Andorra Effect - Andorra-Effekt

The Andorra effect (also Andorra phenomenon ) is a term from social psychology that also plays a role in human resources . It says that people often adapt to the judgments and assessments made by society, regardless of whether they were originally correct or not. So that the effect describes a self-fulfilling prediction (Engl. Self-fulfilling prophecy , self-fulfilling prophecy ), as a person over time behaves exactly as you foretold her all the time, this would not have done without the prediction .

Socially, the effect plays a role if certain prejudices exist against a socially marginal group (e.g. homeless, drug addicts or other minorities) and people in this marginal group therefore actually begin to behave in accordance with expectations.

The effect can also be significant in human resources. If an employee is always judged negatively by his colleagues or superiors or if one has negative expectations towards him and this is known to the employee, this can lead to the employee's objective performance deteriorating as he adapts to the negative expectations or fulfills this. Conversely, the employee's performance can also increase if they are met with positive expectations.

The name of the effect goes back to the play Andorra ( premiered in 1961) by Max Frisch . In this, the personality of the main character (who is portrayed as a Jewish foster child by her father and who believes in being of Jewish descent) changes through the constant confrontation with negative prejudices of his fellow men. Little by little, she takes over the negative qualities that are said to be of the Jews in Andorra's society.

If behavior is influenced exclusively by the expectations of a specific person in authority (such as a supervisor, teacher, doctor or researcher), one speaks instead of the Pygmalion effect .

See also


  • Hans Jung: Human Resources. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2006, ISBN 3486580485 , p. 766 ( excerpt in the Google book search)
  • Ursula Oppermann-Weber: Guide to leadership practice. Cornelsen Verlag Scriptor, 2004, ISBN 3589236027 , p. 228 ( excerpt in the Google book search)