Andalusia - Andalucía

Autonomous community

Flag of Andalucía.svg
Shield of Andalusia (oficial2) .svg

Motto : «Andalusia by itself, for Spain and Humanity»
Anthem : Anthem of Andalusia
Andalucia in Spain (including Canarias) (special marker).svg
Andalusia location
Coordinates 37°28′N 4°10′O / 37.46, -4.16Coordenadas: 37°28′N 4°10′O / 37.46, -4.16
Capital Seville (most populated city)
Official language Español
Entity Autonomous community
Country Spanish flag Spain
Parliament of Andalusia
Juan Manuel Moreno ( PP )
Subdivisions 8 provinces
785 municipalities
Surface Since two
• Total 87 599 km² (17,31 %)
• Media 3478 m s. n. m.
Population (2020) Since 1
• Total &&&&&&&&08 464 411,&&&&&08 464 411 [ 1 ] hab. ( 17.84% )
Density 96.63 hab / km²
Demonym Andalusian, -a [ 2 ]
START (nominal) 3rd place
• Total 155 213 mill. (2017)[3]
• PIB per cápita 18 557 (2017)[3]
IDH (2018) 0.862 ( 14th ) - Very high
Time zone UTC+01:00
• in summer UTC+02:00
Postal Code AN
ISO 3166-2 IT ON
Consideration Historical nationality [ 4 ]
Fiesta Day of Andalusia [ a ]
Statute of
As December 30 as 1981
19 as March as 2007 [ b ]
Official Web site
  1. It is celebrated on February 28 .
  2. The Statutes of Autonomy of Andalusia of 1981 and 2007 are available on Wikisource .

Andalusia is a Spanish autonomous community recognized as a historical nationality by its Statute of Autonomy , [ 4 ] made up of the provinces of Almería , Cádiz , Córdoba , Granada , Huelva , Jaén , Málaga and Seville . Its capital is Seville , seat of the Junta de Andalucía . The headquarters of the Superior Court of Justice of Andalusia is located in Granada .

It is the most populated autonomous community in the country (8,476,718 inhabitants in 2020) [ 1 ] and the second largest ( 87,268 km² ) —after Castilla y León— . It is located to the south of the Iberian Peninsula ; limiting to the west with Portugal , to the north with the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha , to the east with the Region of Murcia and to the south with the Atlantic Ocean , the Mediterranean Sea and Gibraltar . Across the Strait of Gibraltar, separated by 14 km in its narrowest part, are Morocco and Ceuta on the African continent . In 1981 it was established as an autonomous community, under the provisions of the second article of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, which recognizes and guarantees the right to autonomy of Spanish nationalities and regions. The process of political autonomy was carried out through the restrictive procedure expressed in article 151 of the Constitution, after the massive demonstrations of December 4, 1977 and the referendum of February 28, 1980, where the Andalusian people expressed their willingness to stand in the vanguard of the aspirations of self-government of the highest level in all the peoples of Spain. Andalusia was thus the only Community that had a specific source of legitimacy in its access to autonomy expressed at the ballot box through a referendum. In the preamble to the Andalusian Statute of Autonomy of 2007 it is stated verbatim that:

The Andalusian Manifesto of Córdoba described Andalusia as a national reality in 1919, whose spirit the Andalusians fully channeled through the process of self-government contained in our Magna Carta. In 1978 the Andalusians gave broad support to the constitutional consensus. Today, the Constitution, in its article 2, recognizes Andalusia as a nationality within the framework of the indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation. [ 5 ]

In the articles of the autonomous statute, Andalusia is granted the condition of historical nationality , reflecting the political identity of the Andalusian people as a result of its historical and cultural uniqueness. In the previous statute, the Statute of Autonomy of 1981 or the Statute of Carmona , was defined as "nationality".

The geographical setting is one of the elements that gives Andalusia its own uniqueness and personality . From the geographical point of view, three large environmental areas can be distinguished, made up of the interaction of the different physical factors that affect the natural environment: Sierra Morena - which separates Andalusia from the Plateau -, the Betic Systems and the Betic Depression that They individualize Upper Andalusia from Lower Andalusia .

The history of Andalusia is the result of a complex process in which different cultures and peoples merge over time, such as the Iberian , the Phoenician , the Carthaginian , the Roman , the Byzantine , the Andalusian , the Sephardic , and the Gypsy. and Spanish , which have given rise to the formation of Andalusian identity and culture .

At present, the economy of Andalusia is marked by the disadvantage of the region with respect to the Spanish and European global frameworks due to the late arrival of the industrial revolution , also hampered by the peripheral situation that Andalusia adopted in the international economic circuits . This resulted in a lower impact of the industrial sector on the economy, a great relative weight of agriculture and a hypertrophy of the services sector.


Map of the Iberian Peninsula dated 1770, where the kingdoms of Seville, Córdoba and Jaén are called "Andalusia", while the Kingdom of Granada appears separately.

The toponym "Andalusia" was introduced into the Castilian language during the 13th century under the form "Andalusia". It is about the Castilianization of al-Andalusiya , [ 6 ] gentilicio and Arabic adjective referring to al-Ándalus , the name that the territories of the Iberian Peninsula received under Islamic rule from 711 to 1492. Several etymologies have been proposed for this place name . The so-called Vandal thesis derives al-Ándalus from Vandalia or Vandalusia (land of the Vandals) and although it was widely spread from the 16th century on, it does not currently enjoy any scientific credit. [ 7 ] The so-called Visigothic thesis finds its etymological origin in the Visigothic name of the ancient Roman province Betica: Landahlauts . The Visigoths, occupying these lands, distributed them by lottery; the prizes that went to each of them and the corresponding lands were called "Gothica sortes", appearing in written sources, all in Latin, as Gothica sors (singular) as a designation of the Gothic kingdom as a whole. The corresponding Gothic designation, Landahlauts ('land of draw'), would be transformed according to this thesis into al-Andalus. [ 8 ] A third thesis, the Atlantic thesis, explains the appearance of the toponym al-Andalus as a corruption of the Latin Atlanticum . [ 9 ] Several sources such as the English Encyclopedia and scholars such as Dietrich Schwanitz and Heinz Halm, reaffirm theories of a place name formed even before the Arab occupation. [ 10 ]

Regarding its use, the term "Andalusia" has not always exactly referred to the territory today known as such. During the last phases of the Christian Reconquest , this name was granted exclusively to the south of the peninsula under Muslim rule, later remaining as the name of the last territory to be reconquered. [ 7 ] In the First General Chronicle of Alfonso X the Wise , written in the second half of the 13th century, the term Andalusia is used in three different meanings:

  1. As a simple translation of al-Andalus . The name of al-Andalus already appears in traditions and in Arabic poetry of the first period of Islam before the conquest. It appears in these eastern sources and in the first ones that narrate the conquest of Hispania as the name of an island, Chazirat al-Andalus, or of a sea, Bahr al-Andalus.
  2. To designate the territories conquered by the Christians in the Guadalquivir valley and in the kingdoms of Granada and Murcia . In fact, Alfonso X was titled King of Castile, León and all Andalusia in a document from 1253.
  3. To name the lands conquered by the Christians in the Guadalquivir valley ( Kingdoms of Jaén , Córdoba and Seville ). This third meaning would be the most common during the Late Middle Ages and the Modern Age . From an administrative point of view, the kingdom of Granada maintained its name and uniqueness within the Andalusian context [ 11 ] due, above all, to its emblematic character as the culmination of the Reconquest and for being the seat of the important Royal Chancery of Granada. However, the fact that the conquest and repopulation of this kingdom was carried out mainly by Andalusians, meant that during the Modern Age the notion of Andalusia was extended, in fact, to the set of four kingdoms, [ 12 ] frequently called the " four kingdoms of Andalusia ", at least since the middle of the 18th century. [ 13 ] [ 14 ]


Portrait of Blas Infante, made on tiles, located on the avenue of the same name in Jerez .

The shield of Andalusia shows the figure of a young Hercules between the two columns of Hercules that tradition places in the Strait of Gibraltar , with an inscription at the foot of a legend that says: "Andalusia by itself, for Spain and Humanity" , against the background of an Andalusian flag . The two columns are closed by a semicircular arch with the Latin words Dominator Hercules Fundator , also against the background of the Andalusian flag. [ 15 ]

The official flag of Andalusia is made up of three horizontal green, white and green bands, of equal size; on the central white band his shield is placed. It was created by Blas Infante and approved at the Ronda Assembly in 1918. Infante chose green as a symbol of hope and unity and white as a symbol of peace and dialogue. The choice of these colors is due to the fact that Blas Infante considered that they had been the most used throughout the history of the Andalusian territory. According to him, the banner of the Andalusian Umayyad dynasty was green and represented the convocation of the people. White, on the other hand, symbolized forgiveness among the Almohads, which in European heraldry is interpreted as parliament or peace. Other historical news justify the choice of flag colors. The Andalusian nationalists call it the Arbonaida , meaning "blanquiverde" in Mozarabic language .

The hymn of Andalusia is a musical composition by José del Castillo Díaz, director of the Municipal Band of Seville and commonly known as Maestro Castillo with lyrics by Blas Infante. The music is inspired by the Holy God , a popular religious song that peasants and day laborers from some Andalusian regions sang during the harvest in the provinces of Malaga, Seville and Huelva. [ citation needed ] Blas Infante brought this song to the attention of Maestro Castillo, who adapted and harmonized the melody . The lyrics of the anthem appeal to Andalusians to mobilize and ask for "land and freedom", through a process of agrarian reform and a statute of political autonomyfor Andalusia, within the framework of Spain .

The Andalusian Parliament unanimously approved in 1983 that, in the preamble to the Statute of Autonomy for Andalusia , Blas Infante be recognized as "Father of the Andalusian Homeland", recognition that was revalidated in the reform of said statute, submitted to a popular referendum on February 18, 2007.

The Andalusia Day is celebrated on February 28 and commemorates the referendum of 1980, which gave full autonomy to Andalusia after a long struggle through the procedure stipulated in Article 151 of the Constitution to those communities, such as Andalusia They had not approved a statute of autonomy during the Second Republic due to the outbreak of the Civil War .

The honorary title of Favorite Son of Andalusia is granted by the Junta de Andalucía to those who are recognized with exceptional merits that have benefited Andalusia, for their work or scientific, social or political actions. It is the highest distinction of the autonomous community.

Physical environment

Satellite view of Andalusia in June 2010.

One of the elements that gives Andalusia its own uniqueness and personality is its geographical setting. Seville historian Dominguez Ortiz summarizes this condition stating that: [ 11 ]

[...] it is necessary to look for the essence of Andalusia in its geographical reality, on the one hand and, on the other, in the consciousness of its inhabitants. From a geographical point of view, the whole of the southern lands is too vast and varied to encompass them all in one unit. Actually there are not two, but three Andalusia: the Sierra Morena, the Valley and the Penibética [...]

These three great environmental units are going to be the result of the conjunction of the different physical factors, where the relief plays a fundamental role.


The Guadiana International Bridge connects Andalusia with the Algarve .

Andalusia has an area of ​​87,268 km², which is equivalent to 17.3% of the Spanish territory, which is why it is comparable to many of the European countries, both for its surface area and for its internal complexity. To the east and west it borders the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal respectively, while to the north it is bordered by the Sierra Morena , which separates it from the Plateau and to the south by the Strait of Gibraltar , which separates it from the African continent .

Andalusia is located at a latitude between 36º and 38º44 'N, in the temperate-warm zone of the Earth, giving its climate very defining characteristics such as the mild temperatures and the dryness of its summers. However, in the broad framework defined by its limits, there are great internal contrasts. In this way, one goes from the extensive coastal plains of the Guadalquivir river - at sea level - to the highest areas of the peninsula in the Sierra Nevada . The dryness of the Tabernas desert contrasts with the Sierra de Grazalema Natural Park , the rainiest in Spain. [ 16 ] More significant, if possible, is the transit of the snowy peaks of theMulhacen to the subtropical coast of Granada, just 50 km . [ 17 ]


Location of the main climatic types of Andalusia.

Andalusia is entirely framed within the Mediterranean climate domain , characterized by the predominance of high summer pressures - the Azores anticyclone -, which result in the typical summer drought, sometimes broken by torrential rainfall and torrid temperatures. In winter, the tropical anticyclones move southward and allow the polar front to penetrate the Andalusian territory. Instability increases and rainfall is concentrated in the autumn, winter and spring periods. The temperatures are very mild. [ 18 ]

However, there is a great diversity of climatic types in the different areas of Andalusia, [ 19 ] originating a great richness and landscape contrasts that are increased by the arrangement of the orogens and their situation between two bodies of water with very different characteristics.

Rainfall decreases from west to east, the rainiest point being the Sierra de Grazalema (with the highest annual historical rainfall recorded in the entire Iberian Peninsula and Spain, in 1963: 4346 mm) [ 20 ] and the least rainy of continental Europe ( Cabo de Gata , 117 mm per year). The "humid Andalusia" coincides with the highest points of the community, especially the area of ​​the Serranía de Ronda and the Sierra de Grazalema. The Guadalquivir valley presents average rainfall . In the province of Almería is the Tabernas desert, the only desert in Europe. The rainy days a year are around 75, falling to 50 in the most arid areas. Thus, in much of Andalusia there are more than 300 days of sunshine a year, with Malaga and Almería being the Spanish cities with the most hours of light, 8.54 on average per day, according to data from the INE (National Institute of Statistics), that in 2017, it accumulated 3,820 hours of sunshine in both.

The average annual temperature in Andalusia is above 16 ° C, with urban values ​​ranging between 18.5 ° C in Malaga and 15.1 ° C in Baeza . [ 21 ] In much of the Guadalquivir valley and the Mediterranean coast, the average is around 18º. The coldest month is January (6.4 ° C on average in Granada ) and the hottest is July or August (28.5 ° C on average), Cordoba being the hottest capital followed by Seville .

The Guadalquivir valley has the highest temperatures in Spain, the peninsula and Europe, with a historical maximum of 46.9 ° C in Córdoba and 46.8 ° C in El Granado (Huelva). according to the AEMET . [ 22 ] Montoro recorded maximum temperature of 47.3 ° C on 13 July 2017. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] Although data of previous records, are very doubtful for being measured with inadequate instruments. The mountains of Granada and Jaén are the ones with the lowest temperatures in the entire south of the Iberian Peninsula. In the cold wave of January 2005, -21 ° C was reached in Santiago de la Espada(Jaén) and –18 ° C in Pradollano (Granada). Sierra Nevada has the lowest annual average temperature in the south of the peninsula (3.9 ° C in Pradollano) and its peaks remain snowy for most of the year.


Relief of Andalusia.

The relief is one of the main factors that configures the natural environment. The mountainous alignments and their arrangement have a special impact on the configuration of the climate, the fluvial network, the soils and their erosion, the bioclimatic floors and will even have an influence on the way natural resources are used. [ 25 ]

The Andalusian relief is characterized by the strong altitude contrast and the slope. Among its borders are the highest levels of the Iberian Peninsula and almost 15% of the territory above 1000 m; in front of the depressed areas, with less than 100 meters of altitude in the great Betic Depression . On slopes, the same phenomenon occurs.

As for the Andalusian coasts, the Atlantic coast is characterized by an overwhelming predominance of beaches and low coasts; for its part, the Mediterranean coast has a very important presence of cliffs, especially in the Axarquía of Malaga , Granada and Almería. [ 26 ]

The asymmetrical nature is such that it will set up a natural division between Upper and Lower Andalusia following the main units of relief: [ 27 ]

  • Sierra Morena , (with the Bañuela peak of 1323 m), at the same time that it marks a break between Andalusia and the Meseta, presents a great separation - increased by its depopulation - between the Sierra and the Campiña of Huelva, Seville, Córdoba and Jaén. However, its elevation is low and only Sierra Madrona manages to exceed 1,300 m asl at its highest point, La Bañuela (outside Andalusia). Within this mountainous system it is worth highlighting the Despeñaperros gorge , which constitutes the natural border with Castile.
  • The Betic Mountain Ranges ( Penibetic and Subbetic ) run parallel to the Mediterranean and are not aligned, leaving the Intrabetic Furrow between them . The Subbético is very discontinuous, so it has numerous corridors that facilitate communication. On the contrary, the Penibético acts as an insulating barrier between the Mediterranean coast and the interior. [ 28 ] The highest heights in Andalusia are found in Sierra Nevada , in the province of Granada ; there are the highest levels of the Iberian Peninsula : Mulhacén peak (3478 m) and Veleta (3392 m).
  • The Betic Depression is between the two systems. It is a flat territory almost entirely, open to the Gulf of Cádiz to the southwest. Throughout history, this has been the main population axis of Andalusia.


Rivers and basins of Andalusia.

Through Andalusia there are rivers of the Atlantic and Mediterranean slopes. The Guadiana , Piedras , Odiel , Tinto , Guadalquivir , Guadalete and Barbate rivers belong to the Atlantic slope ; while to the Mediterranean slope correspond the Guadiaro , Guadalhorce , Guadalmedina , Guadalfeo , Andarax (or Almería river) and Almanzora . Among them, the Guadalquivir stands out for being the longest river in Andalusia and the fifth in the Iberian Peninsula (657 km). [ 29]

The rivers of the Atlantic basin are characterized by being extensive, flowing for the most part through flat lands and irrigating extensive valleys. This character determines the estuaries and marshes that form at their mouths, such as the Doñana marshes formed by the Guadalquivir river and the Odiel marshes . The rivers of the Mediterranean basin are shorter, more seasonal and steeper on average, resulting in less extensive estuaries and valleys less prone to agriculture. The leeward effect caused by Betic Systems causes their contributions to be reduced. [ 27 ]

Andalusian rivers are framed in five different hydrographic basins: the Guadalquivir basin , the Andalusian Atlantic Basin , which includes the Guadalete-Barbate and Tinto-Odiel sub-basins and the Guadiana basin , which would make up the Atlantic slope. In the Andalusian Mediterranean basin are the rivers that flow into the Mediterranean . Also in Andalusia there is a small part of the Segura river basin . [ 30 ]


The pedogénesis is a synthetic process in which other natural factors, both biotic and abiotic involved. Therefore, it is not surprising that, depending on the predominant soil type, Andalusia can be divided into three large landscape units. [ 31 ]

The Guadalquivir as it passes through Córdoba .

In Sierra Morena, due to its morphology and its acid soils, mainly shallow and poor soils develop with a forestry vocation. In the valleys and in limestone areas, deeper soils occur where there is a poor cereal agriculture normally associated with the cattle herd. Something similar happens in Betic Systems. Its morphostructural complexity makes it the area with the most heterogeneous soil and landscape in Andalusia. In very broad strokes, it should be noted - unlike the other great montane area of ​​Andalusia - the existence of a predominance of basic materials in the Subbético , which together with the ridged morphology, generate deeper soils with greater agronomic capacity, mainly used in the cultivation of olive groves. [ 32] Finally, we must highlight theBetic Depressionand theIntrabetic Furrow, as the main areas for the development of deep, rich soils with great agronomic capacity. It is necessary to differentiate the alluvial soils with a loamy texture and especially suitable for intensive irrigated crops, where those of the Guadalquivir valley and theGranada plain stand out. [ 33 ]

On the other hand, in the undulating areas of the countryside, there is a double dynamic: in the troughs - filled with older limestone materials - where very deep clay soils have developed, called bujeo soils or Andalusian black earths where the herbaceous crops in dry land. In the hilly areas, another very typical soil has developed - albariza - with very favorable conditions for growing grapes. [ 34 ]

The little consolidated sandy soils —mainly on the Huelva and Almeria coastlines—, despite their marginality, in recent decades have taken on great relevance thanks to the forced cultivation of vegetables and berries — strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, among others— under plastic.


Flora and fauna


Chorological or phytogeographic provinces of Andalusia.

Andalusia, biogeographically speaking, is part of the Holartic Kingdom , specifically the Mediterranean Region , the Western Mediterranean subregion and is made up of five phytogeographic sectors : the Marian-Monchiquense sector, the Gaditano-Aljíbico and Onubense sector, the Betic sectors, the Almeria sector and the Manchego sector. These sectors belong to as many Iberian chorological provinces or subprovinces.

Generally speaking, the typical vegetation of Andalusia is the Mediterranean forest , characterized by evergreen and xerophilous vegetation, adapted throughout the summer period of drought. The climatic and dominant species is the oak , although cork oaks , pines , firs , among others, and of course the olive and almond trees as cultivated species are abundant . The dominant understory is composed of spiny and aromatic woody species: species such as rosemary , thyme and rockrose.They are very typical of Andalusia. In the most humid areas with acidic soils, the most abundant species are oak and cork oak, and as a cultivated species, eucalyptus stands out . In this context is the greatest mycological biodiversity in Europe. [ 35 ] There are also abundant gallery forests of leafy species: poplars and elms , and even poplar as a cultivated species in the Granada plain. [ 36 ]


The biodiversity existing in Andalusia extends to fauna . In this way, more than 400 species of vertebrates of the 630 existing in Spain inhabit this autonomous community. Its strategic position between the Mediterranean basin, the Atlantic Ocean and the Strait of Gibraltar , makes Andalusia one of the natural passages for thousands of migratory birds that travel between Europe and Africa . [ 37 ] Andalusian wetlands are home to a very rich birdlife, due to the combination of species of African origin, such as the horned coot , the swamphen or the flamingo., with birds from northern Europe, such as geese . Among the raptors , the imperial eagle , the griffon vulture and the kite stand out .

As for herbivores , there are deer , fallow deer , roe deer , mouflon and the ibex , the latter in decline compared to the rui , an invasive species introduced from Africa for hunting purposes in the 1970s. Among the small herbivores the hare stands out and the rabbit , which constitute the basis of the diet of most of the carnivorous species of the Mediterranean forest .

Large carnivores such as the Iberian wolf and the Iberian lynx are highly threatened and are limited to Doñana, Sierra Morena and Despeñaperros. The wild boar , on the other hand, is well preserved for its hunting importance. More abundant and in different conservation situation, are the smaller carnivores, such as the otter , the fox, the badger , the polecat , the weasel , the wild cat , the genet and the mongoose are more abundant . [ 38 ]

Other notable species are the ocellated lizard , the snout viper and the Aphanius baeticus or Andalusian salinete, the latter highly threatened.

Invasive species

According to the "Catalog of Species included in the Andalusian Program for the Control of Invasive Exotic Species", [ 39 ] in Andalusia there is a large number of both animal and plant species that have been introduced into the Andalusian ecosystem. Among them, invasive species are the most dangerous for the conservation of the biodiversity of Andalusian ecosystems.

Invasive species that manage to adapt to the new environment, become strong in it and even decimate the population of native species . These exotic species can reach the new environment in various ways: abandonment of pets in the new ecosystem, destruction carried out by man of their previous ecosystem, implantation carried out by man in the new ecosystem to alleviate a problem ... The reasons are diverse , but the solutions are similar in all cases since what is tried is to progressively decrease the population of the invasive species.

In Andalusia, invasive species are both animals and plants, for example:

  • Cat's claw : it is distributed on the coasts of western Andalusia ( Huelva and Cádiz especially). It was introduced for decorative use and for fixing dunes and slopes on the coast. It causes the displacement of coastal dune species, the reduction of incident light on the ground and the germination of autochthonous species, and it is the competence of native species in pollination .
  • Eucalyptus : it is spread throughout the Andalusian territory since it was introduced for forestry and soil fixing purposes. Above all, it causes the reduction of the vegetation cover and the displacement of native plants, overexploitation of aquifers .
  • Chumbera : widespread throughout the community, especially on the coast. It was introduced with ornamental use and hedge formation . As a secondary use, it has also been used as a forage plant for livestock and a producer of fruits for human consumption. It is a plant that invades coastal ecosystems of interest ( dune systems , forests and coastal scrublands) in which it competes with native flora species.
  • American river crab : it is distributed throughout the Andalusian territory. It was the fishermen who introduced him in voluntary releases for fishing. It has many negative effects on the native flora and fauna through predation. It even competes with native species of other crabs due to its larger size, its reproductive rate and its resistance to pests. Its main impact is being a vector for the fungus Aphanomices astaci , which causes apanomycosis and is fatal to the native crab ( Austropotamobius pallipes ). They also excavate galleries that increase the erosion of the river banks .
  • Common carp : it is present in rivers throughout Andalusia. It is very abundant in reservoirs and in the middle and lower reaches of rivers with more flow. It was introduced voluntarily by fishermen for sport fishing . Common carp is the cause of serious ecological imbalances. It is related to an increase in the turbidity of the water surface due to its movements and its excrement. The increase in turbidity is responsible for less penetration of sunlight and, consequently, for the disappearance of submerged macrophytes , indirectly affecting invertebrates and aquatic birds .
  • Galápago de Florida : it was introduced in Spain in the 1980s. In Andalusia it is distributed by different coastal wetlands, although it can also be found in lakes and ponds such as those in peri-urban parks. Its introduction was due to the voluntary or involuntary release of animals raised as pets . It is a voracious predator of invertebrates, fish and amphibians as well as sessile and floating aquatic vegetation. It competes with other Galapagos species that it displaces, such as the European pond turtle . It has adapted very well to the environment since it is able to live in natural conditions that the other Galapagos species do not tolerate (greater contamination and human presence).
  • Kramer's Parakeet : arrived in Spain in the mid-1980s and has spread to parks and gardens in Almería , Granada , Málaga and Seville . Like other exotic birds, its introduction into the Andalusian ecosystem was caused by the involuntary release of animals raised as pets. It is a great competition for nests with bats and woodpeckers (Picidae). It is in competition in the food chain with the common blackbird , the blackcap and with other granivores and frugivores .
  • Micropterus salmoides : commonly known as black bass.

Natural spaces

Natural Areas of Andalusia

Andalusia has a large number of natural spaces and ecosystems of great uniqueness and environmental value. Its importance and the need to make the conservation of its values ​​compatible with its economic use have fostered the protection and management of the most representative landscapes and ecosystems of the Andalusian territory. [ 40 ] [ 41 ]

The different protection figures are included within the Network of Protected Natural Spaces of Andalusia (RENPA), which integrates the natural areas located in the Andalusian territory protected by some regulations in the autonomous, national, community or international agreements. RENPA is made up of 150 protected areas divided into 2 National Parks , 24 Natural Parks , 21 Periurban Parks, 32 Natural Sites, 2 Protected Landscapes, 37 Natural Monuments, 28 Nature Reserves and 4 Concerted Nature Reserves, all of them included in the Nature Network. 2000 of European scope. At the international level, it is necessary to highlight the 9 Biosphere Reserves , 20Ramsar Sites , 4 Specially Protected Areas of Importance for the Mediterranean -ZEPIM- and 2 Geoparks . [ 42 ]

Mazagón and La Verdina in the belt of the main natural area of ​​Andalusia, Doñana.

In total, practically 20% of the Andalusian territory is under the protection of some regulations in the different areas, which represents approximately 30% of the protected territory in Spain. [ 42 ] Among the many spaces , the Sierra de Cazorla, Segura and Las Villas Natural Park, the largest natural park in Spain and the second in Europe, the Sierra Nevada National Park , Doñana and the sub-desert areas of the Desierto de Taverns and the natural park of Cabo de Gata-Níjar .


The history of Andalusia, as a region first Castilian and then Spanish, began in the 13th century, with the conquest of the kingdoms of Córdoba , Seville and Jaén , continued with the conquest of the Nasrid Emirate of Granada in the 15th century and culminated in substance with the territorial division of Spain in 1833 and the constitution of Andalusia as an autonomous community of Spain, after the referendum on the initiative of the autonomic process of Andalusia in 1980. However, it is also relevant to briefly expose the previous history of the territory currently integrated into that nationality historical.

The geostrategic position of Andalusia in the extreme south of Europe, between Europe and Africa, between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, as well as its mineral and agricultural wealth and its large surface area of ​​87 597 km² (greater than many of the European countries), they form a conjunction of factors that made Andalusia a focus of attraction for other civilizations since the beginning of the Metal Age . [ 43 ]

In fact, its geographical location as a link between Africa and Europe, makes some theories point to the fact that the first European hominids, after passing through the Strait of Gibraltar , were located in the Andalusian territory. The first cultures developed in Andalusia ( Los Millares , El Argar and Tartessos ), had a clear oriental nuance, due to the fact that peoples from the eastern Mediterranean settled on the Andalusian coasts in search of minerals and left their civilizing influence. The process of passing from prehistory to history, known as protohistory , was linked to the influence of these peoples, mainly Greeks and Phoenicians., a broad historical moment in which Cádiz was founded , the oldest city in Western Europe, followed in antiquity by another Andalusian city: Malaga . [ 44 ]

Partial view of the forum of the ruins of Baelo Claudia .

Andalusia was fully incorporated into the Roman Empire with its conquest and Romanization , creating the province of Baetica , a subdivision of a primitive province dating from the Roman conquest called Hispania Ulterior . Given its status as a senatorial province due to its high degree of Romanization, it was the only province in Hispania to hold this condition, it had great economic and political importance in the Empire , to which it contributed numerous magistrates and senators, in addition to the outstanding figures of the emperors Trajan and Hadrian .

The Germanic invasions of the Vandals and later of the Visigoths did not make the cultural and political role of Betica disappear, and during the 5th and 6th centuries the Bethic-Roman landowners practically maintained an independence from Toledo. In this period figures such as Saint Isidore of Seville or Saint Hermenegildo stood out .

In 711 there was an important cultural break with the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula . The Andalusian territory was the main political center of the different Muslim states of al-Andalus , Cordoba being the capital and one of the main cultural and economic centers in the world at that time. This period of flowering culminated in the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba , where figures such as Abderramán III or Alhakén II stood out . Already in the 11th century there was a period of serious crisis that was taken advantage of by the Christian kingdoms of the northern peninsula to advance their conquests and by the different North African empires that were succeeding each other -Almoravids and Almohads - who exercised their influence in al-Andalus and also established their centers of power on the peninsula in Granada and Seville, respectively. Between these periods of centralization of power, its produced the political fragmentation of the peninsular territory, which was divided into first, second and third kingdoms of taifa . Among the latter, the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada played a fundamental historical and emblematic role.

The Crown of Castile was gradually conquering the territories of the south of the peninsula. Fernando III personalized the conquest of the entire Guadalquivir valley in the 13th century. The Andalusian territory was divided into a Christian and a Muslim part until in 1492 the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula ended with the taking of Granada and the disappearance of the homonymous kingdom .

It was in the sixteenth century when Andalusia further exploited its geographical position, since it centralized trade with the New World , through the Casa de Contratación de Indias, based first in Seville , which became the most populated city of the Spanish Empire and two centuries later in Cádiz until its disappearance in that same century. After the arrival of Christopher Columbus in America , Andalusia played a fundamental role in its discovery and colonization. However, there was no real economic development in Andalusia due to the numerous Crown companies in Europe. Social and economic wear and tear became general in the 17th century and culminated in the conspiracy of the Andalusian nobility against the government of the Count-Duke of Olivares in 1641.

In the middle of the 16th century, some inhabitants of Andalusia and Extremadura emigrated to New Spain , influenced by Carlos I and, later, by his son Felipe II , settling in the current states of Veracruz , Hidalgo and the State of Mexico , and in the region sociocultural of El Bajío , thus contributing to the nascent Spanish culture in Mexico .

The Bourbon reforms of the 18th century did not prevent Spain in general and Andalusia in particular from losing political and economic weight in the European and world context. Likewise, the loss of the Spanish overseas colonies will gradually take Andalusia out of the mercantile economic circuits .

Execution of Torrijos on the beach of San Andrés de Málaga in 1831. Painting by Antonio Gisbert Pérez from 1888 (Museo del Prado).

This situation improved during the following century as Andalusian industry had an important weight in the Spanish economy during the 19th century. In 1856, Andalusia was the second Spanish region in terms of degree of industrialization. A century later, it was practically at the bottom, with an industrialization index lower than 50 percent of the average Spanish level. While between 1856 and 1900 Andalusia had an industrialization index higher than the national average in the branches of food, metallurgy, chemistry and ceramics, from 1915 this supremacy was reduced to the branches of food and chemistry. [ 45 ]

After that expansive century, during most of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st, Andalusia, despite the fact that it became an autonomous community in 1981, failed to match its development rates to the rest of Spain, being the region with the highest unemployment rates. the whole EU and lower income per capita in the country. [ 46 ] [ 47 ]

Autonomous government and administration

Andalusia acceded to autonomy through the so-called aggravated route or procedure, contained in article 151 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 . The process required that the initiative be approved by an absolute majority of the voters in the proposed community and in each province and not by a majority of the votes cast. Although the initiative obtained majority support throughout Andalusia, the majority required in the province of Almería was lacking (see Referendum on the initiative of the autonomous process of Andalusia), where although a majority of the votes was reached, abstention did not allow the majority of voters to be reached. The situation presented a problem because Article 151 itself mandates a 5-year waiting period in the event of failure, which was ultimately not considered and the actual majority obtained was taken into account. Following this procedure, the Autonomous Community of Andalusia was established on February 28, 1980 after holding a referendum, [ 48 ]Declaring in Article 1 of its Statute of Autonomy (1981) that such autonomy is justified in the "historical identity, in the self-government that the Constitution allows all nationalities, in full equality to the rest of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain, and with a power that emanates from the Constitution and the Andalusian people, reflected in its Statute of Autonomy ". [ 49 ]

In October 2006 the Constitutional Commission of the Cortes Generales approved with the favorable votes of the PSOE, IU and PP a new Statute of Autonomy , whose preamble mentions, firstly, that in the Andalusian Manifesto of 1919 Andalusia was described as a national reality, to continue exposing its current status as a nationality within the indissoluble unity of the Spanish Nation. Later, in its articles, it defines itself, more specifically, as a historical nationality , [ 50 ] unlike the previous statute (from 1981) where it was defined simply as a nationality . [ 51 ]

On November 2, 2006, the Congress of Deputies ratified the text of the Constitutional Commission with 306 votes in favor, none against and two abstentions, being the first time that an Organic Law of a Statute of Autonomy has been approved without any vote. against. It was approved by the Senate, in a plenary session held on December 20, 2006, and ratified in a referendum by the Andalusian people on February 18, 2007.

The Statute of Andalusia regulates the various institutions in charge of government and administration within the Community. The Junta de Andalucía is the main institution in which the government is organized. On the other hand, there are other institutions of self-government: the Andalusian Ombudsman , the Advisory Council , the Chamber of Accounts , the Audiovisual Council of Andalusia and the Economic and Social Council .

Junta de Andalucía

Palacio de San Telmo in Seville , seat of the Presidency of the Junta de Andalucía

The Junta de Andalucía is the institution in which the self-government of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia is organized. It is made up of: the president of the Junta de Andalucía who is the supreme representative of the autonomous community and the ordinary representative of the State in it. His election takes place by the favorable vote of the absolute majority of the Plenary of the Parliament of Andalusia and his appointment corresponds to the king . [ 52 ] The Chairman of the Board is Juan Manuel Moreno Bonilla .

The Governing Council, which is the highest political and administrative body of the Community, which is responsible for the exercise of regulatory authority and the performance of the executive function . [ 53 ] It is made up of the president of the Junta de Andalucía, who presides over it, and by the councilors appointed by him to take charge of the various Departments ( Councils ). This structure is established by the Decree of the President 6/2019, of February 11, which modifies the Decree of the President 2/2019, of January 21, of the Vice Presidency and on restructuring of Ministries. During the XI legislature (started in 2019) the Government of Andalusia is composed of:

The Parliament of Andalusia is the autonomous legislative assembly , which is responsible for the preparation and approval of the Laws and the election and removal of the president of the Junta de Andalucía. [ 54 ]

The elections to the Parliament of Andalusia are the democratic formula by which the citizens of Andalusia elect their 109 political representatives in the autonomous chamber. After the approval of the Statute of Autonomy of Andalusia through Organic Law 6/1981 of December 30, 1981, the first elections to its autonomous Parliament were called for May 23, 1982. Subsequently, elections were held in 1986 , 1990 , 1994 , 1996 , 2000 , 2004 , 2008 , 2012 , 2015 and 2018 .

PSOE PP[55] IU [ 56 ] PA [ 57 ] UCD Can Citizens Forward Andalusia Vox Total
More list
I 1982 52,56%
II 1986 47,22%
III 1990 50,12%
IV 1994 38,71%
V 1996 44,05%
WE 2000 44,32%
VII 2004 50,36%
VIII 2008 42,41%
IX 2012 39,56%
X[58] 2015 35,43%
XI [ 59 ] 2018 27,95%
PP + Citizens

Power of attorney

Royal Chancery of Granada , seat of the Andalusian judicial power.

The highest judicial body of the autonomous community is the Superior Court of Justice of Andalusia , based in Granada, before which successive procedural instances are exhausted without prejudice to the jurisdiction that corresponds to the Supreme Court . However, the Superior Court of Justice of Andalusia is not a body of the autonomous community but is part of the Judicial Power , which is the only one in the whole Kingdom and cannot be transferred to the autonomous communities. The Andalusian territory is divided into 88 judicial parties . [ 60 ]

Territorial organization


Andalucía is divided into eight provinces , created by Javier de Burgos by Royal Decree of 30 November 1833 , which are as follows: [ 61 ]

Andalusia blank map.svg
# province Population Surface ( km² ) Municipalities
Judicial Parties
1 Flag of Diputacion de Sevilla Spain.svg Sevilla 1 939 887 14 042 106 15
2 Flag Málaga Province.svg Málaga 1 641 121 7308 103 11
3 Flag Cádiz Province.svg Cádiz 1 238 714 7436 45 14
4 Flag of the province of Granada (Spain) .svg Granada 912 075 12 531 174 9
5 Province of Córdoba - Bandera.svg Córdoba 785 240 13 550 77 12
6 Flag Almería Province.svg Almeria 709 340 8 774 103 8
7 Flag of the province of Jaén.svg Jaén 638 099 13 489 97 10
8 Flag of the Province of Huelva.svg Huelva 519 932 10 148 80 6
Municipalities of Andalusia.

In Andalusia there are 785 municipalities divided between the eight provinces. [ 61 ] The municipal entities in Andalusia are regulated by the Statute of Autonomy of Andalusia in Title III, in the articles ranging from 91 to 95, where it is established that the municipality is the basic territorial entity of Andalusia, within the that it enjoys its own legal personality and full autonomy in the field of its interests. Its representation, government and administration correspond to the respective City Councils, which have their own competences on matters such as urban planning , community social services, water supply and treatment , collection andwaste treatment and the promotion of tourism , culture and sports, among other matters established by law. [ 62 ]

Local Entities

The separate population centers within a municipal term have access to the administration of their own interests, becoming autonomous local entities under the name of districts , towns , villages , or any other recognized implantation in the place, in accordance with the principle of maximum proximity of administrative management to citizens. [ 61 ]

Regional map of Andalusia.

The Andalusian regions have never been officially regulated as in other regions, but are recognized by geographic, cultural, historical or administrative reasons. This has been echoed in the new Statute of Autonomy in which the regions are mentioned in Article 97 of Title III, which defines the meaning of region and lays the foundations for future legislation on them. [ 63 ]

The current figure that is closest to the definition of a region given by the statute is that of a commonwealth , so these could possibly become the germ of future Andalusian regions. On the other hand, the development of the LEADER and PRODER groups, created with the purpose of requesting European aid for rural development, is also gaining a certain dimension. At present, practically all the Andalusian municipalities are part of one of these groups, with the exception of the provincial capitals and their metropolitan areas. These groups are formed by municipalities freely united by their economic interests and are endowed with funds in many cases used for the external diffusion of their identity.


The Andalusian associations [ 61 ] are an instrument for the socioeconomic development of the region or regions on which they act in coordination with the town councils of the municipalities that comprise it, the Junta de Andalucía , the General Administration of Spain and the European Union . [ 64 ]

Notwithstanding the foregoing, Andalusia has traditionally been divided into two large subregions: Upper or Eastern Andalusia (Almería, Granada, Jaén and Málaga provinces ) and Lower or Western Andalusia (Huelva, Seville, Cádiz and Córdoba provinces).


Andalusia is the first Spanish autonomous community in terms of its population, which as of January 1, 2018 stood at 8,384,408 inhabitants with 82 municipalities with more than 20,000 inhabitants. [ 65 ] This population is concentrated, above all, in the provincial capitals and in the coastal areas, so the level of urbanization in Andalusia is quite high; half of the Andalusian population is concentrated in the twenty-nine cities with more than fifty thousand inhabitants. The population is aging, although the immigration process is favorably altering the inversion of the population pyramid. [ 66 ]


Evolution of the population in Andalusia
Source: Statistical Institute of Andalusia

On the threshold of the 20th century, Andalusia was immersed in the last phase of the demographic transition . Mortality stagnated around 8-9 ‰, so the birth rate and migratory movements marked the evolution of the population. [ 67 ]

Population by municipalities in Andalusia in 2018. [ 68 ]

In 1950 the weight of the Andalusian population with respect to the national one was 20.04%, while in 1981 it would drop to 17.09%. In these decades the slow decline in population, caused by emigration, could not be counteracted by the higher birth rate compared to other regions of Spain. The average annual growth was much more moderate than in previous dates.

Starting in the 1980s, the opposite process occurred. The birth rate suffered a sharp decline, as in the rest of Spain and in developed countries . However, in the Andalusian community the decline was slower and this transition was prolonged. The basis therefore of its relative demographic recovery with respect to Spain is the return of immigrants to Andalusia. During the 1990s a new immigration phenomenon that will affect both Andalusia and the rest of Spain. [ 69 ]

At the beginning of the 21st century a slight rebound in the birth rate is observed, largely conditioned by the increase in births of children of immigrants, which together with the traditional vitality of the Andalusian population, leaves a more favorable outlook for the rejuvenation of the population than in other communities in Spain and European countries. In 2018, the weight of the Andalusian population with respect to the total of Spain is 17.98%. [ 70 ]


Population density of the Andalusian municipalities in 2018 [ 68 ]

The distribution of the population is a factor of imbalance and contrast between the different areas of the Andalusian geography. In 2018, the Andalusian population density was 96.08 inhabitants / km², practically 4.2% above the national population, which is 92.21 inhabitants / km². [ 65 ]

In an analysis of the provincial distribution in 2008, the concentration of large cities around the Guadalquivir - Genil axis and the Mediterranean coast is clear. The provinces of Seville , Malaga and Cádiz stand out in this imbalance with respect to the rest of Andalusia. Between these three provinces they account for 57% of the total population. Regarding the percentage of population in the capitals, in 1991 it was 34.68% of the total; in 2007 the figure dropped to 29.75% due to the increase in population in urban areas and in the coastal zone. Among the six most populated cities in Spain, two of them are Andalusian, Seville with 700,000 inhabitants andMalaga with 568,000 inhabitants, in addition Córdoba has more than 300,000 inhabitants and two other municipalities have more than 200,000 inhabitants ( Granada and Jerez ).

Population growth by municipality between 1998 and 2008.

Continuing the analysis in 2018 we see how population growth stagnates, continuing the loss of significant population in the areas of the mountains ( Sierra Morena and Cordilleras Béticas ) while it continues to increase in the coast and metropolitan areas, mainly in the metropolitan area from Seville and the Malaga metropolitan area .

Population growth by municipality between 2008 and 2018


Evolution of the natural growth of the Andalusian population
Structure of the population by age in Andalusia. Comparison 2008-1986.

At the beginning of the XXI century, the population structure of Andalusia denotes a clear demographic maturity, the result of the long process of demographic transition that lasted in Andalusia until well into the XX century. [ 71 ]

Observing the comparison between the years 1986 and 2008, the changes in the structure of the population can be explained:

  1. A clear decrease in the young population, due to the significant decrease in the birth rate.
  2. Increase in the adult population, due to the entry into adulthood of the large contingent of the population born after the economic boom of the 60s - baby boom -. To this fact must be added the large contribution of the immigrant population, usually in adulthood.
  3. Increase in the adult population, due to the increase in life expectancy.

Regarding the structure by sex, there are two aspects to highlight: the greater proportion of the elderly female population - due to the greater life expectancy of women - and on the other hand the greater percentage of the adult male population, largely due to the contribution of the immigrant population, which is mostly male. [ 72 ]


5.35% of the Andalusian population is of foreign nationality , a percentage three points lower than the national average. However, immigrants are distributed very unevenly throughout the autonomous community: [ 73 ] the province of Almería is the third in Spain with the highest percentage of foreign population (with 15.20%), while Jaén (with a 2.07%) and Córdoba (with 1.77%) are the two provinces of Andalusia with the lowest percentage of foreigners. The predominant nationalities are Moroccan (17.79% of the total number of foreigners) and British (15.25% and the majority in Malaga), although Ibero-Americans by geographical areas of originthey are the most numerous. The number of Moroccans is close to 100,000.

Demographically, this group has contributed a significant number of the active population to the Andalusian labor market, and a rejuvenation of the population is also beginning to take place, which is noticeable in the slight rebound in the birth rate, mostly the result of immigrant births. [ 74 ] [ 75 ]

Main cities

Most populated municipalities of Andalusia (2019) [ 76 ]

Jerez de la Frontera
Jerez de la Frontera

Municipality province Population Municipality province Population

Two sisters
Two sisters

1 Flag of Sevilla, Spain.svg Sevilla Flag-deputation-sevilla.jpg Sevilla 688 592 16 File: Flag of Chiclana de la Frontera Spain.svg Chiclana de la Frontera Flag Cádiz Province.svg Cádiz 84 489
2 Flag of Málaga, Spain.svg Málaga Flag Málaga Province.svg Málaga 574 654 17 File: Flag of El Ejido Spain.svg The ejido Flag Almería Province.svg Almeria 83 594
3 Archivo:Flag of Córdoba, Spain.svg Córdoba Province of Córdoba - Bandera.svg Córdoba 325 701 18 File: Flag of Mijas (Málaga) .svg Mijas Flag Málaga Province.svg Málaga 82 742
4 Flag of Grenada2.svg Granada Flag of the province of Granada (Spain) .svg Granada 232 462 19 File: Flag of Vélez-Málaga.svg Velez-Malaga Flag Málaga Province.svg Málaga 81 643
5 Flag of Jerez de la Frontera.svg Jerez de la Frontera Flag Cádiz Province.svg Cádiz 212 749 20 File: Fuengirola flag.svg Fuengirola Flag Málaga Province.svg Málaga 80 309
6 File: Flag of Almería.svg Almeria Flag Almería Province.svg Almeria 198 533 21 File: Flag of Alcalá de Guadaíra (Seville) .svg Alcala de Guadaíra Flag-deputation-sevilla.jpg Sevilla 75 279
7 Archivo:Flag of the City of Huelva (official).PNG Huelva Flag of the Province of Huelva.svg Huelva 143 663 22 File: Flag of Sanlúcar de Barrameda.svg Sanlucar de Barrameda Flag Cádiz Province.svg Cádiz 68 684
8 Archivo:Marbella Spain.svg Marbella Flag Málaga Province.svg Málaga 143 386 23 File: Flag of Torremolinos (Málaga) .svg Torremolinos Flag Málaga Province.svg Málaga 68 661
9 Two Sisters Flag.png Two sisters Flag-deputation-sevilla.jpg Sevilla 133 968 24 File: Estepona flag.PNG Estepona Flag Málaga Province.svg Málaga 68 286
10 File: Flag maritime algeciras.svg Algeciras Flag Cádiz Province.svg Cádiz 121 957 25 File: Flag of Benalmádena.svg Benalmádena Flag Málaga Province.svg Málaga 68 128
11 File: Flag of Cádiz.svg Cádiz Flag Cádiz Province.svg Cádiz 116 027 26 File: Flag of La Linea de la Concepcion.jpg The Line of the Conception Flag Cádiz Province.svg Cádiz 63 147
12 Flag of Jaén.svg Jaén Flag of the province of Jaén.svg Jaén 112 999 27 File: Bandera de Motril.svg Motril Flag of the province of Granada (Spain) .svg Granada 58 020
13 File: Flag of Roquetas de Mar.svg Roquetas de Mar Flag Almería Province.svg Almeria 96 800 28 File: Bandera de Linares.svg Linares Flag of the province of Jaén.svg Jaén 57 414
14 File: Flag of San Fernando (Cádiz) .svg San fernando Flag Cádiz Province.svg Cádiz 94 979 29 File: Bandera Utrera.svg Utrera Flag-deputation-sevilla.jpg Sevilla 50 728
15 File: Flag of El Puerto de Santa María (Cádiz) .svg The Port of Santa Maria Flag Cádiz Province.svg Cádiz 88 405 30 Flag of Rincon de la Victoria.svg Rincon de la Victoria Flag Málaga Province.svg Málaga 47 179

Infrastructures and equipment

First-rate road network in Andalusia.

Transport and communications

Transportation systems are an essential element in the structuring and functioning of the territory. The infrastructure networks are the support of the different flows that facilitate the territorial articulation, the development and distribution of economic activities, interurban travel, among other aspects. [ 77 ]

In urban transport, pedestrian and non-motorized movements coexist at a disadvantage with the use of private vehicles and with an insufficiently developed public transport system. This means that some of the Andalusian capitals are reinforcing their public transport systems and implementing greater advantages for the use of bicycles , in which Córdoba, Granada, Málaga and Seville stand out in recent years, in the case of Seville it has gone introducing in its metropolitan area the service -project Metro (underground) 2009-today - [ 78 ]

The conventional rail network remains similar to that of 100 years ago, with a centralized structure towards Seville and Madrid , lacking direct connections between many of the provincial capitals. Two main routes are the one that connects Algeciras with Seville and the one that connects Almería and Granada with Madrid, which connects Andalusia with the state capital. Through Córdoba it is done by High Speed and through Jaén by conventional route. The Andalusian High Speed ​​Speedway was a pioneer in Spain since the first route was Seville-Madrid in 1992. In 2008 the AVE line between Malaga and Madrid was put into operation , viaCórdoba.

The main axes of the road network have largely become motorways , forming an extensive network. The E-05 ( A-4 ) that goes from Madrid to Seville and continues to Cádiz, enters through Despeñaperros and passes through Bailén and Córdoba. The A-44 ( E-902 ) starts from Bailén, which has a branch to Granada and Motril. The autonomous community is crossed from east to west by the A-92 highway that connects Seville, Malaga, Granada and Almería with the A-49 Seville-Huelva highway and continues west to Portugal. There is also a North-South transversal axis that connects Córdoba with Málaga A-45. However, accessibility needs are not yet resolved, with many sections of the road network becoming congested during holiday seasons and withstanding a lot of heavy traffic from the agricultural areas of the coast. Specifically, the passage of Maghreb who work in Europe increases the use of connections to Tarifa and Algeciras .

Among the ports of general interest in Andalusia, the Bahía de Algeciras port stands out, both in passenger and freight transport , being the one with the highest traffic in Spain with almost 70 million tons in 2009. [ 79 ] Also with a certain functional specialization completes the commercial port panorama the port of Malaga with 5.3 million tons in merchandise, being the second peninsular cruise port, [ 80 ] the port of the Bay of Cádiz with four million tons, the port of Huelva with 17.6 million tons and the port of Seville with 4.5 million tons, the only commercial fluvial port in Spain.

Andalusia had six public airports in 2008, all classified as being of general interest and therefore international. Passenger traffic is highly concentrated, with the Malaga-Costa del Sol airport accounting for 60.67% of the total passengers in the community. The two airports with the most traffic (Malaga airport and Seville airport ) account for 80.79% of the total and if Jerez airport is added to these , 87.96%. [ 81 ]

The Governing Council has approved the Infrastructure Plan for the Sustainability of Transport in Andalusia (PISTA) 2007-2013, which will involve an investment of 30 billion euros in transport infrastructure and services. [ 82 ]

Energy infrastructure

The scarcity of fuel resources of fossil origin, or their low calorific value, causes a strong dependence on imported oil in the Andalusian energy sector, although Andalusia has great potential for the development of renewable energies , especially energy solar and wind . The Andalusian Energy Agency , created in 2005, is the governmental body in charge of developing the regional policy in relation to the energy supply of the community. [ 77 ]

The infrastructure for the production of electricity is made up of eight large thermal power plants ; more than sixty small hydroelectric plants ; two wind farms ; and fourteen thermal cogeneration plants. The largest company in this sector was the Compañía Sevillana de Electricidad , founded in 1894, today absorbed by Endesa

Since March 2007, Andalusia has hosted the first concentrated solar thermal power plant in Europe: [ 83 ] the PS10 solar plant , located in Sanlúcar la Mayor and carried out by an Andalusian company, Abengoa . There are also other smaller plants, such as those in Cúllar and Galera (Granada) , recently inaugurated by Geosol and Caja Granada . Also in the province of Granada, specifically in the Hoya de Guadix , two large solar thermal power plants are planned ( Andasol I and II) that will supply electricity to about half a million homes. [ 84 ] Apart from solar thermal, photovoltaic solar energy has also been developed , highlighting the plant installed in El Coronil, which produces more than 20 MW in part with dual-axis single-pole trackers . In the field of research and development of solar energy, an important center is the Plataforma Solar de Almería , one of the most important in Europe.

The largest company in the wind sector is the Sociedad Eólica de Andalucía, which emerged from the merger of the companies Planta Eólica del Sur SA and Energía Eólica del Estrecho SA


Faculty of Sciences of the University of Granada.

As in the rest of the State, basic education is compulsory and free for all people. Basic education comprises ten years of schooling and takes place between six and sixteen years of age, after which the student can access high school , intermediate vocational training , intermediate degree cycles of plastic arts and design, intermediate level sports education or the world of work. In addition, there are other adult training centers, as well as additional resources (it is the Spanish autonomous community with the most public libraries [ 85 ] ).

University studies are structured in cycles and take credit as a measure of study load, as established in the Bologna Declaration , to which Andalusian universities are adapting, together with other universities in the European Higher Education Area . During the Middle Ages the first universities were created in Andalusia ( University of Córdoba (first in Europe and third in the West), Madrassa de Granada , University of Baeza , University of Osuna ). In the 2008-2009 academic year, Andalusia had ten public universities and one private one.


Andalusia health map.

Health is universal and free, comparable to the Spanish health average. Andalusia achieved ownership of health powers with the promulgation of its Statute of Autonomy, which was developed through a process of transfers of health powers from the State to the autonomous community. In this way, the Andalusian Health Service currently manages practically all the public health resources of the Community, with exceptions such as those of the health resources dependent on the Ministry of Justice (Penitentiary Institutions) and the Ministry of Defense (military hospitals) , among other.

Science and Technology

Andalusia contributes 14% of Spanish scientific production, preceded only by Madrid and Catalonia, [ 86 ] although internal investment in R & D & i , as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product , is lower than the Spanish average. [ 87 ] The low research and innovation capacity in the company and the low participation of the private sector in research spending results in a conspicuous concentration of research in the public sector.

The Ministry of Innovation, Science and Business is the autonomous body that covers the powers of the university, research, technological development, industry and energy. This department coordinates and promotes scientific and technical research through specialized centers and initiatives such as the Andalusian Center for Marine Science and Technology or the Andalusian Technological Corporation, among others.

In the field of private companies, although also promoted by the public administration, the technological spaces distributed throughout the community have been of fundamental importance, among which the Technological Park of Andalusia and Cartuja 93 stand out . Some of these parks specialize in a specific sector such as Aerópolis in the aerospace sector or Geolit in the agri-food sector.


General features

The main features of the Andalusian economy are:

  • According to Eurostat , with data from 2012, Andalusia has the highest unemployment rate in the entire EU . [ 88 ] In 2013, this negative figure continued to increase, reaching 36.87% in the first quarter [ 89 ] (the average for Spain is 25.02%). [ 46 ]
  • In 2013, Andalusia was ranked as the autonomous community with the poorest in Spain, one in four poor Spaniards is Andalusian and one in three Andalusians is poor. About 3.5 million Andalusians live on the threshold of poverty, which represents more than 40% of the population according to the Arope rate. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] According to the Survey of Living Conditions (ECV) of the National Statistics Institute (INE), it would be 31 percent of the Andalusians who live below the poverty line and placed at 55 percent of households at serious risk. [ 92 ]
  • According to the Regional Accounting prepared by the National Institute of Statistics, the income per inhabitant of the community in 2008 stood at € 18,155, [ 93 ] which is the 2nd lowest in Spain.
  • Andalusia is the autonomous community with the highest number of civil servants, with 499 974 people (2010). However, it is around the national average of civil servants per 1000 inhabitants (60.93 ‰ in Andalusia and 58.78 ‰ national average [ 94 ] ) and below autonomous communities such as the Canary Islands , Madrid , Castilla-La Mancha , Aragon , Castilla y León and Extremadura . By provinces, Seville is the one with the largest number with 120 806. The province of Seville accumulates a greater number of civil servants than 9 CC. AA. and 47 Spanish provinces, and concentrates 24.16% of officials in the region. [ 95 ]The rest of the officials of the region would be distributed in Cádiz with 80,502; Malaga, with 76 127; Granada, with 61,450; Córdoba, with 48 550; Jaén, with 41 102; Almería, with 37,806; and Huelva, with 33 631. [ 96 ]
  • Negative trade balance, worsening in recent years due to the weight of oil imports and consumer goods (imports 14,261 million euros, exports 17,535 million euros).
  • Industry stagnation (12% of GVA), within which the agri-food industry continues to have great importance.
  • Excessive weight of construction, mainly responsible for the growth of the Andalusian GVA in the first decade of 2000, with a contribution of 13% to GVA in 2005.
  • The services sector accounts for approximately 62% of GVA. With particular relevance to the tourism sector , with more than 21.8 million tourists received in the autonomous community in 2011. [ 97 ]

Third sector

The tertiary or services sector, both in terms of production and employment, has experienced a very significant growth in its participation in the economy in recent decades. From being a minority sector, it has become a vast majority as in most Western economies. [ 98 ]

This process, which has been called tertiarization of the economy , has manifested itself in Andalusia in a peculiar way. Thus, in 1975 the service sector produced 51.1% of the Andalusian Gross Value Added (GVA) and employed 40.8%, while in 2007, it produced 67.9% of the GVA and the 66.42% of jobs. However, this growth in the tertiary sector occurred earlier than in other developed economies and was independent of the industrial sector. [ 99 ]

In Andalusia, the anachronistic development of the tertiary is due to two main reasons:

  1. Andalusian capital, faced with the impossibility of competing with industry in developed regions, is forced to undertake activities that are more easily accessible.
  2. The absence of a strong industrial sector that can absorb the surplus labor from agriculture and the one created by the disappearance of crafts, leads to the proliferation of certain types of services with low productivity. It is, therefore, the role that the Andalusian economy plays, within the uneven development process, which produces a hypertrophied and unproductive tertiary as a result, which contributes to reproducing the conditions of little dynamism, hindering the accumulation of capital. [ 100 ]

Tourism sector

La Rábida Monastery . Palos de la Frontera ( Huelva ).
View of Ronda .

In 2011, with 7,218,291 foreign visitors, it was established as the fourth Spanish community in terms of international tourism, (without counting national tourists, with whom it ranks first) [ 101 ] whose main destinations within the region they are: the Costa del Sol and Sierra Nevada. The situation of Andalusia, in the south of the Iberian Peninsula, makes it one of the warmest places in Europe. The Mediterranean climate predominates throughout the territory , which provides a large number of hours of sunshine , which, together with its beaches, configures the conditions for "sun and beach" tourism development . [ 102 ]

The coastline is presented as the most important asset from the tourist point of view, although it is also true that it is where its intensive nature causes a greater environmental impact , since it is also where the majority of visitors are concentrated.

Its coast is bathed by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west, where the Costa de la Luz is located , and by the Mediterranean Sea, where the eastern coast is divided into the Costa del Sol , Costa Tropical and the Costa de Almería . Although the granting of private awards such as the 84 blue flags that were awarded in 2004 (66 beaches, 18 marinas) may indicate a good state of conservation, in terms of sustainability, accessibility and quality, other organizations such as Ecologistas en Acción [ 103 ] or Greenpeace [ 104 ]However they manifest in the opposite direction.

As for cultural tourism, the community has a great heritage and history. Andalusia has monuments such as the Mosque of Córdoba , the Alhambra in Granada and the Giralda in Seville. Also noteworthy are the cathedrals , castles or fortresses, monasteries and historic centers of monumental cities, such as those declared World Heritage of Úbeda and Baeza (Jaén).

Each of the provinces show a great variety of architectural styles (from Islamic architecture to Renaissance through Baroque ). Another of the cultural attractions is the Columbian Places [ 105 ] ( Palos de la Frontera , La Rábida and Moguer ) in Huelva , places especially linked to Columbus's first voyage that resulted in the discovery of America . Regarding archaeological tourism, Andalusia has archaeological sites of great interest, such as Itálica, Roman city where the emperors Trajan and Hadrian , Baelo Claudia or Medina Azahara were originally from , city-palace ordered to be built by the Cordovan caliph Abderramán III , in which even though there is much to be visited, the proportion of what has already been excavated with respect to the total of the deposits is minimal.

On the other hand, Andalusia saw the birth of great painters, such as Picasso (Málaga), or Murillo and Velázquez (Seville), an important circumstance also from the tourist point of view, since institutions such as the Fundación Picasso Museo Casa Natal or the Museo Picasso Málaga itself , as well as the Casa de Murillo Museum in Seville, designed to make these artists known. It also has a range of museums spread throughout its geography, which show not only paintings, but also archaeological remains and pieces of goldsmiths , ceramics , pottery, artistic works that try to show the traditions and typical crafts of the region.

The Governing Council declared Tourist Municipalities in Almería: Roquetas de Mar ; in Cádiz: Chiclana de la Frontera , Chipiona , Conil de la Frontera , Grazalema , Rota and Tarifa ; in Granada: Almuñécar ; in Huelva: Aracena ; in Jaén: Cazorla ; in Malaga: Benalmádena , Fuengirola , Nerja , Rincón de la Victoria , Ronda and Torremolinos ; in Seville: Santiponce .

Secondary sector

Dry dock in the shipyards of Cádiz

The Andalusian industrial sector has traditionally had little weight in the economy and has been characterized by its weakness. However, in absolute values, the industry contributed 11,979 million euros in 2007 and employed more than 290,000 workers. The production contribution represents 9.15%, below the 15.08% of the Spanish economy, a situation increased with the decrease in the weight of the industrial sector with respect to the Andalusian economy, [ 106 ] despite the slight increase in the weight of the community in the last five years. [ 107 ]

When analyzing the different subsectors of Andalusian industry, the agri-food sector accounts for more than 16% of total production. In a comparison with the Spanish economy, this agri-food subsector is practically the only one that has a certain weight in the national economy with 16.16%. Far behind is the transport materials manufacturing sector, just over 10% of the Spanish economy. Companies such as Cruzcampo ( Heineken Group ), Puleva , Domecq, Renault Andalucía, Santana Motor or Valeo [ 108 ]Are exponents of these two subsectors. It is worth highlighting the Andalusian aeronautical sector, which is the second nationally only behind Madrid and represents approximately 21% of the total in terms of turnover and employment, [ 109 ] highlighting companies such as Airbus , Airbus Military , or the recently created Alestis Aerospace . On the contrary, the little weight of the Andalusian economy in sectors as important as textiles or electronics at the national level is very symptomatic. [ 110 ]

Another characteristic of Andalusian industry is its majority specialization in industrial activities for the transformation of agricultural raw materials and minerals. The vast majority of companies are very small and only publicly owned or externally owned companies are capable of developing large business structures.

Primary sector

Olive groves in Baños de la Encina , Jaén . The olive grove is typical of the Andalusian countryside.

The primary sector , despite being the one that contributes the least GVA to the economy , still represents a certain relative importance with respect to the rest of the productive sectors. Importance that becomes greater if we compare it with the primary sector of other western economies, where it has been reduced to a minimum. The primary sector with a long Andalusian tradition produces 8.26% of the total and employs 8.19% [ 111 ] of the active population . In monetary terms, it can be considered a sector of increasing competitiveness in recent years.

The primary sector can be divided into a number of subsectors: agriculture , fishing , livestock , hunting , forestry, and mining .

Agriculture, livestock, hunting and forestry

Denominations of origin of olive oil in Andalusia.

Andalusian society until a few decades ago has been mainly agrarian, which explains that 45.74% of the Andalusian territory is farmland. [ 112 ] The dry herbaceous crops - cereals and sunflower -, spread over a large part of the territory, stand out above all in the large fields of the Guadalquivir valley and the highlands of Granada and Almeria - with a significantly lower yield and focused on barley and oats -. Among irrigated herbaceous crops, corn , cotton and rice stand out, preferably located in the Guadalquivir and Genil fertile plains. [ 113 ]

The woody crops are carried out by the olive tree , located preferably in the subbetic cordovan and jiennense, where the irrigated olive grove reaches a high yield, providing a significant percentage to the final agricultural production. [ 114 ] The vine is widely cultivated in various areas such as Marco de Jerez , El Condado de Huelva , Montilla-Moriles and in Malaga . For its part, fruit trees, mainly citrus, are located in the Guadalquivir valley due to its water requirements; while the almond tree, a rainfed crop, spreads through the highlands of Granada and Almeria. [ 115]

In monetary terms, the most productive and competitive agriculture in Andalusia is intensive, linked to coastal plains or sandy areas - forced crops in Almería and Huelva-. This agriculture contributes the highest proportion to the final Andalusian agricultural product with products such as vegetables, flowers or strawberries. [ 116 ]

Dehesa Boyal, Bollullos Par del Condado .
Cork extraction in Aracena ( Huelva ).

The organic farming Andalusian is also undergoing extensive development, mainly oriented for export to European markets with an incipient development of domestic demand. [ 117 ]

The livestock is an activity with a long tradition although it is currently in its restricted mostly to open stands of montane areas with lower pressure of the different uses of the ground. Thus, the livestock sector occupies a semi-marginal place in the Andalusian economy, contributing only 15% to final agricultural production, compared to 30% in Spain, while the agricultural sector contributes 30%. [ 118 ]

The extensive livestock is based on the use of natural pasture or mountain cultivated for grazing livestock populations . This livestock subsector includes a large part of beef , all sheep and goats , as well as montanera pigs - products derived from Iberian pigs stand out. Native sheep and goat herds present great possibilities within a Europe with a surplus in many livestock products, but a deficit in sheep and goat derivatives: meat , milk , leather , among others.

The intensive farming is mainly located in the countryside and is based on cultivation of species fodder for feeding cattle. Although their productivity is much higher than that of extensive livestock, compared to other Spanish and European regions, they have not managed to match their productions and consolidate themselves in the market.

Modern industrial intensive livestock farming is adapted to today's economy. Its facilities have been located in the vicinity of demand points. It is based on the use of industrial feed. [ 119 ]

The hunting activity maintains a relative importance. At present, it has lost its character of activity for obtaining food. And it has become a leisure activity linked to mountain areas, where it is a complementary activity, not inconsiderable, to forestry and livestock. [ 119 ] [ 120 ] The community has 270 000 Federated hunters and more than 25 000 hunting grounds. [ 121 ]

The forest areas in Andalusia are very important because of its size (50% of the Andalusian territory) and other difficult to quantify aspects financially and fixing soil, water regulation, maintenance of plant and wildlife , which have great environmental interest, they must be promoted and regulated to safeguard these areas of great environmental importance. [ 122 ]

The value of the production of forest spaces barely accounts for 2% of agricultural production. Timber use, mainly of cultivated species - eucalyptus in Huelva and poplar in Granada - and cork in Sierra Morena and Los Alcornocales are the main productive activities. [ 123 ]


Fishing port of Algeciras .

The fishing is a traditional activity that contributes the Andalusian coast an essential component of the diet food of the Andalusians and even for culture cuisine - fried fish , shrimp white, tuna Almadraba, among others. Andalusian fishing fleet is the second largest in the nation -after Galicia and the first in number of fishing ports 38. [ 124 ]

The fishing sector only accounts for 0.5% of final agricultural production. However, analyzing these data at the provincial level -Huelva accounts for 20% of agricultural production- or local -In Punta Umbría 70% of the population is linked to this sector- gives an idea of ​​the importance of this sector and even dependence in certain Andalusian regions. [ 125 ]

Until a few years ago, non-compliance with fishing laws regarding the use of trawling, pollution of the coastline with urban origin, the destruction of habitats due to coastal engineering works (alteration of river mouths, marinas and commercial) and the scarcity of catches due to overexploitation [ 126 ] are factors that have caused a crisis situation in Andalusian fishing activity and have justified strong reconversion actions of the fishing fleet. Similarly , aquaculture , both on the coast and in the inland fish farms , is developing rapidly. [ 127 ]


Despite the low profitability and general crisis in the sector, mining still has some importance. If we compare the value of extractions with the rest of Spain, it can be seen that, in terms of metal extractions, Andalusia contributes more than 50% of the national production. In its distribution, the province of Huelva stands out in the first place , where almost half of the extractions are generated -Faja Pirítica Ibérica- and, to a lesser extent, the provinces of Córdoba - coal from the Guadiato basin-, Seville -polimetallic of Aznalcóllar - and Granada - iron of Alquife -. The coal mines (already closed) in Linares were also very important.(Jaén). In the case of industrial rocks ( limestone , clays and other materials used in construction) they present a widely distributed distribution throughout the Andalusian territory. [ 128 ]

Unemployment in Andalusia

According to Eurostat , Andalusia has the worst labor market in the European Community, reaching the highest unemployment rate in the entire EU in 2011 . [ 47 ] In 2012, this negative figure continued to increase, reaching 35.42% in the third quarter, with 1,424,200 unemployed. [ 129 ]

Unemployment in the Andalusian CC.AA.. III quarter 2012. [ 129 ]
CC.AA / Provinces Andalusia Almeria Cádiz Córdoba Granada Huelva Jaén Málaga Sevilla
Total number of unemployed 1 424 200 143 700 211 500 141 400 161 700 89 200 115 200 262 900 298 600
Percentage of unemployment 35,42 % 38,44 % 36,03 % 37,75 % 37,19 % 36,19 % 39,13 % 33,07 % 32,63 %


RTVA poster seen from Juan Carlos I street, Seville .

In Andalusia, the international, national or regional media are represented by delegations, either through agencies or through delegations of each medium.

But in the field of communication, the public company Radio y Televisión de Andalucía (RTVA) stands out, currently made up of its regional television channel , Canal Sur and four radio stations, Canal Sur Radio , Canal Fiesta Radio , Radio Andalucía. Information and Flamenco Radio Channel , in addition to various digital signals and channels that are broadcast through digital platforms. [ 130 ]


The press is quite atomized. The publishing groups usually launch a header for each provincial capital, region or major city. In this way, it is not strange to observe how different versions of the same newspaper are usually found with a lot of content in common, which tend to differ in their header and in the local information they display. The free press, which is usually distributed with the same pattern, has also become quite popular.

There is no Andalusian newspaper distributed globally throughout the autonomous region. In the eastern zone , the Ideal newspaper is distributed , with editions in the provinces of Almería, Granada and Jaén. The attempts that have existed to create an autonomous global newspaper have not been successful (the last of them was the Diario de Andalucía ). The state press includes sections or specific editions of Andalusia ( El País , El Mundo , ABC , etc). The Joly Group is notable for the number of newspapers it publishes and for having an entirely Andalusian domicile and capital.

Public television

Andalusian Radio and Television Building in Córdoba .

Andalusia has a public television channel:

Until its cancellation in 2012 [ 131 ] Canal Sur 2 also operated , which appeared on June 5, 1998 and whose programming was based on cultural and sports spaces aimed at children and young people.

In 2015, a new channel was launched, Andalucía Televisión with independent programming from Canal Sur 1 and of a cultural and general nature.


The four public regional stations stand out:


Andalusian patio in Córdoba.

The particular historical and geographical conditions of the Andalusian space, as well as the complex population flows, have led to the conformation of Andalusian culture. Different peoples and civilizations have passed through Andalusia, which over time have shaped a particular cultural identity . These towns, some very different from each other, have been leaving a slowly settled imprint among the inhabitants. The arrival of the first oriental merchants in the Ancient Ages, Romanization, the extensive Islamic period and Christianization have been shaping the Andalusian identity, which already in the 19th century was perfectly defined and widely disseminated through Andalusian manners . [ 132][133]

In that classical period of Andalusian culture, it became largely the Spanish culture par excellence, partly thanks to the vision of romantic travelers, who found in Andalusia the most traditional idiosyncrasy of Spain, for being the most exotic since the point of view of a foreigner.

In the words of Ortega y Gasset :

Andalusia, which has never shown pushiness or petulance of particularism; which has never claimed to be a separate state, is, of all the Spanish regions, the one that has a culture most radically its own.

Throughout the 19th century, Spain has lived under the hegemonic influence of Andalusia. That century began with the Cortes of Cádiz; It ends with the murder of Cánovas del Castillo, from Malaga, and the exaltation of Silvela, no less from Malaga. The dominant ideas are Andalusian accent. Andalusia is painted - a roof, some pots, blue sky. Southern writers are read. There is talk at all times of the "land of the Holy Mary." The Sierra Morena thief and the smuggler are national heroes. The whole of Spain feels its existence justified by the honor of including the Andalusian piece of the planet on its flanks. Around 1900, like so many other things, this one changed. The North joins.

Theory of Andalusia , 1927

In his book dedicated to cante jondo , Andalucía, su comunismo y su cante jondo , Pedro Caba Landa , philosopher, essayist and poet, would say of the Andalusian people:

In Andalusia, the philosophical despair of Islam, the religious despair of the Hebrew, and the social despair of the gypsy converge
Andalusia, its communism and its cante jondo , 1933]]


Andalusia has always been the cradle of great artists. The painters Velázquez , Murillo , Valdés Leal and the sculptors Martínez Montañés and Alonso Cano stand out . From more recent times the painters Vázquez Díaz and Pablo Picasso are known throughout the world . The composer from Cádiz Manuel de Falla incorporated typical Andalusian melodies into his works, as did the Sevillian Joaquín Turina . The singer Camarón de la Isla , born in San Fernando, also stands out .


View of the Alhambra in Granada .

Important examples of megalithism are preserved from the Neolithic , such as the Menga dolmen and the Viera dolmen . The first examples of urbanism date from the Bronze Age in Los Millares and El Argar .

From the Ancient Age, the archaeological sites of Doña Blanca and Cerro del Villar , and the ruins of Baelo Claudia or Itálica and the archaeological site of Castulo in Linares from the Iberian Roman era, among others. [ 134 ]

General view of the Giralda, in the cathedral of Seville .
Interior of the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba.

Some of the most representative buildings of Andalusia belong to the Hispano-Arab or Andalusian architecture , such as the Alhambra , the Mosque of Córdoba , the Alcazaba of Malaga , the Giralda , the Castle of Santa Catalina in Jaén or the Alcazaba of Almería and its walls .

Andalusian architecture, like previously Roman architecture, had a notable influence on later architecture, especially Mudejar architecture , the main examples of which are the Real Alcázar of Seville or the parish churches of the kingdom of Córdoba or Seville , which combine elements of Andalusian roots. with others typical of Romanesque and Gothic architecture . [ 135 ]

Later, the cathedral of Seville , the largest Gothic temple in the world, set the tone for the construction of other buildings in his kingdom, such as the church of San Miguel in Jerez , the Priory of Puerto de Santa María and Las Covachas de Sanlúcar de Barrameda. .

Fundamental to Granada are the Royal Chapel , the Palace of Carlos V , which is of singular importance due to its Italian Renaissance purism, and the cathedral , with a Gothic floor plan and a Renaissance body. Likewise, in Malaga it is worth noting, in addition to the Palace of the Counts of Buenavista , its cathedral , whose original traces of the Gothic style, led to a Renaissance project in whose plans Diego de Siloé and Andrés de Vandelvira participated . The Renaissance architecture was one of its main centers in the Kingdom of Jaén , with the construction of its cathedralby Andrés de Vandelvira, who served as a model for that of Guadix and with the monumental ensembles of the cities of Úbeda and Baeza , declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco . Seville and its kingdom were also important centers of Renaissance architecture, as evidenced by the Seville City Council , the Hospital de las Cinco Llagas or the Cartuja de Jerez de la Frontera . [ 136 ]

From the Baroque , buildings such as the Palace of San Telmo in Seville , the Church of Our Lady of Reposo in Campillos , the Cartuja of Granada , the Cathedral of La Merced in Huelva or the House of the Consulate in Malaga are preserved . [ 137 ] Of academicism , the Seville Tobacco Factory and neoclassicism , the Palacio de la Aduana de Málaga or the buildings of the Cadiz nucleus, such as the Cádiz City Hall , the Royal Prison and theSanta Cueva .

Calle Marqués de Larios in Malaga, a notorious example of 19th century urban planning.

In nineteenth-century architecture, it is worth highlighting the historic center of Malaga, whose main artery, Calle Marqués de Larios , flanked by a series of buildings inspired by the Chicago School , or the Alameda Principal , are clear examples of urban planning in the nineteenth-century city.

Within the historicist style typical of the 19th and 20th centuries, the architectural ensemble of the Ibero - American Exhibition of Seville in 1929 stands out, where the Plaza de España , with a neo-Mudejar air , stands out, called historicist regionalism and the Provincial Museum of Huelva built in 1973. Likewise an important industrial heritage is preserved , related to various economic activities.

Jabalquinto de Baeza Palace , a city declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO along with Úbeda .

Traditional architecture has a marked Mediterranean character that has its roots in Roman and Arabic architecture and is strongly conditioned by the climate. Traditional urban homes are usually built back-to-back to isolate them from the high outside temperatures. Solid whitewashed walls predominate over the openings to avoid excessive insolation from the interior. Depending on the weather and the tradition of each area, the roofs of the houses can be terraced, forming roofs, or roofs with several waters built with Arab tiles . One of the most characteristic elements is the interior patio. Among the Andalusian patios, the Cordobans are famous. In homes usually the used bars of wrought iron and tiles as decorative elements. Plants, flowers and water are a fundamental part of traditional Andalusian architecture, both sumptuary and popular. Beyond these generalized elements, there are unique architectural typologies, such as the Alpujarra architecture and the caves of La Hoya de Guadix and Sacromonte or the traditional architecture of the Marquesado de Zenete , among others. [ 138 ]

In the field of rural architecture, houses or farmhouses stand out, such as farmhouses , haciendas and farmsteads . [ 139 ]


Crying over the Dead Christ , by Pedro Millán , Museum of Fine Arts in Seville .

The Iberian reliefs of Osuna , the Lady of Baza , the Lion of Bujalance , the Phoenician sarcophagi of Cádiz and the pieces of Roman sculpture from Betic cities such as Italica , bear witness to the cultivation of sculpture in Andalusia since ancient times . [ 140 ] From the time of al-Andalus, there are hardly any sculptures worthy of mention, since Islam is a mostly iconoclastic religion , the lions of the Alhambra being a notable exception.and the Maristán de Granada .

During the Modern Age the fundamental role was played by the Seville School of Sculpture and the Granada School , with authors such as Mercadante de Brittany , Pedro Millán , Juan Martínez Montañés , José de Mora , Pedro Roldán , José de Arce , Jerónimo Balbás , Alonso Cano and Pedro of Mena . Both schools were mainly dedicated to religious art with the creation of religious images and altarpieces made mostly of wood . [ 141 ]

Non-religious themed sculpture existed in Andalusia since ancient times, as evidenced by the Renaissance marbles from the Casa de Pilatos and the mythological sculptures by Diego de Pesquera . However, it did not begin to become general until the 19th century, with authors such as Antonio Susillo .

The little piconera. Work of the Cordoba painter Julio Romero de Torres, 1930


In the history of painting in Andalusia, the Granada School and the Sevillian School play a fundamental role . The latter is one of the great Spanish and European pictorial schools, which had a long history that goes from the 15th to the 19th century and which contributed to the history of art important creators such as Zurbarán , Velázquez and Murillo as well as art theorists such as Francisco Pacheco . The Museum of Fine Arts of Seville is essential to know the history of Sevillian pictorial art. [ 142 ]

Given its theme, Andalusian manners painting deserves a special mention , developed from Romanticism by authors such as Manuel Barrón , José García Ramos , Gonzalo Bilbao and Julio Romero de Torres and which is very well represented in the Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection . A good part of this collection can be seen in the Carmen Thyssen Museum in Malaga. [ 143 ]

Portrait of Mariana Pineda. Engraving from the year 1862 of Isidoro Lozano in the Granada town hall.

In the context of contemporary painting, the figure of the Malaga painter Pablo Picasso is fundamental , whose work is widely represented in the Museo Picasso Málaga .

Literature and Philosophy

The weight of Andalusia in the history of Spanish literature is very great. In 1492 Antonio de Nebrija published his famous Castilian Grammar , the first of a vulgar language to be written in Europe. In 1528 Francisco Delicado wrote La Lozana andaluza , a novel in the orbit of La Celestina , while the Sevillian Mateo Alemán wrote Guzmán de Alfarache , the first picaresque novel with a known author.

Likewise, the Sevillian humanist literary school with authors such as Juan de Mal Lara , Fernando de Herrera , Gutierre de Cetina , Luis Barahona de Soto , Juan de la Cueva , Gonzalo Argote de Molina and Rodrigo Caro , among others, had special importance . Within the culteranismo of the Baroque poetry of the Golden Age, Luis de Góngora from Cordoba was the greatest exponent. [ 144 ]

The Romanticism literary in Spain had one of its fundamental poles in Andalusia, with authors such as the Duke of Rivas , Jose Scaffold and Becquer . The Andalusian costumbrismo has one of its highest expressions in the Andalusian scenes of Serafin Estebanez Calderon and works of Pedro Antonio de Alarcón .

Halfway between the 19th and 20th centuries, the Andalusian writers Ángel Ganivet , Manuel Gómez Moreno , Manuel and Antonio Machado and Francisco Villaespesa stand out , traditionally framed in the so-called generation of 98 . Within it, the Álvarez Quintero brothers as faithful portraitists of the Andalusian idiosyncrasy in their hors d'oeuvres, in which their characters frequently use the Andalusian dialect , taking in the wake of their teacher José López Pinillos "Parmeno". Especially relevant was Juan Ramón Jiménez from Mogue, Nobel Prize in Literature, singular and transcendental personality within the Spanish poetry of all time.

A large part of the members of the generation of 27 , the true Silver Age of Spanish culture , gathered around the tribute to Góngora at the Ateneo de Sevilla , were Andalusians, such as Federico García Lorca , Luis Cernuda , Rafael Alberti , Manuel Altolaguirre , Emilio Prados and Vicente Aleixandre , who received the Nobel Prize in 1977. [ 145 ]

There are also several literary characters of the Andalusian atmosphere turned into authentic archetypes of world literature as Carmen , the gypsy Prosper Merimee , Figaro , The Barber of Seville by Pierre Beaumarchais and Don Juan , The Trickster of Seville , by Tirso de Molina .

As in most of Spain, the main vehicle of Andalusian popular lyric is romance , although there are also Andalusian stanzas such as soleá or soleariya . The romances, the lullabies, the proclamations, the strings, the labor songs, among many others, are very abundant.

Hispano-Arabic literature deserves a separate chapter in the Andalusian dialect , with authors born in the current Andalusian territory, such as Ibn Hazm , Ibn Zaydun , Ibn Quzman , Abentofail , Al-Mutamid , Ibn al-Jatib , Ibn al-Yayyab and Ibn Zamrak . [ 146 ]

Among the philosophers and thinkers born in Andalusia, Seneca , Ibn Gabirol , Maimonides , Averroes , Fernán Pérez de Oliva ,