After graduating from high school, Andreas Gruschka studied pedagogy, philosophy , psychology and sociology in Münster . He himself stayed seated twice during his school days.  1992/93 he was a fellow at the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin. From 1994 Gruschka was a professor at the University of Essen , and since 2000 he has been teaching educational science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main with a special focus on school pedagogy and general pedagogy . He has been retired since the summer semester of 2016.
From 1972 Gruschka worked with Herwig Blankertz on the evaluation of the college ( vocational college ) in North Rhine-Westphalia in cooperation with school colleges and individual teachers or groups of teachers. The college school project represented a reform of the vocational school system in North Rhine-Westphalia, which is important beyond state borders. From 1990 to 1994 Gruschka headed their scientific support.
Together with colleagues, Gruschka founded the Institut für Pädagogik und Gesellschaft eV (Institute for Education and Society) which, with his participation, has been publishing the specialist journal Pedagogical Correspondence since 1987 , which appears twice a year. Gruschka became known through the following works:
- "Negative pedagogy" - Gruschka assumes in the series of "Negative Dialectics" by Theodor W. Adorno that the norm-settingwhich is supposed to legitimize and guide educational action, is necessarily undermined by the functions that education must develop for this. The normative claim to maturity and emancipation is systematically negated by a practice that refuses to honor the norm and is therefore doomed to failure. In theory, pedagogy could no longer contribute to the guidance of a practice without being guilty of violating the pupil's claim to maturity and emancipation. With "negative pedagogy", the irresolvable contradiction between norm and function in pedagogy is addressed in an emancipatory and systematic way.
- “Bourgeois coldness and pedagogy” - Here he works on the question of how both educators and edukand can justify the practice of failure to themselves and the other and live in it. He approaches this question with a translation of the category of “bourgeois coldness” from the critical theory of the Frankfurt School into pedagogy: By in the bourgeois age - this is the perspective of Max Horkheimer's early critical theoryand Theodor W. Adorno - the interest in emancipation from all conditions of rule is normatively based, but at the same time it can only be realized in socio-historical execution through the systematic reproduction of rule also in the sense of publicly legitimized inequality, this antinomy forces people to submit to one irresolvable contradiction. This wanders through all social functions and welds them together to form the whole of society.
- In the "Didactics - the cross with the mediation" published in 2002, he entered a contradiction, which is still effective today, against the increasing didactic use in schools and universities. The thesis: Didactics, once invented as a means of imparting knowledge of the world, is increasingly distancing itself from this serving task and only engages in imparting the "artificial" methods recommended with it. These no longer help to understand the content, but increasingly dispose of it. The systematic criticism of the didactic operation developed in the book and the reflection on the theoretical prerequisites of didactics as the independent third party between the learner and the matter led to empirical studies in many ways. In 2013, Gruschka finally presented a pedagogical theory of teaching on an empirical basis. This work shows precisely in which spectrum of patterns in German schools the task of mediation is processed today. Here educational research is conveyed with the reality of what has been researched.
- What is examined here is in many ways shaped by the educational reform of the past 15 years. Gruschka has presented their program, their concepts and their height in the pedagogical practice of schools, but also universities in many case studies (on school program work, school inspection, educational standards, etc.). He has thus become one of the most prominent and at the same time analytically sharpest critics of the reform. This work found political expression in the "Frankfurt Objections against the Technocratic Educational Reform" which caused a sensation in 2005 and in the later founding of the "Society for Education and Knowledge", for which President Gruschka was elected. Scientific analyzes, criticism and perspective were summarized in a volume at Reclam "Understanding Teaching",
- In addition to this topical work, Gruschka found time to write a completely different history of pedagogy. While most of the existing texts dealt primarily with the literary traditions of pedagogy, rarely with socio-historical documents or even “natural protocols” of pedagogical practice, Gruschka became interested early on in the insights that pedagogues owe to the observation work of visual artists. “What we can learn about ourselves as educators from the great painters” was developed in five volumes. The historical first deals with the Italian Renaissance and, as an outstanding painter, Paolo Veronese, the second with the Dutch Baroque and the work of Jan Steen, the Enlightenment moves to France and thematizes the pedagogical genre scenes of the painter JBS Chardin, the last volume aims at Germany and reconstructs the pictorial worlds of the Romantic period and the work of Ph. O. Runge. The project concludes with a volume on photographic explorations of the pedagogical present.
His main research interests are critical theory of education , educational reconstruction of teaching , school theory and theory on school change , the DFG project on school program work, ontogenesis of bourgeois coldness as the development of moral judgment , educational insights into and through images, and work in the archive for educational casuistry.
- Reflection methods according to Gruschka
With this method one can reflect on the behavior of children or certain situations in the educator area in order to learn from mistakes, to get to know alternative courses of action, to explain the behavior of children and to feel more secure and comfortable in other situations. The method consists of 6 steps:
- What motive did the narrator have to tell the story?
- What skills does the narrator show? (Positive skills of the educator, which become clear in action and reflection.)
- What overarching goals did the educator pursue? (Which goal (s) was the most essential, most important for the educator, and which method did she use to achieve this goal?)
- What alternative courses of action would there have been? (How could you have achieved the desired goal even more successfully in this situation?)
- Which alternative goals of action would have been possible? (Other pedagogical objectives that the educator could (still) have pursued?)
- Generalization of the topic (How can one explain the behavior of the child or the situation on the basis of (different) specialist theories (Freud, Erikson, Piaget, Goffman etc.)? What general information can be derived and learned for practice? What knowledge can be learned formulate?)
- Aspects of reflection on behavior
- Why did you notice this action by the addressee (perception)?
- How do you rate what you perceive (assessment)? What is the importance of your perception and do you find the child's actions appropriate / inappropriate? What significance does the relationship with the addressee have for you? Does what you perceive agree / not agree with your own values?
- What could have caused the child to act in this way (action planning)? Do you see any connections to his previous situation? Have you ever had similar experiences? Can you draw on theoretical backgrounds for the action?
- Do you justify your reaction to that of the addressee (action)? For example, explain B. Intentions and Goals.
- What did your reaction yield? What effect did it have on the addressee (effects of my actions)?
- In a comparable situation, would you act similarly or differently in the future? Try a reason.
- Can you explain what could be considered typical of you in your actions (orientation pattern)? Would an intensification or differentiation or a change in your behavioral pattern be conceivable and sensible in the long term?
- How students become educators. Study on competence development and professional identity formation in a dual qualification course of the collegiate school experiment NW. Wetzlar 1985.
- Negative pedagogy. Introduction to Pedagogy with Critical Theory. Wetzlar 1988.
- Bourgeois coldness and pedagogy. Morality in Society and Education. Wetzlar 1994.
- Certain vagueness. Chardin's educational lessons. Wetzlar 1999.
- Didactics - the cross with mediation. Eleven objections to the didactic operation. Wetzlar 2002.
- Discovered but not conquered. Paolo Veronese paints children and young people. Wetzlar 2003.
- Towards a theory of teaching. The contradicting unity of upbringing, didactics and education in the general school. Preliminary study. Frankfurt Contributions to Education, Research Reports, Vol. 5. Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main 2005.
- Photographic explorations on pedagogy. Wetzlar 2005.
- So near and so far - O. Ph. Runge paints children. Wetzlar 2008.
- Presenting as a new form of teaching. Opladen 2008.
- At the limits of teaching. Opladen 2010.
- Teach understanding. A plea for good teaching. Original edition, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-15-018840-8 .
- Critical Theory and Pedagogy. An encounter and its consequences . In: contradictions. 29 (1988).
- als (Ed.): A school experiment is being checked. The evaluation design for college level NW as a concept of action-oriented accompanying research. Kronberg 1976.
- als (ed.): Why pedagogy? The future of civil maturity and public education. Darmstadt 1996.
- with Ulrich Oevermann (ed.): The vitality of critical social theory. Documentation of the workshop on the occasion of the 100th birthday of Theodor W. Adorno. Wetzlar 2004, ISBN 3-88178-324-5 .
- Educational research as research into pedagogy. A foundation. Opladen 2011, ISBN 978-3-86649-417-6 .
- Teaching - an empirical pedagogical theory . Verlag Barbara Budrich, Opladen / Berlin / Toronto 2013, ISBN 978-3-8474-0069-1 .
- To teach. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 2014.
- Norbert Kühne : Internship support . In: Katrin Zimmermann-Kogel (Hrsg.): Praxisbuch Sozialpädagogik . tape 1 . Bildungsverlag EINS , Troisdorf 2005, ISBN 3-427-75409-X , p. 119–147.
- Literature by and about Andreas Gruschka in the catalog of the German National Library
- Archive for pedagogical case studies (archive database for materials of pedagogical practice)
- Henning Sußebach: Dear Marie. In: The time. No. 22. additional text.
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||German educator and university professor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||21. November 1950|