|Andrés Álvarez de Toledo|
|Birth|| Twentieth century |
Madrid , Spain
Andres Alvarez de Toledo was a military realist Spanish who fought in the Invasions Old English to the Rio de la Plata and against the American emancipation. He is considered by some to be the true author of the Operations Plan attributed to Mariano Moreno .
Andrés Álvarez de Toledo, born in Madrid , Spain , settled in the city of Buenos Aires , capital of the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata, and fought in the English invasions. On March 23, 1807 he was reviewing as urban lieutenant attached to the Buenos Aires artillery corps. His participation in the defense of Buenos Aires against the second English invasion earned him the office of captain.
After the British capitulation and withdrawal, Álvarez de Toledo went to Montevideo, where on September 5 he served as urban captain and on February 10, 1808 he was already a graduate captain of urban militias.
He returned to Buenos Aires where he was at the time of the outbreak of the May Revolution of 1810 . A supporter of the Regency Council , Álvarez de Toledo acted as a spy in the city, informing the royalist authorities of Montevideo, especially the commander of the station José María Salazar .
Forced to go to Montevideo, on March 20, 1811, he submitted to Governor Gaspar de Vigodet an extensive exposition of his antecedents, recalling his participation in defense, having made donations to the Spanish cause and his spy services in the revolutionary capital. He stated that he was suitable to perform any function in the public service requesting employment and financial aid: he claimed to suffer the consequences of his flight from Buenos Aires, forced to emigrate for "having wanted to help a legitimate authority" and having lost 4000 pesos in the shipwreck of his luggage
However, Vigodet did not accept to incorporate him into the army of that square. Álvarez de Toledo had also acted as an agent for Princess Carlota Joaquina de Borbón and although Montevideo required Portuguese assistance, he also distrusted the policies of Carlota and the neighboring state.
During his stay in the besieged plaza, he transcribed by his own hand copies of the Plan of Operations , a secret document requested by the First Revolutionary Junta from its secretary Mariano Moreno in July 1810 in order to define the purposes and strategies of the revolution. Radical in its objectives and discourse, the program proposed to promote an insurrection in the Banda Oriental and southern Brazil , maintain a formal loyalty to Fernando VII of Spain in order to allow the neutrality of England and until the military situation allowed the declaration of independence. and with the enemies to follow "the most cruel and bloodthirsty conduct". Near the fall of the city into patriotic hands, in 1814 Álvarez de Toledo went to Rio de Janeiro , where he presented a copy of the plan to Carlota, and then to Spain, where he did the same at the court of Fernando VII, who had already recovered the government control.
Link to the Operations Plan
Between the years 1886 and 1887, Eduardo Madero found in Seville, in the General Archive of the Indies, a copy of a document whose summarized title would later be known as Plan of operations . The document was "signed" by Mariano Moreno . In 1896, Norberto Piñero published in Buenos Aires the complete version of the document, which due to its novelty produced a great impact in the intellectual spheres, immediately generating conflicts between those who attributed the authorship to Moreno - also maintaining the authenticity of the document - and those who they considered that it was false and contrary to the ideology of the Revolution of May and Moreno.
In 1921, Ricardo Levene , who considered the document to be apocryphal and written by enemies of the Revolution, tried to identify the possible authors. Finally he was able to demonstrate, with calligraphic skills, that the copy found in Seville had been written by a certain Álvarez de Toledo, until then an almost unknown character. [ 1 ] This fact, although it did not have much importance because identifying the copyist did not imply identifying the author, nevertheless allowed to effectively link Álvarez de Toledo with the Plan . Levene continued to believe, without any proof, that the Seville copy was the "primitive copy, matrix of the family of copies" that existed of the document.
In 1970, the historian Carlos Segreti, following in Levene's footsteps, made another interesting contribution. He compared the Plan with a letter that Álvarez de Toledo sent to the Portuguese official Paulo Fernández Viana on April 20, 1814, to which he attached a copy of a letter from the eastern leader Ramón Otorgués. According to Segreti these two letters had words, spelling peculiarities, idioms, structure and objectives similar to the Plan . Segreti's conclusion was that Álvarez de Toledo was the author of the Otorgués letter and the Plan, thus ending the debate. [ 2 ] Historical critics did not think the same, although they kept Álvarez de Toledo on the list of suspected authors.
In 2015, the book Un Plagio Bicentenario by Diego Javier Bauso was published. As a result of his research, Bauso presented a finding as remarkable and surprising as the one produced by the publication of the Plan in 1896: large parts (the exordium, its conclusion and part of the articles) of the Plan of Operations were a verbatim copy of the translation Spanish from The Cemetery of the Magdalene by Jean Baptiste Philadelphe Regnault-Warin, a historical novel with Gothic influences published between 1800 and 1801 in Paris. [ 3 ] Bauso confirmed part of Segreti's finding by saying that Álvarez de Toledo "writes in a very, very similar way to the author of the PlanBut he stressed that his source of "inspiration" was mainly the novel by Regnault-Warin and that also Álvarez de Toledo was not the only author of the Plan.
- Vicente Osvaldo Cutolo, New Argentine Biographical Dictionary (1750-1930) , Editorial Elche, 1968.
- Ricardo Levene, Essay on the May Revolution and Mariano Moreno , Buenos Aires, 1949
- Enrique Ruiz Guiñazú, Epiphany of freedom , Buenos Aires, 1952
- Eduardo O. Dürnhöfer, Mariano Moreno unpublished, his manuscripts , Plus Ultra, 1972
- Juan Carlos Cardinali, Semblanzas y conjeturas en la historia argentina , Editorial Biblos, 2004
- Esteban de Gori, Mariano Moreno: Plan of Operations , National Library Editions, 207, ISBN 978-987-9350-22-5