Andreas Hofer cruiser - Andreas-Hofer-Kreuzer

The Andreas-Hofer-Kreuzer , also Hofer-Kreuzer or Sandwirtszwanziger are names for 20 and 1 Kreuzer pieces that were minted in Hall in Tyrol during the Tyrolean struggle for freedom in 1809 . The front shows the Tyrolean eagle and the inscription " Gefürstete Grafschaft Tirol ", the reverse shows the face value . [1] [2]

Coin-historical connections

As a result of the Peace of Pressburg and the establishment of French and Bavarian foreign rule in 1805, Andreas Hofer became a popular leader against Napoleon I and the Bavarian occupation among the rebellious peasants of Tyrol . [3] The Tyrolean freedom fighter Andreas Hofer was of rural origin. His so-called Sandhof in the Passeier Valley was also an inn. [4]

After the victorious battle of Bergisel on August 13, 1809 over the French general , the Duke of Danzig François-Joseph Lefebvre , Andreas Hofer moved into Innsbruck on August 15 and created the “provisional general administration”. The liberation of Tyrol from foreign rule was short-lived. In the peace between Austria and France on October 14, 1809, the Vienna-Schönbrunn Peace , Tyrol was not included as a Bavarian province. The enemy superior force moved into the country, the Hofer am Bergisel after violent resistancelost on November 1st. [5]

During this time, between August 15th and October 14th, the so-called Andreas-Hofer-Kreuzer was minted. These 20 and 1 Kreuzer pieces are the last coins to be minted at the Hall Mint . [6]

According to Rudolf Granichstaedten-Czerva, the Hofer-Kreuzer emergency money was supposed to cover the urgent need for money during the Tyrolean struggle for freedom. The silver came from the Brixlegger smelter and from purchases. Even expendable church silver should be used for minting coins . The right to mint coins for the expression of the cruiser pieces had actually Emperor Franz II. (1792-1806-1835). Nevertheless, the minting was not an interference with the coin rack , because it was ordered by the intendant Josef von Hormayr , who was endowed with imperial powers ( decree Innsbruck, July 26, 1809). The opinion that the coinage was a violation of the right to coinage is thus refuted. [7]

Hofer's execution on February 20, 1810 in Mantua. Rudolf Granichstaedten-Czerva mentioned a legend about the execution with reference to a sand host's twenties in Andreas Hofer's old guard . (Contemporary work with picture clock )

Andreas Hofer was captured by treason on January 28, 1810 and shot dead by French grenadiers in Mantua on February 20 . [8th]

The Hofer family was ennobled by the Austrian Emperor Franz I in 1818. [9] Andreas Hofer had already been raised to the nobility on May 15, 1809 [10] . However, due to the events of the war, the decree could not be transported to Tyrol.

A legend

A legend about Hofer's execution, in which a sand host's twenty is important, was reproduced by Rudolf Granichstaedten-Czerva as follows:

“When Andreas Hofer faced the grenadiers of the second battalion of the 13th French Line Infantry Regiment ordered to execute in the fortress wall at Mantua , he gave the commandant of the troops, Corporal Michel Eiffes (born 1780, died 1849), the last coin he still had: a Haller twenty and said that the coin reminded him of his beloved fatherland. Then Hofer called out: Set fire! " [11]

Coin description

The Andreas Hofer cruisers were in the Mint Hall in Tirol under the mint master Hubert Josef Jolliot without Münzmeisterzeichen coined. The Innsbruck clockmaker Joseph Bayrer worked as a coin die cutter . The denominations of coins from the time of the Tyrolean struggle for freedom are 20 kreuzer pieces in silver and 1 kreuzer pieces in copper with the year 1809. They were minted in large numbers and in numerous variants with minor differences, which resulted from the large number of coin dies . [12]

20 cruiser piece

20 Kreuzer 1808, Tyrol, front side.jpg
20 Kreuzer 1808, Tyrol, back side.JPG


Sandwirt's twenties from 1809 (diameter 27 mm, adjustment marks )
1 Kreuzer 1808, Tyrol, front side.jpg
1 Kreuzer 1808, Tyrol, back side.jpg


1 Kreuzer piece from 1809 (diameter 24 mm)

The 20-Kreuzer piece is also known as the Sandwirt's Twenties, as the coins were minted during the Tyrolean uprising, which took place under the leadership of the " Sandwirt " Andreas Hofer.

The diameter of the twenty is 27 millimeters, the rough weight 6.65 grams. The edge of the coin was designed as a leaf edge . [13]

1 cruiser piece

The copper cruiser is a country coin (divisional coin ) from 1809. The diameter is 24 millimeters, the weight approx. 4.5 grams. The front corresponds to the Hofer twenties. On the back there is the indication of value EIN / KREUZER in the laurel and palm branch tied to the wreath. [14] The edge of the coin was designed as a leaf edge.

literature

  • Heinz Fengler, Gerd Gierow, Willy Unger: transpress-Lexikon Numismatics. transpress Verlag, Berlin 1976
  • Helmut Kahnt: The large lexicon of coins from A to Z. H. Gietl Verlag, Regenstauf 2005
  • Friedrich von Schrötter , N. Bauer, K. Regling, A. Suhle, R. Vasmer , J. Wilcke: Dictionary of Coin Studies , Berlin 1970 (reprint of the original edition from 1930)
  • Heinz Tillmann (Ed.): Biographies on World History , Lexicon, Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1989
  • BI-Universallexikon Leipzig, Bibliographisches Institut 1989, Volume 2
  • Josef v. Kolb: The Tyrolean Twenties and Cruisers from 1809 (Tyrolean State Museum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck)
  • Granichstaedten-Czerva: Andreas Hofers alte Garde , Innsbruck 1932, S. 59–60 (Version von Wolfgang Morschner 2009)
  • 1991 edition standard catalog of WORLD COINS by Chester L. Krause and Clifford Mishler, p. 156, No. 148/149: Tirol, 1 Kreuzer and 20 Kreuzer, Aufstand, edition by Andreas Hofer

Individual evidence

  1. Heinz Fengler,…: transpress-Lexicon Numismatics. (1976), p. 19
  2. Friedrich von Schrötter , ...: Dictionary of Coin Studies , p. 27
  3. BI-Universallexikon (1989), S. 421
  4. Heinz Tillmann (Ed.): Biographien zur Weltgeschichte (1989) P. 244: Sandhof in the Passeiertal
  5. Josef v. Kolb: The Tyrolean Twenties and Cruisers from 1809
  6. Josef v. Kolb: The Tyrolean twenties and cruisers from 1809 : minting period, last coins
  7. ^ Rudolf Granichstaedten-Czerva: Andreas Hofer's old guard (1932) (Version by Wolfgang Morscher 2009 on: Die Sandwirts-Zwanziger )
  8. Heinz Tillmann et al. (Ed.): Biographien zur Weltgeschichte (1989), p. 244: data
  9. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4th edition, 1885–1890
  10. Heinz Tillmann (Ed.): Biographien zur Weltgeschichte (1989), p. 244: May 15, 1809
  11. Rudolf Granichstaedten-Czerva: Andreas Hofers alte Garde (1932), pp. 59–60 (Version by Wolfgang Morschner 2009)
  12. Josef v. Kolb: The Tyrolean twenties and cruisers from 1809 : mint master and die cutter
  13. Josef v. Kolb: The Tyrolean twenties and cruisers from 1809 : diameter 27 mm, weight 6.65 g.
  14. Josef v. Kolb: The Tyrolean twenties and cruisers from 1809 : diameter 24 mm, weight 4.5 g