Andrés de Cianca - Andrés de Cianca
|Andrés de Cianca|
4th Interim Governor of the
Viceroyalty of Peru
(and president of the Royal Court of Lima )
|January 6, 1550 - September 14, 1551|
|Predecessor|| Pedro de la Gasca |
(president of the Royal Court of Lima and interim governor of Peru)
|Successor|| Antonio de Mendoza |
(as 2nd viceroy of Peru)
|July 21, 1552 - April 11, 1553|
|Predecessor||Antonio de Mendoza|
|Successor||Melchor Bravo from Saravia|
|Birth|| AC. 1513 |
Peñafiel (from Old Castile )
April 11, 1553 |
Lima (capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru )
|Educated in||University of Salamanca|
|Occupation||Lawyer, official, judge and colonial ruler.|
Andrés de Cianca ( Peñafiel , Crown of Castile , ca. 1513 - Lima , Viceroyalty of Peru , 1553 ) was a Spanish lawyer and politician, who twice presided over the governing audience of Lima , awaiting the viceroy sent by the Spanish Crown, from 1550 to 1551 and from 1552 to 1553.
He studied at the Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé of the University of Salamanca , and there he graduated with a degree in Law . Appointed judge of the Audiencia of Lima ( 16 of February of 1546 ), traveled to Peru in company of the lawyer Pedro de la Gasca and his side made the long campaign against the rebel Gonzalo Pizarro . He once served as a supplier, because in the Vilca camp, according to Gómara , he distributed rations to the army in times of food shortage.
In the battle of Jaquijahuana of the 9 of April of 1548 , a company of commanded cavalry on the right wing of the royal army at the time the lawyers used to play military and combat positions. He immediately joined the junta that sentenced Gonzalo and his lieutenant Francisco de Carvajal to death . He then went to Cuzco and, exercising functions of Senior Justice , ruled there authoritatively. His life was in danger due to the discontent caused among the colonists by his organization of the divisions; but he had the unruly Juan de Estrada hanged and ordered the exile of others, and peace was restored.
His mission accomplished, he returned to Lima, where he joined the Royal Court in his capacity as senior judge. In such virtue he assumed the presidency of the same and took charge of the government on two occasions:
- Since the departure of La Gasca ( 6 of January of 1550 ) until the arrival of the second Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza ( 14 of September of 1551 ); Y
- Since the death of the Viceroy ( 21 of July of 1552 ) until his own death ( November to April of 1553 ).
Government of the Audiencia of Lima
During the two periods that he had to preside over the Governing Hearing, many important events occurred, which we will now detail.
First period (1550-1551)
In 1550 the Audiencia was integrated, in addition to Cianca, by Melchor Bravo de Saravia , Hernando de Santillán and Pedro Maldonado, who died at the beginning of that year. With the exception of Cianca, they were all newcomers and were unaware of Peru, both the territory and its inhabitants.
During this first phase of his administration, the first riot of Francisco Hernández Girón occurred . This character, dissatisfied with the commission that La Gasca had given him, since it seemed like little reward for his services, upset the city of Cuzco . He was captured and sent to Lima. To appease him, the oidores granted him command of the expedition or "entry" to the country of the Chunchos, the jungle region east of Cuzco ( January 20 , 1550).
Hernández Girón returned to Cuzco to prepare for the expedition but then he had a confrontation with the magistrate Juan de Saavedra and ended up in jail, accused of treason. He was close to being executed, but was sent back to Lima ( June 28 ). The hearers acquitted him and released him. Serious error, if one takes into account that three years later said caudillo would lead a great rebellion, as we will see later.
In 1551, again in Cuzco, another revolt took place, this time led by the noblemen Francisco de Miranda, Alonso de Barrionuevo and Alonso Hernández Melgarejo. The Audiencia then sent Marshal Alonso de Alvarado to Cuzco , invested with the office of Corregidor and Chief Justice. He entered the imperial city on December 3, 1551, causing the flight of most of the rioters. However, he executed the three named leaders, exiled others from Peru and sent some to prison.
By then the new viceroy of Peru Antonio de Mendoza had made his entry into Lima ( September 12 , 1551). With him came the lawyer Diego González Altamirano , appointed as a judge to replace the late Pedro Maldonado. Said viceroy, already old and ailing, left power in the hands of the Hearing Officers.
The Viceroy brought a confirmatory Royal Certificate of the one that had been previously sent to La Gasca, but which the latter had judged prudent not to apply it in order to avoid revolts: it abolished the personal service of the Indians. It happened that the encomenderos abused the free labor of the natives to benefit their mines and haciendas and have domestic service in their great houses, so it is understood that the royal order was inspired by a noble purpose. Influenced by the recently arrived judge Altamirano, Cianca and his colleagues from the Audiencia decided not to postpone the application of said measure any longer and on June 23 , 1552 they issued a provision ordering the abolition of unpaid work by natives.
This measure provoked, as expected, the furious protest of the encomenderos. A conspiracy plan was discovered in Lima to apprehend the oidores and send them to Spain after the viceroy died, who was very ill and on the verge of death. General Pedro de Hinojosa was syndicated as the leader of the plot , but this leader knew how to ingratiate himself in time with the oidores and who was executed was his lieutenant Luis de Vargas. Hinojosa was sent to Charcas ( Alto Peru ) as magistrate and chief justice.
Second period (1552-1553)
Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza died on July 21, 1552 and once again the royal audience , chaired by Cianca, effectively assumed the government of the country. In the south the rebellious attempts continued. Many discontents who resided in Cuzco went to Charcas where they gathered around Sebastián de Castilla . There they revolted and murdered the mayor Pedro de Hinojosa, on March 6 , 1553 . But then the soldier Vasco de Godínez rose , who assassinated Castile and assumed the leadership of the movement, until the arrival of the audience troops under the command of Marshal Alonso de Alvarado put an end to the rebellion.
By then Cianca had already died and was succeeded in the presidency of the hearing by the dean oidor Melchor Bravo de Saravia . It was his responsibility to face the most serious of all the rebellions of disgruntled encomenderos: that of the aforementioned Francisco Hernández Girón, which broke out in Cuzco on November 12 , 1553 and was defeated the following year. Bravo de Saravia finally had to hand over power in 1556 to the III Viceroy of Peru, Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza , Marquis of Cañete.
The audience thus effectively governed Peru between 1550 and 1556, taking into account that the second viceroy Antonio de Mendoza, being already very old and ill, had to delegate the functions of government to it.
Notes and references
- Del Busto Duthurburu , José Antonio: The pacification of Peru . Lima, Librería STUDIUM SA, 1984.
- Inca Garcilaso de la Vega : General History of Peru . Volume II. Lima, Editorial Universo SA, 1972.
- Mendiburu , Manuel: Historical-biographical dictionary of Peru . First part that corresponds to the time of Spanish domination. Volume II. Lima, 1876.
- Tauro del Pino , Alberto: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Peru. Third edition. Volume 5. CHO-CUZ. Lima, PEISA, 2001. ISBN 9972-40-154-1
Predecessor: Pedro de la Gasca President of the Hearing - Governor of Peru || President of the Audience of Lima |
1550 - 1551
Successor: Antonio de Mendoza and Pacheco Virrey of Peru |
Predecessor: Antonio de Mendoza and Pacheco Viceroy of Peru || President of the Audiencia of Lima |
1552 - 1553
Successor: Melchor Bravo de Saravia President of the Hearing of Lima |