Claudio Monteverdi composed several works for the stage between 1604 and 1643, including ten works of thethen emerging opera genre. For three of them, the music and the libretto exist ( The Fable of Orpheus (1607), The Return of Ulysses to the Fatherland (1640) and The Coronation of Poppea (1643)). Seven other opera projects are known, of which four were completed and performed during Monteverdi's life, while he abandoned the other three at some point. For some of these lost operas , at least the libretto has survived.
The opera genre emerged during the early days of Monteverdi's career, first as court entertainment trying to revive Greek theater . [ 1 ] The earliest known work to be considered an opera in the modern sense is Jacopo Peri's Dafne (1598) , and his Eurydice (1600) is the earliest surviving. [ 2 ] Since Monteverdi served as court composer for the Gonzaga family from 1590 to 1612, he likely joined Duke Vincente I Gonzaga in Florence for the October 6, 1600 premiere ofEurydice . [ 3 ] While Monteverdi's own impressions of the work are unknown, the duke realized the potential of this new art form and sought to gain prestige by sponsoring it. [ 4 ] Therefore, he commissioned Monteverdi in late 1606 for what would eventually become his best-known opera, The Fable of Orpheus , with a libretto by Alessandro Striggio the Younger . [ 5 ]
In 1613, Monteverdi became a chapelmaster at St. Mark's Basilica in Venice , where he still composed operas for the Gonzaga court, but later for the audience at the Teatro Santi Giovanni e Paolo in Venice. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] The only two that they survive are Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria libretto by Giacomo Badoaro and his last opera, The Coronation of Poppea , with text by Giovanni Francesco Busenello . Seven of his operas were lost . Of these, L'Arianna ,Andromeda , Proserpina rapita and Le nozze d'Enea with Lavinia completed them and were performed during Monteverdi's lifetime. The other three lost operas, Le nozze di Tetide , La feint pazza Licori and Armida abbandonata , were never completed, so it is unknown how much music, if any, was completed. For some of them, at least the libretto survived and they were by authors such as Scipione Agnelli , Ercole Marigliani , Ottavio Rinuccini , Giulio Strozzi and Torquato Tasso . [ 8 ]
The term opera was not widely used until the late 17th century , which is why Monteverdi's musical theater works were known by various names such as favola in musica ( musical fable ), dramma in musica ( musical drama ), or tragedia in musica ( tragedy musical). [ 1 ] Monteverdi played a decisive role in the development and popularization of the genre for public musical theater, his The Fable of Orpheus is the first opera that is still regularly performed. [ 9 ]
|Title||Opera title||Period||Period in which the opera was written|
|State||Survival status of the opera in the following four groups||Gender||Gender assigned by Monteverdi|
|survived||Existing libretto and music||Bookseller||The librettist's last name|
|fragments||Existing booklet and music fragments||Premiere||Premiere date and city, if performed|
|libretto||Existing libretto and lost music||Place||Premiere location|
|lost||Lost libretto and music||Chance||Occasion for which the work was composed|
|SV||Stattkus Catalog Number , if available|
|Title||State||SV||Period||Gender [ 11 ]||Bookseller||Premiere||Place||Chance|
|The Fable of Orpheus||survived||318||1606–07||Fairytale in music||Striggio||
February 4, 1607
|Ducal Palace of Mantua||Mantua Carnival|
|Ariadne||fragments||291||1607–08||Tragedy in music||Rinuccini||
May 28, 1608
|Ducal Palace of Mantua||Ducal wedding|
|The wedding of Tethys||lost||1616–17||Maritime Fable [ to ]||Agnelli||Incomplete||Ducal wedding|
|Andromeda||libretto||1618–20||Fairytale in music||Weather in Marigliani||
March 1, 1620
|Ducal Palace in Mantua (probably) [ 11 ]||Carnival Mantua [ 14 ]|
|Armida abandoned||libretto||1626||Rate [ b ]||Incomplete||Wedding ducal [ 16 ]|
|The fake crazy Licori||lost||1627||Strozzi||Incomplete||Possibly rise ducal [ 17 ]|
April 16, 1630
|Palazzo Mocenigo Museum||Wedding|
|The return of Ulysses to the homeland||survived||325||1640||Drama for music||Badoaro||
|Santi Giovanni e Paolo Theater||Venice's Carnival|
|The marriage of Aeneas Lavinia [ d ]||libretto||1640||Tragedy with a happy ending||Badoaro||
|Santi Giovanni e Paolo Theater|
|The coronation of Poppea||survived||308||1643||Musical drama [ and ]||Busenello||
|Santi Giovanni e Paolo Theater||Venice's Carnival|
|Ariadne||fragments||291||1639||Tragedy in music||Rinuccini||
|Teatro San Moisè||Venice's Carnival|
- Portal: Classical music . Classical Music related content .
- Annex: Compositions by Claudio Monteverdi
- Lost operas by Claudio Monteverdi
- Madrigals by Claudio Monteverdi
- History of opera
Notes and references
- The exact genre of the work is unknown and refers to it in various ways: an "opera", an "operatic composition" or a favola marittima (" nautical fiction "), the name by which Monteverdi first described it time. [ 12 ] [ 13 ]
- The text was not written specifically for the opera, as it was adapted from poems by Tasso. [ 15 ]
- Known as an "anatopism", but the meaning of the term is unknown. [ 18 ]
- Alternatively conocida como The marriage of Aeneas and Lavinia or The marriage of Aeneas in Lavinia.
- Sometimes referred to as an "opera regia". [ 1 ]
- Brown et al., 2001 .
- Sonneck, 1913, p. 102.
- Sternfeld, 1986, p. 26.
- Ringer, 2006, p. 16.
- Ringer, 2006, pp. 16, 43.
- Carter, 2002, pp. 1–3.
- Fabbri, 1994, p. 2.
- Carter, 2002, pp. 298–305.
- Ringer, 2006, pp. 43.
- Information from Carter, 2002 , pp. 298–305 in addition to any other references in the row.
- Carter y Chew, 2001.
- Carter, 2002, p. 48.
- Ringer, 2006, p. 113.
- Carter, 2002, pp. 167–168.
- Stevens, 1980, pp. 311–13.
- Fabbri, 1994, pp. 201–204, 223.
- Fabbri, 1994, pp. 198–199.
- Fabbri, 1994, p. 221.
- Information from Carter and Chew, 2001 .
- Brown, Howard; Rosand, Ellen; Strohm, Reinhard; Noiray, Michel; Parker, Roger; Whittall, Arnold; Savage, Roger; Millington, Barry (2001). «Opera (i)». Grove Music Online. Londres (Reino Unido): Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001. (requiere suscripción).
- Carter , Tim ; Chew , Geoffrey (2001). "Monteverdi [Monteverde], Claudio" . Grove Music Online . London (UK): Oxford University Press. doi : 10.1093 / gmo / 9781561592630.001.0001 . (requires subscription) .
- Carter, Tim (2002). Monteverdi's Musical Theatre. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09676-7.
- Fabbri , Paolo (1994). Monteverdi . Carter, Tim (tr.). Cambridge (Reino Unido): Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-35133-1 .
- Sonneck , OG (1913). « " Dafne ", the number Opera. A Chronological Study ». Collectibles of the International Music Society 15 (1): 102-110. JSTOR 929391 . (Requires subscription) .
- Sternfeld, F.W. (1986). «The Orpheus myth and the libretto of Orfeo». En Whenham, John, ed. Claudio Monteverdi: Orfeo. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24148-0.
- Stevens, Denis (1980). The Letters of Claudio Monteverdi. New York: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-23591-4.
- Ringer, Mark (2006). Opera's nombre Master: The Musical Dramas of Claudio Monteverdi. Newark, New Jersey: Amadeus Press. ISBN 978-1-57467-110-0.