The activism is the intense dedication to some line of action in public life, whether in the field social , as in the political , ecological , religious or other. Activism is also understood as the primordial estimation of action, as opposed to quietism . [ 1 ]
Uses and objectives
The press sometimes uses the term "activism" as a synonym for demonstration or protest. In political science it can also be synonymous with militancy , particularly in favor of a cause. Within the legal and electoral framework of representative democracies , it usually takes the form of lobbying - writing letters, holding meetings, or making expressions to the press and political leaders in favor of the preferred position; promoting or simply following certain behaviors that are designed or believed to contribute to the cause - such as boycottingcertain consumer products, or execute the preference for others in individual or group purchases, or carry out demonstrations or organized demonstrations, such as marches of supporters, obtaining signatures in favor of the cause, and others similar.
In its advance of the twenty-third edition, the Dictionary of the Spanish language defines activist as the "militant of a social movement, a trade union organization or a political party that actively intervenes in the propaganda and proselytizing of their ideas." [ 2 ]
Thus, activists often work in association with NGOs . Social and economic movements often generate or feed off activism. Relevant examples of activism include the social campaign initiated by university students against apartheid in South Africa , which put economic pressure on the regime of racial separation in that country, and strikes by workers' sectors demanding better working conditions and higher wages . The 2005 riots in Francecaused by the death of three young people could be an example of spontaneous activism as a generalized social protest, although they have not had a specific stated purpose or identified leadership. Another example is the YoSoy132 movement , organized in Mexico by students from private and public schools against first manipulation by the media (mainly Televisa ) regarding the political campaign for the presidential elections of July 2012 and later against the imposition of Enrique Peña Nieto as the winner of that electoral process, in what has come to be called the Mexican spring.
In the catholic church
In some cases, activism is understood as an exaggerated overestimation of active life, as an excess of uncontrolled activity, which contains elements of obsession or distraction. [ 4 ] This overestimation was also called Americanism or, in the words of Pius XII , heresy of action . Man, devoured by the fever of action, supposing that only by dint of actions change or improvement occurs, he indulges more and more in external activities, disregarding the interior life. The poet and Christian mystic Saint John of the Cross already warned of this :
Let those who are very active here notice, then, who think to gird the world with their preaching and external works, that they would make much more progress [...] leaving aside the good example that they would set of themselves, if they spent even half of this time spent with God in prayer ... Certainly then they would do more and with less work with an hour than with a thousand, deserving their prayer, and having gained spiritual strength with it; because otherwise, everything is hammering and doing little more than nothing, and sometimes nothing, and even sometimes damage. [ 5 ]Saint John of the Cross (1542-1591)
Types of activism
Activists can perform in a number of roles, including judicial, environmental, Internet (technology), and design (art). Historically, most activism has focused on creating substantial changes in the policy or practice of a government or industry. Some activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly (see also direct action ), rather than to persuade governments to change the laws. For example, the cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions that conform to cooperative principles and generally does not lobby or protest politically. Other activists try to persuade people or government policy to stay the same, in an effort tocounteract the change .
Activism is not always an activity carried out by those who profess activism as a profession. [ 6 ] The term ″ activist ″ can be applied broadly to anyone who engages in activism, or strictly limited to those who choose political or social activism as a characteristic vocation or practice.
Judicial and citizen activism
The judicial activism involves the efforts of public officials. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. , an American historian , public intellectual , and social critic , introduced the term "judicial activism" in a January 1946 Fortune magazine article titled "The Supreme Court: 1947." Activists can also be public watchdogs and whistleblowers , trying to understand all the actions of all forms of government acting on behalf of the people and holding them accountable to oversight and transparency. Activism involves a committed citizenry. [ 7 ]
Environmental activism takes several forms:
- the protection of nature or the natural environment driven by a utilitarian conservation ethic or a nature-oriented conservation ethic
- the protection of the human environment (by preventing pollution or protecting cultural heritage or quality of life)
- the conservation of exhaustible natural resources
- the protection of the function of critical elements or processes of the earth system such as the climate.
- Civic activist
- Social activist
- Political class
- Human rights defender
- Civil rights
- Animal rights
- Human rights
- Left politics
- social justice
- Mandate limitation
- Social movement
- Second superpower
- Royal Spanish Academy (2013). "Activism" . Dictionary of the Spanish language (DRAE) . Retrieved October 27, 2013 .
- Royal Spanish Academy (2013). Activist . Dictionary of the Spanish language (DRAE) . Retrieved October 27, 2013 .
- CV, DEMOS, Desarrollo de Medios, SA de. "La Jornada: Summons # YoSoy132 to the transformation of Mexico" . The Day . Retrieved March 22, 2018 .
- Ridruejo, Belén M. (2012). I will take her to silence . Madrid: Narcea Editions. p. 30. ISBN 978-84-277-1801-2 . Retrieved October 27, 2013 .
- Galilea, Segundo (1993). "The demons of the apostolate . " Temptation and discernment (2nd edition). Madrid: Narcea. p. 29. ISBN 84-277-0944-7 . Retrieved October 27, 2013 .
- «Introduction to Activism | Permanent Culture Now » . www.permanentculturenow.com . Retrieved April 12, 2021 .
- «Politically Active? 4 Tips for Incorporating Self-Care » . US News & World Report (in English) . Retrieved April 12, 2021 .
- Ciriza, Alejandra and Rodríguez Agüero, Eva (2004). Militancy, politics and subjectivity: the morality of the PRT / ERP . Santiago de Chile: University of Santiago de Chile. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012.
- Espinoza E., Vicente and Madrid P., Sebastián (2010). Trajectory and political effectiveness of the militants in political youths. Study of the emerging political elite . Mendoza: University of Cuyo.