Event - Acontecimiento

Attacks of September 11, 2001 . Events are usually dates that are remembered later because they mark a break, a "before" and an "after" it happened. They are often traumatic events.
Popular protest in Tahrir Square ( Egypt ), February 4, 2011.

The term event names the random, singular and continuous alteration whose effects modify the sense of the historical , the social or the political as well as the cultural .

In a more colloquial sense, it is everything that happens and has an unusual or exceptional character.

History

Crossing into West Berlin in 1989.

In the history traditional, [ 1 ] event was a remarkable fact that was presented in a unique and often unpredictably, and deserved to be preserved in the memory and recorded in writing or otherwise, that is, which broadly it deserved to be taken into account and related by historians because its on the historical evolution could become more or less transcendent. A historical event or historical event thus marks a break, a before and after; consult the articles " unforeseen consequences ", " historiography ", "Christian historiography "," feudalism " French revolution ", as well as the following references. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ]

A good example of a recent historical event is, for example, the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 , a specific event that had its antecedents and which by the way also had consequences ...

The renovation of the historical methodology that initiated the Annales school , devalues the concept of event [ 5 ] [ 6 ] placing it in the lowest stratum of his proposal, which consists of three layers as follows: [ 7 ]

  1. Evenemental history (in French : évènement , histoire évènementielle ) or history of events , as the lower level of historical time ( short time ). It would be the foam history ( Braudel ), [ 8 ] [ 9 ] ie more visible but less significant part, it has been the traditional object of historiography. [ 10 ]
  2. Intermediate level of the situation .
  3. Superior level of long life .

Philosophy

In a philosophical sense, every event is about the perseverance of an alteration in which multiple and heterogeneous random, singular and productive mechanisms of experiences and subjectivities come together, articulate and function, in a contingent and paradoxical sense. It can also be characterized as the articulation of bodies, political and social forces, way of life, collectivities, practices, forms of sensitivity, species of animals, plants and minerals, fictions, and so on. The event should not be confused with the term (miracle) in religion or theology that occurs surprisingly, outside of human interference and transforms determining laws. Nor should it be confused with the term fact, circumstance or event that theoretically implies something that has happened and cannot be altered. [ 11 ]

In contemporary metaphysics , the analysis of the concept must focus on the problem of individuationof event examples. One perspective argues that an event is the same when it has the same causes and the same effects. But other philosophers point out that causes and effects are inextricably associated with the corresponding event, and that they are its own. Another perspective admits that two events are identical, that is, they are the same, if they occur at the same time and place. But against this perspective there are arguments that defend that for an occurrence in the same place and at the same time, more than one event can be had. For example, suppose a scientist invents a new technique while taking a bath and whistling. So taking a bath, whistling, and inventing a new technique are actually three different events, all three of which are generated, at the same time and in the same place. [12]

Another central debate in philosophy is the following: How is it that events are to be understood? Similar to objects, as individual entities capable of being located in space and time, and described in various different ways, or they must be viewed as propositions or facts whose identity essentially depends on the concepts in which they are framed. Likewise, as the philosopher Abraham Rubín emphasizes, the belief that an event can come –savory or catastrophic– is something common to all unstable times, as is the perspective of social movements that ensures that this event can be caused by subjectivities. However, it is not clear that an event can be reduced, without more, to what happens in actual reality. [ 13 ]

A second model matches events and events, and therefore, for example, Juan arrived at the party , and Juan did not appear at the party , they are both events. In no way Juan's non-appearance at the party is a non-event, since for example it could have the same cause and effects. [ 14 ]

Another way to approach events is to divide them into actual (in the philosophical sense) and possible. The former are events that are occurring, or have already occurred, while the latter do not exist as an occurrence in the sense that it comes from being expressed, more could happen at a certain time. Possible events are actually contingent events, in the sense that they may or may not occur. This approach is related to the concept of possible worlds . More there are those who do not accept the idea of possible worlds, and they only consider that an event is something that in fact has already happened, or that is happening, or that at some point is going to happen; thus, only current events and states of affairs are events, thus rejecting the possibility of considering contingent events. [ 15 ]

There are different meanings as a certain type of event and a specimen event are considered. Type events are universal and abstract entities, not locatable neither in space nor in time. Example: the Olympic Games, which are that type of event that is repeated every four years, and which has those characteristics that most people know quite well. Specimen events are for their part particular entities, in the sense of unrepeatable and not exemplifiable; they are concrete, and situated in space and time. Example: The Olympic Games in 1936, was that particular edition that was held in Berlin in Hitler's time. Therefore, when referring to an event, and it is not specified which of the two senses is being applied, it is assumed by default that it is the specimen event that is of interest. Thus, it is something that happens, that takes place in a certain region of geography (of space) and in a certain interval of time (and this interval could be an instant, it could be of short duration, or it could cover several days as in the example given from the 1936 Olympic Games).

Finally, it should be noted that it is possible to divide events into two groups: (1) contingent; (2) non-contingent. A contingent event is an event that occurred but may not have occurred. A non-contingent event is an event that not only occurred, but could not have failed to occur. [ 15 ] This view is certainly rejected by many scholars, since possibly and in general terms, an event that has not yet occurred is always contingent; Of course, there are events that have not yet occurred but that will almost certainly occur, and as they say colloquially, except for reasons of force majeure. The contingency, in fact, is something marked etymologically in the term "event", as Rubín points out, since the allusion is always to two things that fall together or that touch, either by coincidence or by contiguity, that are next to each other. That is an event, what touches us, what falls together with us. [ 13 ]

In conclusion, every historical event is an event in the philosophical sense , although the reverse is obviously not true. An event may be trivial and unimportant at all, but if it has not happened yet or even though it may be happening, something unforeseen such as an accident or an attack can twist the course of things, and transform the event into transcendent or even historical. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ]

Notes and references

  1. Interpretation of the story
  2. Alan Arias Marín, María Teresa Calderón, François Furet: Thinking about the French Revolution
  3. Matías Gandolfo, The distinction of "bankruptcy" ( broken link available in Internet Archive ; see history and latest version ).
  4. Eduardo Walker, Notes: Bankruptcies Archived February 21, 2014 at the Wayback Machine .
  5. ^ Paulo Henrique Martinez, Remembering Fernand Braudel's centenary: Fernand Braudel and the first generation of university historians at USP (1935-1956), notes for study ( link available on the Internet Archive ; see the history and the latest version ). , Revista de História n.146, São Paulo, July 2002.
  6. Enrique Moradiellos García , Fernando Braudel (1902-1985): History without a subject , El Catoblepas, critical magazine of the present, number 4, June 2002.
  7. Carlos Antonio Aguirre Rojas, The Legacy of the Braudelian Annales: 1956-1968 Archived October 29, 2014 at the Wayback Machine . , quote from Fernand Braudel, by way of conclusion: Lucien Febvre liked problem history; I like the long-lasting one. and when I took the direction of the Annales , I fixed the line according to the long duration .
  8. the work of Ferdinand Braudel
  9. Alejandro Justiparan, The work of Ferdinand Braudel, "The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the time of Philip II , November 7, 2009.
  10. ^ Fernand Braudel, historian of the event
  11. Gilles Deleuze, Logic of Sense . Trad. by Miguel Morey and Víctor Molina. Barcelona, ​​Planeta-Agostini, 1994. [1]
  12. T. Mautner, The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy, Penguin Books Ltd, 1997, edición portuguesa 2010.
  13. to b Abraham Rubin live event. Approaches from contemporary thought . Santiago de Compostela, University of Santiago de Compostela, Publications and Scientific Exchange Service, 2016.
  14. ^ Simon Blackburn, Dictionary of Philosophy , Portuguese translation edited by Gradiva, 1997.
  15. ^ A b João Branquinho, Desidério Murcho, Nelson Gonçalves Gomes, Encyclopedia of Logical-Philosophical Terms , São Paulo, Martins Fontes, 2006.
  16. Annabel Lee Teles, Event and subjectivity (work made from two lectures given at AUPCV in May 2006) , on the ideas of Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze
  17. ^ Ricoeur and Foucault: towards a hermeneutics of the event , October 27, 2009.
  18. Adrián Bertorello, Mijaíl Mijáilovich Bakhtín: Event and language , UNED Revista Signa, number 18 year 2009, pp. 131-157.

See also

external links