish lignite mining area .
- Friedrich Schunder: History of the Aachen hard coal mining. Glückauf Verlag, Essen 1968.
- Daniel Salber: The Aachen area. 150 years of coal mining at Wurm and Inde. Schweers + Wall publishing house, Aachen 1987.
- Eschweiler Bergwerks-Verein (ed.), Hans Jakob Schaetzke: History and stories of a mining company in the Aachen area. Aachen 1995, ISBN 3-923773-15-3 .
- Matthias Kaever: The social conditions in hard coal mining in the Aachen and South Limburg districts. (= Geography, Research and Science , Volume 3.) Berlin / Münster 2006.
- Anna Grube - Mining Information Center
- Mining and dumps in the Aachen area on gessen.de
- Industrial photography in the Aachen area
- Hansjakob Schaetzke: history and stories of a mining company in the Aachen area. Aachen 1995. pp. 10-12
- Dutch Production. ( MS Excel ; 50 kB) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on March 31, 2012 ; Retrieved November 29, 2012 .
- The Domaniale Mijn in Beeld. Archiviert vom Original am 27. September 2006 ; abgerufen am 29. November 2012 .
- Limburg mines - Laura mine. Abgerufen am 29. November 2012 .