April 11, 1937 (age 83) |
Chevrier (Haute-Savoie) , France
|Occupation||writer , electrician , proofreader|
André Bernard (April 11, 1937, Chevrier, Haute-Savoie ) was always a non-violent anarchist , who as a worker worked as an electrician and later as a proofreader and also as a writer. In doctrinaire he was always a pacifist, and while doing his military service and during the Algerian war , he invoked conscientious objection . [ 1 ]
Even when he was very young, he made contact with the libertarian movement in Bordeaux through anti-clerical relations . He regularly read the anticlerical weekly La Calotte , and at the time he attended the lectures of André Lorulot and Georges Las Vergnas . He frequented the Sébastien Faure group of the Fédération anarchiste , where he became acquainted with the brothers Paul and Aristide Lapeyre , as well as with Joaquim Salamero and Jean Baruch . [ 2 ] [ 3 ]
Refractory to the Algerian War
On October 1, 1956, André Bernard excused himself from conscription and from participating in the war in Algeria , and declared himself insoumis ( insubordinate ). He then went into exile in Switzerland, [ 4 ] where precisely André Bösiger was forming a support network for the refractory, with the help of the insubordinate Italian Pietro Ferrua . [ 5 ]
Thus, Bernard is among the founders of the Center International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme in Lausanne , contributing there to the publication Ravachol . [ 6 ]
This is how it is linked to the Jeune Résistance (JR) group, in turn associated with the Réseau Jeanson in support of the Algerian independentists, whom after some time it left due to disagreements, since it was as anti-militarist and non-violent as it was anti-colonialist .
In 1959 he met who would be his partner, Anita Ljungqvist , born on September 4, 1939 in Sweden, and belonging to a little politicized working class family. And it was on that occasion that this woman discovered anarchism , non-violence , and social struggles .
The couple then left Switzerland and settled in Belgium, where they made contact with the Belgian Hem Day . And it was precisely in these circumstances that the couple met the organization Action civique nonvionte (ACNV). [ 7 ]
Determined then to enter France to fight alongside the ACNV, opposing the war in Algeria, they clandestinely crossed the border towards the end of March 1961. And it was then on May 8, 1961, that André Bernard, having given prior notice to Regarding his return, the French authorities chained himself in front of the Arc de Triomphe at the Porte d'Aix, along with six other "solidarity" militants who adopted their own identity. And the newspaper Le Canard enchaîné pointed out these events under the title: " Nous sommes tous André Bernard ". [ 8 ] On the 13th of that same month of May and after being fully identified, the real André Bernard was imprisoned in the Baumettes prison, and later transferred to Bordeaux,[ 9 ] to the fort of Hâ.
On May 24, 1961, in Bordeaux, in front of the military court, which had already tried him for default, he was sentenced to one year in prison, with the possible benefit of suspension of the sentence, for "insubordination in times of peace." [ 10 ] He was released from court, but was expected by the military, who arrested him and took him directly to a barracks. On the occasion of a second trial, on October 25 of that same year, he was sentenced to eighteen months in prison with confusion of penalties (that is, with the benefit of absorbing less serious penalties). [ 11 ] [ 12 ]
Anarchism and nonviolence
In April 1965 and among others together with Marianne Enckell , he started the magazine Anarchisme et Non-Violence [ 13 ] which, in 1968, adheres to the so-called Internationale des résistants à la guerre (IRG). [ 14 ]
Between 1975 and 1977, he actively participated as a corrector, in the Parisien libéré conflict .
In pre-retirement since 1992, he participated in the making and model of several publications of the libertarian movement : Les Temps maudits ; Le combat syndicaliste ( Confédération nationale du travail ); Le Monde libertaire ; weekly of the Fédération anarchiste .
In 1997, he became a member of the Réfractions collective , "anarchist research and expression magazine".
And since 2003, he became a member of a group of former ACNV, destined to publicize the stories of the refractory and their actions during the war in Algeria. In 2005, this group published the book Réfractaires à la guerre d'Algérie: 1959-1963 , under the collective pseudonym Erica Fraters .
- Bibliography of André Bernard (born in Chevrier, Haute-Savoie, April 11, 1937) , digital sitio 'Ra.forum'.
- Texts related to history and libertarian culture , Lyon, digital sitio 'Atelier de creation libertaire'.
- Being an anarchist obliges! , digital sitio 'Réfractions', 19 de octubre de 2009.
- Chronicles of disobedience (and other texts) , digital sitio 'Other future'.
- Con Pierre Sommermeyer, Libertarian disobedience: ways of acting and other ways of doing , Nada, 2014, ISBN 9791092457049 ( a propósito del libro ).
- The authors of Le Monde libertaire : André Bernard .
- The anarchist press: articles online .
- Anarchist Anger , Non-violent Alternatives, n ° 158, March 2011, read online .
- About the review Anarchisme et Non-Violence , Réfractions, n ° 5, spring 2000, read online .
- With Jean-Marie Muller, Acting together against military power? , S! Lence , n ° 256, April 2008, pp. 10-13, read online .
- Erica Fraters ( 2005 ). The refractory to the Algerian war 1959-1962 . Paris: Éditions Syllepse. p. 224. ISBN 978-2849500491 . [[[Jean-Jacques de Felice]], postfacio of Djaouida Séhili Resumen disclativo] incorrecta ( ayuda ) .
- Freddy Gómez, Un engagement libertaire , À contretemps, n ° 41, septiembre 2011, en línea .
- Xavier Bekaert, André Bernard, by himself (note 3) in Jean Van Lierde - A refractory is extinguished , À voice autre, n ° 10, primavera 2007, in línea .
- Marie-Dominique Massoni, André Bernard, One of the moon and one of linen , Surrealisme, 22 de enero de 2009, en línea .
- (en inglés) David Porter, Eyes to the South French Anarchists & Algeria, AK Press, 2011, p. 81.
- Video, François Chouquet. Like one man , Association Réfractaires non-violents à la guerre d'Algérie , 55 min, 2005.
- Libertarian disobedience: Ways of acting and other ways of doing (excerpt from the editorial staff) , digital sitio 'Class questions (S) - Alternative site for education, struggle and pedagogy', 28 de febrero de 2015 ( versión from archivo ).
- Being anarchist obliges! / The good memory of André Bernard, former non-combatant , digital sitio 'Atelier de creation libertaire', 10 de octubre de 2010.
- André Bernard, The chair and the stool / Feminist chronicle , digital sitio 'Cercle libertaire Jean-Barrué en Gironde', 3 de diciembre de 2014.
- Carole Reynaud Paligot, Political journey of the surrealists, 1919-1969 , CNRS, 1995, page 198 .
- FERRUA, Pietro , sitio digital 'Dictionary of anarchist militants'.
- Association for the Study of the History of the Workers' Movement, Contests and Movements, 1960-1980 , Cahiers d'histoire du movement ouvrier n ° 21, Éditions d'en bas, 2005 (consultar "André Bernard" página 154 ).
- Appendices 1961: André Bernard, file distributed by ACNV , digital sitio 'Non-violent refractories to the Algerian war', 5 de enero de 2014.
- BERNARD, André & Anita (née Ljungqvist) , digital sitio 'Dictionary of anarchist militants', 6 de diciembre de 2006.
- Fort du Hâ during World War II , digital sitio 'AJPN (Anonymous, Righteous and Persecuted during the Nazi period)'.
- First trial of André Bernard, May 24, 1961 , Non-violent refractories to the Algerian war, read online .
- Second trial of André Bernard, October 25, 1961 , Nonviolent refractories to the Algerian war, read online .
- André Bernard, military papers , Non-violent refractories to the Algerian war, read online .
- "The review Anarchism and Non-Violence, created by the anarchist André Bernard in 1965", Jacques Weber, Relations between France and India from 1673 to the present day , Les Indes savantes, 2002, page 267 .
- The Anarchist Ephemeris : Anarchism and Non-Violence .