The Ancient Rome or Ancient Rome was both the city of Rome as the state founded in antiquity . The Roman civilization , of Latin origin , was formed in the 8th century BC. C. from the grouping of several towns of central Italy . [ 1 ] Rome expanded beyond the Italian peninsula and, from the 1st to the 5th century , dominated the Mediterranean world and Western Europe.by conquering and assimilating local elites. During these centuries, Roman civilization was a monarchy , an oligarchic republic, and later an autocratic empire . His dominance left an important linguistic, legal, artistic, religious, and cultural legacy that profoundly contributed to shaping Western civilization .
The image of a city in continuous progress does not fully correspond to the complexity of the events. Its history has not been one of continuous growth: progress (at very different rates) has been followed by stagnation and sometimes even regression. However, the Romans managed to resolve the internal difficulties born of the conquest under the Republic by transforming their republican institutions. The establishment of the Empire marked the beginning of a period in which the Roman conquest reached the limits of the known world at that time.
Starting in the 3rd century , the Roman world suffered great barbarian invasions from northern Europe and Asia. To resist them, the Empire had to create a new bureaucratic and military structure . This period coincided with the establishment of Christianity as the state religion and the division of the Empire into a western and eastern half. Prey to internal instability and Germanic invasions , the western part of the Empire (which included Hispania , Gaul , Britain , North Africa , and Italy ) collapsed in AD 476.. However, the eastern part of the Empire , ruled from Constantinople (which included Greece , Anatolia , Syria, and Egypt ) survived this crisis. Despite the loss of Syria and Egypt to Muslim expansion , the Eastern Empire continued to develop until it was finally destroyed by the Ottoman Empire in 1453 . This medieval Christian empire, called the "Roman Empire" by its inhabitants, but called the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians, is the last evolutionary and uninterrupted stage of the imperial power and administration of the Roman Empire.
Roman civilization is often studied in classical antiquity alongside Ancient Greece , a civilization that inspired much of the culture of Ancient Rome. In addition to its original model of the exercise of power (there are innumerable princes who wanted to imitate it or were inspired by it), Ancient Rome contributed greatly to the development of law, institutions and laws, war, art and literature, the architecture and technology, as well as languages in the western world.
Foundation according to legend
According to Roman tradition, Romulus (c. 771 BC [ 2 ] -c. 716 BC ) and his twin brother Remus (c. 771 BC -c. 753 BC ) were the founders of Rome and the Roman Senate . A substantial part of the research remains skeptical of this tradition, setting the origin of the city at the end of the 8th century BC. C. [ 3 ] The possible historical bases for the mythological narrative as a whole remain unclear and debated. [ 4 ] [ n1]
Numitor was the king of a city in Lazio called Alba Longa . He was dethroned by his brother Amulio , who expelled him from the city and proceeded to kill all his male children except his only daughter Rea Silvia . As he did not want Rhea Silvia to have children, he forced her to dedicate herself to the cult of Vesta , thus ensuring that she would remain a virgin.
Rhea Silvia was sleeping on the bank of a river and the god Mars fell in love with her, possessed her and made her pregnant. As a result, he had two twins whom he named Romulus and Remus. Before King Amulio learned of the event, he placed his children in a basket in the Tiber River so that they would not suffer the same fate as their uncles. The basket ran aground and the little ones were suckled by a she-wolf, Luperca , and later picked up by shepherd Faustulo and cared for by his wife, Aca Larentia . It was said that they had been educated in Gabio, a town in Lazio; later they decided to found Rome.
When they grew up, they discovered its origin, so they returned to Alba Longa, killed Amulio and replaced their grandfather Numitor on the throne. This gave them territories to the northwest of Lazio. In 753 a. C. the two brothers decided to found a city in that territory in a plain of the Tiber river, according to the Etruscan rite , in the precise place where the basket ran aground. [ 7 ] They delimited the precinct of the city ( pomoerium ) with a plow that would be the supposed Roma quadrata del Palatino . [ 8 ] The city was built on the palatine pomoerium , and Romulus was the sole sovereign. Created the senate, composed of one hundred members ( patres ) whose descendants were called patricians and divided the population into 30 curiae . To populate the city, all kinds of people ( asylum ) were accepted : refugees, freedmen, slaves, fugitives, and so on. Romulus vowed to kill anyone who trespassed without permission.
Romulus died around 716 BC. There are several versions of his death, already taken by the skies in the middle of a storm caused by his father Mars or killed by a group of senators or by his twin Remus . Actually there are no data in a concrete way. In any case, in honor of the date of his disappearance, the Nonas Caprotinas festivities were celebrated . It will end up deified and worshiped under the invocation of Quirino . After his death there will be a year of interregnum until the Senate elects Numa Pompilius as king .
In the current chronology, the date of the founding of Rome was set at April 21 , 753 BC. C. This date was the year 1 for Rome, as it is taken as the reference point for dating events in the Roman world. It was referred to as the Birth of Rome (200 aUC: Anno 200 ab Urbe Condita : "In the year 200 since the Foundation of the City or the Birth of Rome").
The foundation according to historiography
The city of Rome arose from the settlements of Latin , Sabine and Etruscan tribes , the first inhabitants of Rome standing on the seven hills (Celio, Campidoglio, Esquilino, Viminale, Quirinale, Palatina and Aventina) at the confluence between the Tiber River and the Via Salaria , 28 km from the Tyrrhenian Sea . In this place the Tiber has an island where the river can be crossed. Due to the proximity of the river and the ford, Rome was at a crossroads of traffic and commerce. The Roman historiansthey dated the foundation to 753 BC. C., and from that date they counted their age or particular calendar . However, there is also a critical theory of the founding of Rome apart from the legendary theory. Critical theory, supported by many authors, comes to say that Rome arises from the forum romanum . [ citation required ]
Elective monarchy (753-509 BC)
The nascent city-state is ruled by a king (rex) elected by a council of elders (senatus) . Constituted in its beginnings by three peoples: Latinos , Sabinos and Etruscans . The seven mythical or semi-mythical kings are (in chronological order): Romulus , Numa Pompilio , Tulo Hostilio , Anco Marcio , Lucio Tarquinio Prisco , Servio Tulio and Tarquinio el Prisco . Under the first four kings ( Latinos and Sabinos) the Roman economy was agricultural, based on the cultivation of land and grazing. [ 10 ] From the Tarquinia dynasty , of Etruscan origin , it became commercial and expansive. [ 11 ] The last of them, Lucio Tarquinio the Proud , was overthrown in 509 BC. C. , after which the Roman Republic was established .
Republican Rome (509-27 BC)
The Republic was established in 509 BC. C. , according to the last writings of Tito Livio , when the king was exiled, and a system of consuls was placed in his place. Consuls, at first patricians but later plebeians as well, were elected officials who exercised executive authority , but had to fight the Roman Senate , which grew in size and power with the establishment of the Republic. [ 12 ] In this period its most characteristic institutions were forged: the senate, the various magistracies , and the army . A newThe Constitution established a set of control institutions as well as a clear separation of powers.
The Romans gradually subdued, absorbed, federated and unified all the peoples of the Italian peninsula , [ 13 ] most of them Italics (of Indo-European origin , such as the Samnites and Oscos ), like the Latins and relatives with the same Romans, [ 14 ] but also Etruscans and Italians (in Magna Graecia ); making all of peninsular Italy its metropolitan territory. [ 15 ] [16 ] The last threat to the hegemony of Rome in Italy came when Tarentum , a large Greek colony, asked Pyrrhus of Epirus for helpin 282 BC. C. in his fight against Rome. [ 17 ]
From the year 264 a. C., Rome faced the Ancient Carthage in the Punic Wars , conquering Sicily and Iberia . After defeating Macedonia and the Seleucid Empire in 146 BC. C., the nascent state achieves an enormous expansion both political and economic, spreading throughout the Mediterranean . [ 18 ] Meanwhile, the conflicts between patricians and commoners characterized the internal political struggle (see Secessio plebis) throughout the republican period, and only gradually will the commoners achieve full political (although not social) equalization.
The expansion brings with it profound changes in Roman society. The inadequate political organization (designed for a small city-state and not for the great territory that is already Rome) is evident to some, but all attempts at change are blocked by the ultra-conservative senatorial elite. The confrontation between the various factions produced in the 1st century BC. C. an institutional crisis that will lead to various revolts, revolutions and civil wars .
Roma imperial (27 a. C.-476 d. C.)
The subsequent victor of all these civil wars, Caesar Augustus , will de facto abolish the Republic and consolidate a one-man, centralized government known as the Roman Empire. From this moment on, the political stability of the Empire will be linked to the character of the emperors who will succeed Augustus, alternating periods of peace and prosperity with times of crisis.
Augustus, who inaugurated the Julio-Claudian dynasty , represents the period of maximum splendor of the Empire. This dynasty, completed in 68 by the infamous Nero , will be followed by the period of instability known as the year of the four emperors . This will end with the rise of Vespasian , who inaugurated the Flavian dynasty , of non-patrician origin. [ 19 ] They will be followed from the year 96 to 180 by the so-called "five good emperors" ( Nerva , Trajano , Adriano , Antonino Pío andMarcus Aurelius ), the period considered to be the peak of Rome.
With Septimius Severus begins a distinctively military and monarchical period, and the end of his line will lead to the period known as military anarchy , which lasts for the rest of the third century until the arrival of Diocletian . The Crisis of the 3rd century was a long period of internal struggles for power where emperors, appointed by their legions, followed one another without interruption.
Fall of the Western Empire
Diocletian (r. 284-305) undertook a great reorganization of the Empire, instituting the Tetrarchy . His successor Constantine I the Great stood out for legalizing Christianity ( Edict of Milan ) and founding the city of Constantinople as a new capital. Shortly after, in 395 , Emperor Theodosius I the Great divided the Empire between his two sons, Arcadius and Honorius , resulting in the division into the Eastern Roman Empire , based in Constantinople , and the Western Roman Empire , with capital in Ravenna .
In the year 476 , General Odoacer deposed the usurper Romulus Augustus and sent the imperial insignia to the East, recognizing Zeno as the only emperor of the 2 and being in turn recognized as King of Italy . Zeno, who was busy with the riots in the East, finally granted Odoacer the rank of patrician and accepted him as his viceroy. Zeno, however, insisted that Odoacer have to pay homage to Julio Nepote, a refugee in Dalmatia, as the rightful emperor of the Western Empire. Odoacer never returned any real territory or power, but did have coins issued in the name of Julius Nepote throughout Italy. The assassination of Julius Nepote in 480 prompted Odoacer to invade Dalmatia, annexing it to his kingdom and ending the last Roman territory.
In 488, the eastern emperor authorized a troublesome Gothic chieftain, Theodoric (later known as "the Great") to invade Italy with his army. After several campaigns, in 493 Theodoric and Odoacer agreed to rule jointly. They celebrated their agreement with a reconciliation banquet, in which Theodoric's men murdered Odoacer's and Theodoric personally cut Odoacer in two. [ 20 ]
The first social and political structure of Latinos was the family : the father ( pater familia ), the wife (united to the father of the family by the sacred rite of the cake), the children, the children's wives, the children of the sons, and unmarried daughters. From the grouping of some families of the same trunk, the gens arose , and from a set of families the tribes arose .
The family is made up of the closest ones ( agnates ) but, as the family expands, the gens or race of a common trunk is formed, made up of the complete family proper ( adnati ) and of the gentiles , all those from of the same ancestor. It was possible the union of the diverse groups, either of gens or of tribes. Each group has a common meeting point, generally for religious worship (although not exclusively for this purpose), a point that constitutes the embryo of the civitas (cities).
The founding of Rome is attributed to three tribes: the Ramnes , the ticios and Luceres . These three groups founded the so-called Roma Quadrata on the Palatine Hill . Another city founded by another or other groups in the Quirinal , joined the Roma Quadrata, thus emerging the civitas ('city') called Rome .
The first Roman citizens are called patricians (or patres ), because they are either parents (pater familia) or they are children of parents linked to paternal obedience (male children did not reach the status of father of the family until the father died and they became independent, but it was taken for granted that they would reach this condition).
The children of the patricians , when they turned 17 (later the age was lowered to 14 years) acquired the status of full citizens (for this reason they celebrated a festival in which they stopped wearing the praetexta toga typical of the boys and put on the toga virilis , typical of men), but they remained subject to the power of the father until he died.
The patricians have the full right of citizenship: they form the people and are among the inhabitants those of the highest social class. His rights were: Suffrage , the performance of political or religious public office, the right to allocation of public land, own civil rights of gens ( guardianship , inheritance , power, etc.), the right to contract marriage with other members of the gens , the right of patronage , the right of contract (the only one that also extended to free non-patricians) and the right to make a will (the set of these rights constituted theius qüiritium or ius civatis ). As obligations we will cite: military service , and the duty to contribute with certain taxes to support the State .
Cities dependent on Rome
Once the Roman territorial expansion began, many cities became dependent on Rome. When a city submitted to Rome at its discretion, its citizens were left with the legal status of dedications ( Dediticius ). Although most cities were subject to discretion after the First Punic War , the institution is probably earlier.
Rome reserved eminent sovereignty over these cities, but returned the usufruct to them, with the exception of the ager publicus . Rome recognized the autonomy of some of these cities but their lands were subject to the tithe of the harvest, and in case of exemptions, these were given in a personal capacity (for example, to the inhabitants of a city even if they cultivated land in another city). The tithe was generally paid in kind and the benefit allowed to the collector was limited.
The cities subjected to Rome, including their rural territory, had no right to declare war on their own, but they had to declare it when Rome did. They were also prohibited from making agreements of any kind with other States or Cities. In addition, they could not mint money and it was the Roman coins that had legal tender in all these cities.
There were several types of cities linked to Rome:
- Cities of Roman law : Initially, in the first republican stage, during the expansion of Rome by Italy, some Italic cities received the full right of Roman citizenship ( civitas optimal jure ), especially the ancient allied cities of the Latin League , the Sabine cities and a large part of the volscan cities . To them were added other Roman colonies and municipalities cum suffrage , which enjoyed the right of citizenship, scattered throughout the Italian peninsula and, after the social war and the Lex Plautia Papiria, Roman citizenship was granted to all the inhabitants of Italy . Later, and especially in imperial times, Roman citizenship began to be granted to certain colonies and municipalities of the provincial territories , that is, of the territories outside of Italy. [ 21 ]
- Latin law cities: The cities subject to Latin law were initially those of the Latin League that had not received the right of Roman citizenship. Later, always during the first republican stage, the colonies of Latin law (that is, the colonies that did not have the right to vote and participate in political life), followed a procedure similar to that of the colonies of Roman law, initially spreading through Italy and, later, in the provinces; disappearing completely within Italy when all Italians acquired Roman citizenship and spreading, mainly in imperial times, in specific places in the provincial territories. [ 22 ]
- Cities without vote : The cities with the right of civitas but without vote ( civitas sine suffragio ) were in third place , which although they could be called citizens, had to bear all the civic burdens (military recruitment, ordinary taxes, services and special contributions) without compensation ( without the right to vote). These cities were administered for judicial affairs by an annual Prefect appointed by the Praetor of Rome. Its civil administration was in the hands of its own local magistrates, generally of the aristocracy. These, in the same way as the colonies of the Latin right, abounded, especially during the Empire, in the provinces, that is, in the territories outside of Italy.
- Confederate cities : Initially, at the beginning of the republican stage, all the Italian cities devoid of Roman citizenship were known as municipalities of socii (allies) and foederati (confederates), whose rights were established by the private treaties concluded with each of them. These cities supply contingents to the army in a predetermined amount and integrating the alae sociorum (allied troops), differently from the other Italics provided with Roman citizenship (which made up the legions), being the equipment of the contingent in charge of the confederate city. They were governed by local magistrates emerged from the aristocracy. This category disappeared completely in republican times, when all Italians acquired Roman citizenship (and all became members of the legions); being replaced by a new category, that of auxiliaries , recruited from provincial indigenous people without citizenship. [ 23 ]
Rome is governed by a king, representative of the monarchical institution, to whom all power corresponds ( imperium ) and dictates orders ( dictator ), who was chosen among the people as the head of a great political family ( magister populi ).
The king was assisted by the lictors , bailiffs who preceded him in his actions with the ax and the rods . In his absence the administrative powers belonged to a delegate ( praefectus urbis ). If the king did not designate a successor, the citizens appointed an interrex during the interregnum, for a period of five days, and then a new king was elected, or a new interrex was appointed for another five days with the power to designate a new chief.
In front of the king the institution of the Council of Elders ( senatus ) is erected to counterbalance the royal institution. The first senators are the representatives appointed by each gens . They are for life. As the number of gens is invariable (successive families always arise from a common trunk and therefore are integrated into one of the existing gens ) the number of senators is also invariable.
However, there was an exception: when a senator died, the king was empowered to appoint a temporary substitute (until the appointment of the substitute designated by the gens ). The custom of royal appointment ended up granting the king the choice of senators .
The senate was a merely consultative body, but being emanated from the people, the king often summoned it and considered its proposals. Their meetings were held in the comitium ( forum ) in a room called the bule . [ citation needed ] Later on there was a group of people who decided who would face the king and who would handle the silver tickets.
Divisions of the Roman population: the gens , the curiae and the tribes
The division of the population was made from the gens :
The decimal system is present in other aspects of Roman society:
- Each gens contributed ten infantry soldiers ( thousands or militia), one cavalry (eqües) and a senator .
- In the cities subjected by Rome, a Council of Hundred Elders ( centum-viri ) was established, each of whom was the head of ten houses (ten gens = one curiae ), from which the denomination of decurions arises .
The decimal system then governs in Roman society, although, although at first they had to respond to a reality, over time they led to a mere theoretical division: it was soon inaccurate to speak of curiae with ten gens when new families were introduced, which increased the number of gens of the curia existing and later the number of curies . Nor did each decurion correspond to command over ten houses. On the other hand, the contribution to the army is basically maintained. Thus, as the years go by, the primitive numbers cease to correspond with reality but tradition is maintained and thus the gens and families are increased or divided by decree, but reality prevails and the division is no longer geometric and inflexible.
Thus, when the number of senators was fixed at three hundred, it did not mean that there were only three hundred gens , but that among all the existing ones (whose number could be greater or less) only three hundred senators were appointed. The curiae stopped being ten to go to an indeterminate number (up to 30), whose set made up the city. Also the 3000 infantrymen and 300 knights that made up the army left the group, and not considering each gens (thus some contributed more and others less). The same situation was reproduced in the cities subjected to Rome.
The curiae (ten gens ) were very early the basis of the city. The curiae met in an assembly led by the curium , and in the presence of a priest (flamen curialis) . Recruitment and taxes were done very early on the basis of the curiae .
The members of the curiae were the citizens who voted, and the voting was called "curial elections", the voting being held separately in each curia . Elections were normally held on March 24 and May 24 of each year.
The Roman citizens were divided into thirty-five different tribes ; four were originally urban, typical of the city of Rome ( Collina , Esquilina , Palatina and Suburana ) and ten rural, from the outskirts of the city. During the conquest of the Italian peninsula , the rest of Italics registered in later tribes were added. In the year 395 a. There were already twenty-one tribes and twenty-five in the year 389 a. C .; it finally went to thirty-five in the year 241 BC. C. The tribes were divided into groups of votes in the different comitia, from which magistrates and officers were elected to serve the state. Some tribes had more voting power than others, for example the Palatine was one of the most important and influential. These thirty-five tribes were:
Aemilia , the Aniensis , Arnensis , Camilia , Claudia , Clustumina , by the Colline , Cornelia , the Esquiline , the Fabii , Falerna , Galeria , of the Horatii , Lemonia , Maecia , Menenia , Oufentina , the Palatine tribe , Papiria , the Pollian , drained , Publilian , Pupinia , the Quirine tribe ,Romilia , Sabatina , Scaptia , Sergia , Stellatina , Suburana , Terentina , Tromentina , Velina , Voltina and Voturia .
Decisions in Rome were made in the elections, that is, in the votes of the assemblies. The oldest elections are the comitia calata , summoned by the king to solemnize certain religious acts. The political elections were those in which the population organized in curiae (initially one curia was ten gens ) voted . They were convened on March 24 and May 24 and when the king considered it convenient. They decided on the election of a monarch , important political issues and the granting of the right of citizenship. The convener presented a proposal and the citizens of the curia with rights (probably one vote for each head of the family) voted for it. Eachcuria was one vote and 16 curiae (out of 30) were required for approval.
Full citizens, fees and clients
With full citizens or patricians -entendiéndose as such head of household ( paterfamilias ) and their male children were citizens' fees ", guests from other cities who renounced their old citizenship and accepted Roman honorary citizenship. There were also the clients of the patricians and the slaves.
The group of clients was basically made up of slaves freed by their patrician masters, and who after their liberation remained linked (they and their descendants) to their former master (and their heirs), who exercised a certain paternalistic protection and protectionism over them. in exchange for certain services and loyalties. This group also included some foreigners (inhabitants of defeated cities who were not allowed to reside in their city but had not been declared slaves, and who constituted as a client group of the entire city of Rome) and exiles subject to the patronage of a patrician.
Instruction and training
For four months the new recruits were subjected to relentless training . At the end of this period the survivors could already be called soldiers - milites -. Those who could not resist the training were rejected.
First they were taught to parade marking the step. They were then taken on the march, forcing them to the maximum until they were able to travel 20 Roman miles - 30 km - in five hours. Then they would have to travel the same distance loaded with all their equipment, which included weapons and armor , kitchen utensils, stakes for the palisade, digging instruments and supplies for several days, because at the end of each march they had to build a camp with ramparts. and defense moats.
At first the legionaries used beasts of burden and chariots to transport the equipment. But the famous general Cayo Mario, who promoted major reforms in the army , forced them to personally transport almost all the necessary equipment to reduce the size of the quartermaster caravans (they were called "Mario's mules"). The complete equipment had to weigh at least 30 kg , and the weapons and armor more than 20.
Legionaries held marches three times a month for 25 years. This training and mobility was one of the reasons why the Roman army was so superior to other armies. This was only part of the instruction, since the training program also included running, jumping, horse riding, and swimming . When it was considered that he was in good physical shape, instruction in the handling of weapons began.
Recruits learned to attack a thick stake driven into the ground with a heavy wooden sword and a wicker shield that weighed twice as much as a normal shield. They were urged to strike head-on, without describing bows with the sword, which can be avoided more easily. They were also trained to throw heavy wooden javelins against the stakes.
Once this step was passed, they were considered worthy of wielding genuine leather- lined weapons to avoid accidents, which would seem very light compared to heavy wooden weapons.
A legion was made up of ten cohorts of 480 men each, unless it was a court of assault or invasion (made up of about 20 or 30 men), which gives the figure of 4800 men in total; that in theory, since it does not seem certain that the legions have been with their complete paintings, far from it.
Normally each century formed about a 10 x 8 man painting. As the second century of each maniple came down to close the gap, the depth of the legion's line of battle was 8 men. Since there were three lines that a legion could present, the combat front was structured as a succession of lines eight men deep. Let us remember that in Cannasthe maniples formed with their depth doubled, that is, with 16 men; an experiment that cost the Romans 50,000 dead. Since the legion's tactical secret was none other than flexibility, the eight-man deep line of battle was the most rational and best suited to this essential characteristic. But if the depth had to be reduced, that same flexibility worked the miracle of allowing the lines to "thin".
The classes that distinguished themselves were five: patricians, commoners, slaves, clients and freedmen. The tension between patricians and commoners and the rebellions of the slaves were the most important political news; the first three were the classes with the greatest political activity; the other two less.
This social organization was not static throughout the history of Ancient Rome. There were tensions, changes, evolution.
In the monarchy
The free citizens , in turn, were divided into privileged (the patricians , in lat. Patricii ) and unprivileged .
They were the first families settled in Rome and their descendants. Each one claims to descend from a more or less deified ancestor ( pater ). Those who have the same pater form a gens , bear the same surname ( nomen gentilicium ) and celebrate the same cult ( sacra gentilicia ).
Since the beginning of Rome, the patricians and their families constitute the first social link. These patricians owned slaves , probably many times in great numbers. Patricians are at the base of the foundation of Rome and, therefore, are Roman citizens. He has the exclusive power of public office, and they direct the life of Rome.
Later, the right of citizenship is extended to the so-called minor gentes , that is, to those who, coming from other cities or within the same city, without being patricians, acquired Roman citizenship . The patricians said that they were the relatives of the founders of Rome. ( Romulus was the founder and first king of Rome).
The clients were foreigners or poor refugees, subject to the patronage of a patrician, who gave him financial help, defended him before the law, and allowed him to participate in religious ceremonies in exchange for his accompanying him in the war and helping him. in all jobs in which the patrician requested it. The patricians prided themselves on having a large or important clientele.
They make up the majority of the population (the crowd), also made up of foreigners, poor refugees, or clients who had fallen out with their "employers." They were considered free men, so they could not participate in politics or religion.
It is the normal fate of prisoners of war . Legally, they lacked all rights : they were instrumentum vocale ("speaking tool"). They did the worst jobs for free and for life. The treatment depended on the personal character of the master. They became very numerous with the expansion of Rome.
In the Republic
At this stage (509-27 BC) there were strong social tensions. It may be that from the beginning of it it was a social reform (attributed by ancient historians to King Servius Tulio ) consisting of founding the social hierarchy not on birth or religion, but on money and territorial demarcation.
The plebs logically grew more than the patriciado, because the populations annexed by Rome and the foreigners who came to live in the City entered it. But such a large number of inhabitants did not resign themselves to being in the public life of comparsa; Nor was it profitable for them to pay taxes or go to military service because they were not cives (citizens). The commoners fought hard for their political equalization with the patricians. Some of the steps they had to take were the following:
- Struggle of commoners to achieve equal rights:
- year 494. General strike . The commoners leave Rome, to the Monte Sacro , before the refusal of the patricians to political equality. Rome was collapsed. The patricians had to give in and compromise. The commoners returned with this pact:
- Freedom will not be lost due to non-payment of debts ;
- Two 'tribunes of the plebis ' ( tribuni plebis ) are accepted as ordinary magistrates with the right to veto any action of the Senate , or of the other magistrates, that harms the plebs, and with the capacity to legally go to any commoner in distress. The tribunes will later be the leaders of the entire protest movement;
- the legality of an exclusively plebeian assembly ( concilium plebis ) is accepted .
- years 451-449. Written law . Until this moment in Rome, the patricians judged each conflict according to custom and oral tradition, which led to many irregularities, because there was no written law. At this time the first code that occupies 12 tables ( lex XII tabularum ) is drawn up and is promulgated despite the initial resistance of the patricians. From here the legal work of the Romans will start, which will be one of their most important cultural legacies for humanity.
- year 409. Questioning . In this year the commoners acceded for the first time to the magistracy .
- year 367. Consulate . In this year the lex Licinia will admit the principle, and in 342 for the first time the two consuls will be commoners.
At this point, it can be said that commoners and patricians have equal rights. But the economic and religious differences remain. Rich patricians and commoners will understand each other to the detriment of the poor commoners, the proletarii (whose only wealth is their offspring, their children). The social reform, which Tiberius and Gaius Graco tried and for which they were assassinated, tried to help these men who had all the political rights but lacked food.
- Social classes in the republican era after the above:
- Cives (citizens): patricii (patricians) and plebeii (commoners)
- Non cives : liberti (freedmen) and servi (servants)
- Roman citizenship:
For centuries it is the most desired title. It consists of some rights ( iura ) and some obligations ( munera ). At this time it encompasses:
- public ivra (political rights): ius sufragii (right to vote); ius honorum (right to be eligible); ius sacrorum (right to have religion or to be eligible for priestly functions); ius provocationis (right of appeal to the people in criminal proceedings).
- ivra privata (civil rights): ius commercii (property right: buy, sell, test ...); ius connubii (right to contract legal marriage); ius legis actionis (right to take legal action).
- mvnera (obligations): census (obligation to register in the census periodically); militia (obligation to serve in the army for the specified time); tributum (obligation to pay taxes; until 167 BC).
- Acquisition of citizenship rights ( civitas )
- by birth : born of legitimate marriage (iustae nuptiae) of a civis; being the son of a freedman or foreigner favored with the granting of citizenship (civitatis donatio);
- Loss of citizenship rights ( civitas )
- losing the status libertatis : by criminal conviction (public sale trans Tiberim ) for insolvency, soon suppressed; by deprivation of water and electricity ( interdictio aquae et ignis ) or deportation ; or for refusing the census , for military service , for deserting, for being imprisoned in a war, or for violating the rights of nations;
- losing the civitatis status : resignation to citizenship ( reiecto civitatis ) or to become civis of another city.
- The knights ( equites ) and the senatorial nobility ( nobilitas )
The cavalry of the Roman army consisted of rich men who brought horses or used state horses. They were a distinguished social group (characterized by a gold ring and a purple embroidered tunic), but they were soon insufficient and had to be replaced with paid soldiers. They were thus left as a bourgeoisie dedicated not so much to the purchase and exploitation of land, as to banking businesses. They seldom engaged in politics, where they were contemptuously regarded as homines novi (without illustrious ancestors). In front of this ordo equester , is the nobilitas or ordo senatorius, formed by patricians and plebeians who had an ancestor who served in his time a curatorial magistracy (consul, praetor, censor or mayor). This senatorial nobility is different from the patrician nobility, and is going to be confused in the Senate.
- Clients, freedmen and slaves
The customers who were absorbed by the plebs , came to disappear the beginning of the Republic , but then reappeared at the ruined middle class with wars and products sent to Rome free peoples under. Many do not get to have a legal bond with a patronus and walk around Rome aimlessly, after the rich man or the politician who offers them the most.
The slaves , however, star in this important era rebellions.
In the Principality
A distinction is made between cives and no cives . The cives , in turn, can be honestiores (the rich) or humiliores (the poor). Among the honestiores , there are the clarissimi or belonging to the ordo senatorius , and the egregii or belonging to the ordo equester . The non cives , finally, are the liberti and I served them .
- Augustus reforms the ordines , placing citizens with more than a million sesterces in the senatorius (they hold the republican magistracies and will have red sandals, a laticlavian tunic and, from Marco Aurelio -161-180-, the title of clarissimi ); and in the equester he places whoever has 400,000 (they will hold new positions: prefect , procurator ; they wear anguish tunic and gold ring; from Aurelio they will have the title of egregii ).
- The slaves greatly increased in number. It is said that some families had more than 500 and that in Rome there were about 250,000. The treatment is softened by Stoic and Christian influence . Adriano and Antonino Pío legislate against bad treatment.
- Freedmen increased because there were many manumissions. Augustus even prohibited the release of more than 100 by will. Some played an important political role.
- Clients still exist, in the sense that everyone is a client of someone more important. The emperor has as clients the 150,000 proletarians registered on the list of needy for the free distribution of food each month ( annona ).
- Shortly before the Low Empire , the ius civitatis , which already during the republican era, in 89 BC. C., had been granted to all Italics by means of the Lex Plautia Papiria ; under Caracalla , in 212 AD. C., is going to be extended to all the free of the provinces by means of the Antoniniana Constitutio , that is to say, the Roman citizenship is also granted to all the provincials, to solve fiscal and military problems that Rome had. In this way, being a citizen ceases to be important and, incidentally, the privileged position of Italy (and with it Rome itself) in the context of Empire disappears . [ 24 ]
In the Dominated
If in the Republic and in the Principality there were only two categories (free and slaves), in the Dominate a new social class will appear, intermediate between free and slaves: the colonists . The hierarchy becomes stronger and more watertight: almost a caste system . The cives , then, could be free or colonists, generally poor. The free cives included the imperial family ( nobilissimi ), senators ( clarissimi, spectabiles ), knights ( egregii, perfectissimi ) and ordinary people, poor unlike the other three. You don't cive themfor their part, they were slaves and freedmen, sometimes very wealthy.
The novelties of this time are:
- equivalence of the ordo senatorius and the equester (these enter the Senate);
- the humiliores remain from the IV hereditarily fixed to their profession ( guilds );
- slavery decreases because the new forms of production no longer make it indispensable; many flee and become robbers;
- the colonists are poor and free, but they remain subject to the land of the master they work: they have to cultivate it perpetually, they cannot leave it for a day; they cannot go to marry outside the domain ; the children follow the condition of the parents. A new system is thus being born: the feudal one .
The constitution of Servio Tulio and the new population divisions
King Servius Tulio established the division into Tribes and that the service to the army and the payment of the tribute (when for urgent reasons it is imposed) would not only affect the citizens personally, but their properties would be taken into account: all citizens who cultivate a domain ( adsidui ) or own it ( locupletes ), whether or not they are Roman citizens, they are obliged to perform military service . Those appointed to carry out military tasks would be chosen from a new division by property. Thus the soldiers (between 20 and 60 years old) would be divided into five classes ( classes ):
- 1st class: Those who for their possessions brought armor ( classici ). This class corresponded to those who owned a heredium in freehold (half of the Roman lands corresponded to heredia owned in freehold, while the other half had been divided by successive hereditary partitions or by sales; a heredium was a rustic estate whose minimum extension was twenty yugada , that is to say 5.4 ha , that is to say that the Roman measure of the yugada was equivalent to 2700 square meters ). They were armed with spear ( up to ), helmet (galea ), cuirass ( lorica ), round shield ( clipeus ) and leggings ( ocreae ). This first class had to buy and maintain a horse from which they were called eqüite , that is, knights.
- 2nd class: Those who owned three-quarters of a heredium (that is, at least 40,500 square meters ).
- 3rd class: Those who owned half a heredium (at least 27,000 m² ).
- 4th class: Those who owned a quarter heredium (at least 13,500 m²).
- 5th class: Those who had an eighth of heredium (at least 6750 m²).
The armament of the succeeding classes was getting lighter and lighter. After the five classes were those who had nothing ( capite censi ) who collaborated in the military as carpenters, blacksmiths, musicians, and so on. For every 80 1st class soldiers, 20 2nd class, 20 3rd class, 20 4th class and 28 5th class had to leave. The soldiers were mobilized for the campaign, and after this they were discharged. On the other hand, the knights remained in the army continuously, and their members came from the families of citizens with greater wealth.
The various classes formed the population likely to act militarily and met in assembly, in the so-called centuriate elections ( comitia centuriata ). In order to facilitate the levies, the constitution of Servio Tulio divided the city into four territorial districts called tribes, each with a similar population. The soldiers were divided into two categories: young people ( juniors ) between 16 and 25 years old; and veterans ( seniors ), over 25 years old.
They were structured in Legions, forming a legion 3000 soldiers ( classes ) and 1200 auxiliaries ( vélites ). The legions operated in formation constituted by rows of soldiers: the first four rows were integrated by soldiers in full armor ( hoplites or heavy infantry ). A legion (4200 men) was divided into centuries (up to a total of 42). Almost half of the men in a legion had full armor (the number of hoplites was 2,000 for each legion). Another thousand men were 2nd and 3rd class soldiers. The rest, the auxiliaries ( velites ) were soldiers of the 4th class (in number of 500) and of the 5th class (in number of 700). In one legion there were 1050 men from each of the fourtribes into which the city was divided; and in the centuries, each tribe contributed 25 men.
At this time Rome normally had four legions (two of them in campaign and two in garrison). Each legion numbered three hundred knights. Everything that the soldiers gained in the fight, be it movable or immovable, passed to the Roman State.
This recruitment system based on the assets owned, made it necessary to establish a census of properties and transfers, which was reviewed every four years. An immediate effect was to divide Roman society: to the already existing division between patricians and commoners, there was now added the division between owners (those who have land, whether they are citizens or not) and proletarians (that is, those who raise children, mostly commoners, but also with some citizens ruined or dispossessed by successive partitions). The census was done every four years. The following year sacrifices ( lustrum ) were made and the census takers or censors resigned from their positions.
The census was created in the year 212 a. C.
Jurisdiction is concentrated in the city, and in the monarchical phase in the king, who has his "court" and orders ( jus or ius) on established days ( dies fasti ) sitting in the so-called "chair curul" ( sella curulis ) aided by the bailiffs ( lictors ), and in front of the litigating parties ( rei ).
Some crimes have special judges:
- The duoviri perduellionis for the insurrection.
- The quaestores paricidii for murder.
- Special officers, called the three viri nocturni , deal with matters related to night fires, security police and executions monitoring.
The torture can only be applied to slaves.
The preventive detention is the rule.
The death penalty was applicable to alter the public peace whom, and for other crimes. It had several forms:
- False witnesses were thrown from a height (Tarpeian Rock) was the fate of traitors.
- Harvest thieves were hanged.
- Arsonists were burned alive.
There was a right of appeal ( provocatio ). The pardon belonged to the people.
There were also some special types of pardons:
- He who knelt before a priest of Jupiter could not be beaten in twenty-four hours.
- He who entered his own house in chains had to be unleashed.
- The criminal who, when going to an execution, ran into a vestal (virgin, a kind of priestess), was forgiven.
Civil trials were judged by the king or by a commissioner appointed by him. Reparation was often verified by means of a transaction, and if there was no agreement, the penalty ( poena ) was set by the judge.
In the event of theft, the thief could pay for a satisfactory repair. If he could not or was irreparable, the thief became a slave to the robbed. In cases of injury, compensation was arranged. In injury cases, the Talion could be claimed (that is, causing the same damage).
Property and contracts
According to the deposit it was awarded to the priests for public sacrifices . The losing party had thirty days to pay the benefit or the claimed debt; if he did not do so, he went to the execution route and was forced to pay unless he provided new witnesses to justify his right ( vindex ).
If he persisted in not paying or could not do so, he became a slave , but for a period of sixty days the sentence was suspended in case someone took pity on him and paid the debt, in which case he was free. If no one sympathized and paid, the winner of the judgment received him as property, and could kill him, sell him as a slave abroad or keep him for himself (in which case, when he became a slave, this condition was transmitted to his descendants), but always to be used outside the walls of Rome. Later the passage to slavery disappeared in favor of the creditor, and those who could not or did not want to pay were imprisoned in the so-called lautúmiae (prisons).
The State exercised the guardianship of minors and the incapable.
The slaves could be manumitted, this is freed. The release could be private (in which case the master had the right to retract and recover the slave), or public (in which case it was perpetual and irrevocable).
This was the result of an important exchange between different civilizations: Greek culture and the cultures developed in the East ( Mesopotamia and Egypt , above all) contributed to shape the culture and art of the Romans. One of the vehicles that most contributed to the universalization of Roman culture, which was soon that of the entire Empire, was the use of Latin as the common language of all the peoples subjected to Rome. In the two centuries that followed Augustus' war , the Roman Empireit reached its greatest extent and carried out intense civilizing work. Roman culture was no longer limited to Rome and Italy, but spread to the most distant border provinces.
They stood out in technology, the edicts of the praetors, the dispositions of the senate, the popular assembly and the emperors and the opinions of the Roman jurisconsults. The fundamental principles have been incorporated into the legislation of all civilized peoples by Rome.
Status of women
In wealthy families, women had to lead a life of obedience. Work was alien to him, except spinning and weaving . As a housewife she had to supervise the domestic tasks, carried out by the slaves. For the Romans, the greatest crime that a woman could commit was adultery , considered not only a crime of a moral character, but also a betrayal of the tutelary gods.
Slave women were considered objects and had to do what their owner ordered; even have sex. [ 25 ]
Unlike men, women were exempt from conscription into the army and from fighting in military campaigns.
Homosexuality in Ancient Rome
The historical sources available on the practice of homosexuality in Ancient Rome, their attitudes and acceptance of the fact are abundant. There are literary works, poems, graffiti, and commentaries on the predilections of all kinds of characters, including single and married emperors. However, graphic representations are scarcer than in classical Greece .
Attitudes toward homosexuality changed with the times, depending on the historical context, ranging from strong condemnation to considerably wide acceptance. In fact, it was considered a cultural custom in certain provinces.
When dealing with these behaviors, it is essential to emphasize that the term homosexuality is problematic and imprecise applied to the ancient world , there was not even a word translatable as such in Latin or ancient Greek , with the same meaning as the modern concept of homosexuality. The bisexuality seems to be the norm, but since ancient authors acknowledge that in ancient Rome there were men who have sex exclusively with men.
- All annexed territory became a province and was entrusted to a praetor or a promagistrate .
- Sicily (227 BC).
- Corsica - Sardinia (227 BC).
- Hispania : Citerior and Ulterior (197 BC).
- Greece : Macedonia (148 BC) and Iliria (60 BC).
- Africa : Africa Old O Proconsular (146 a. C.). Africa (46 a. C.).
- Asia: Asia (129 a. C.), Cilicia (101 a. C.), Bitinia (74 a. C.), Ponto (63 a. C.), Siria (63), Chipre (58 a. C.).
- Gaul : Narbonne Gaul (120 BC) and Comata (50 BC).
- Cyrenaica (74 BC).
- Egypt (30 BC).
- Britania (43 d. C.).
- Portal: Ancient Rome . Content related to Ancient Rome .
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- Archaeologist Andrea Carandini is one of the few contemporary scholars to accept Romulus and Remus as historical figures, based on the 1988 discovery of an ancient wall on the north slope of the Capitoline Hill in Rome. Carandini dates the structure to the middle of the 8th century BC. C. and names it Murus Romuli . [ 5 ] [ 6 ]
- de Grummond, Nancy T. (2015). «History of ancient Italic people». Encyclopaedia Britannica.
- The exact date of the birth of Romulus and Remus is unknown. Some ancient authors, such as Plutarch , affirm that Romulus was 53 years old at the time of his death, in 717 BC. C. If true, Romulus and Remus would have been born in 771 BC. C. , and they would have founded Rome at the age of eighteen.
- Bravo Castañeda, Gonzalo (1998). History of Ancient Rome , Chapter 1.
- Carandini, Andrea (2007). Rome: Day One (2011 edition). New Jersey: Princeton University Press . ISBN 9780691139227 . Retrieved January 31, 2016 .
- Carandini, Andrea (2003). The birth of Rome: gods, lares, heroes and men at the dawn of a civilization . Einaudi. ISBN 978-88-06-16409-6 .
- Carandini. Remus and Romulus. From the Quiriti districts to the city of the Romans (775 / 750-700 / 675 BC circa) (Turin: Einaudi, 2006)
- Gardner, Jane (1995). "Aeneas and the fate of Rome". En Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, ed. Roman myths (en Italian) . Milan: Oscar Mondadori. p. 28. ISBN 9788804401865 .
- Montanelli, Indro (2003). «Ab Urbe Condita». History of Rome (en Italian) . Milan: Rizzoli. p. 14. ISBN 9788817000192 .
- "The cave where a she-wolf supposedly suckled Romulus and Remus was found in Rome" . The Country . November 20, 2007.
- Montanelli, Indro (2003). "The agrarian kings". History of Rome (en Italian) . Milan: Rizzoli. p. 37. ISBN 9788817000192 .
- Montanelli, Indro (2003). "The merchant kings." History of Rome (en Italian) . Milan: Rizzoli. p. 49. ISBN 9788817000192 .
- Drago, Alfredo L. (1980). Republican Rome. History 1 . Buenos Aires: Editorial Stella. p. 165.
- «Rome and the unification of Italy».
- «History of ancient Italic people. Encyclopaedia Britannica».
- «The Roman Italy. Encyclopaedia Britannica».
- “History of the deep Romanisation of Italy” .
- Drago, Alfredo L. (1980). Republican Rome. Roman expansion ». History 1 . Buenos Aires: Editorial Stella. p. 169.
- Secco Ellauri, Óscar (1965). «The consequences of the conquests. Hegemony of Rome in the Mediterranean ». Antiquity and the Middle Ages . Kapelusz. p. 222.
- Secco Ellauri, Óscar (1965). «The Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries. the Flavians. ». Antiquity and the Middle Ages . Kapelusz. p. 257.
- Halsall, Guy (2007). Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376-568. Cambridge University Press. p. 287. ISBN 9780521434911.
- "Encyclopaedia Britannica Roman citizens » .
- "Encyclopaedia Britannica right franchise » .
- «Dr. Christopher J. Dart:The Social War, 91 to 88 BCE.A History of the Italian Insurgency against the Roman Republic».
- "Encyclopaedia Britannica Constitution Anioniniana » .
- "The Roman woman in antiquity" .
- C ASIO D ION , L UCIO . Roman history . Complete work (in press). 2 volumes translated into Spanish. Madrid: Editorial Gredos .
- Volume I: Books I to XXXV . 1st revised edition, 1st reprint; 2004. ISBN 978-84-249-2728-8 .
- Volume II: Books XXXVI to XLV . 1st revised edition, 1st reprint; 2004. ISBN 978-84-249-2729-5 .
- J ULY C ESAR C AY (1798). Gallic War . Complete work. 3 volumes in Latin with two translations into Spanish. Madrid: Editorial Gredos .
- Volume I: Book I & Book II & Book III . Translation by Valentín García Yebra and Hipólito Escolar . 2nd revised edition, 3rd reprint; 1980. ISBN 978-84-249-3547-0 .
- Volume II: Book IV & Book V & Book VI . Translation by Valentín García Yebra and Hipólito Escolar . 2nd revised edition, 3rd reprint; 1986. ISBN 978-84-249-1020-6 .
- Volume III: Book VII . Translation by Valentín García Yebra and Hipólito Escolar . 2nd revised edition, 1st reprint; 2001. ISBN 978-84-249-1021-4 .
- ---------- . Civil War . Complete work. 1 volume in Latin with Spanish translation. Buenos Aires: Editorial Malke .
- Volume I: Book I & Book II & Book III . Translation by Eugenio López Arriazu . 1st revised edition; 2006. ISBN 978-987-22336-2-4 .
- ---------- / H IRCIO , A ULO / O PIO , C AYO . Civil war. War of Alexandria. War of Africa. War of Hispania . Complete work. 1 volume translated into Spanish. Madrid: Editorial Gredos .
- Volume I: Complete work . 1st revised edition, 1st reprint; 2005. ISBN 978-84-249-2781-3 .
- L IVIO, T ITO . History of Rome since its Foundation . Complete work. 8 volumes translated into Spanish. Madrid: Editorial Gredos .
- Volume I: Books I to III . 1st revised edition; 1997. ISBN 978-84-249-1434-9 .
- Volume II: Books IV to VII . 1st revised edition; 1990. ISBN 978-84-249-1429-5 .
- Volume III: Books VIII-X . 1st revised edition; 1990. ISBN 978-84-249-1441-7 .
- Volume IV: Books XXI to XXV . 1st revised edition; 1993. ISBN 978-84-249-1608-4 .
- Volume V: Books XXVI to XXX . 1st revised edition; 1993. ISBN 978-84-249-1609-1 .
- Volume VI: Books XXXI to XXXV . 1st revised edition; 1993. ISBN 978-84-249-1620-6 .
- Volume VII: Books XXVI to LX . 1st revised edition; 1993. ISBN 978-84-249-1629-9 .
- Volume VIII: Books XLI to XLV . 1st revised edition; 1994. ISBN 978-84-249-1643-5 .
- P LUTARCO, M ESTRIO (1879). Parallel Lives . Complete work. 8 volumes translated into Spanish. Madrid: Editorial Gredos .
- Volume I: Theseus & Romulus; Licurgo & Numa . 1st revised edition; 1985. ISBN 978-84-249-0985-7 .
- Volume II: Solón & Publícola; Themistocles & Camilo; Pericles & Fabio Máximo . 1st revised edition; 1996. ISBN 978-84-249-1796-8 .
- Volume III: Coriolanus & Alcibiades; Paulo Emilio & Timoleón; Pelópidas & Marcelo . 1st revised edition; 2006. ISBN 978-84-249-2860-5 .
- Volume IV: Aristides & Cato; Filopemen & Flaminino; Pirro & Mario . 1st revised edition; 2007. ISBN 978-84-249-2867-4 .
- Volume V: Lisandro & Sila; Cimon & Lucullus; Nicias & Crassus . 1st revised edition; 2007. ISBN 978-84-249-2870-4 .
- Volume VI: Alejandro & César; Agesilao & Pompeyo; Sertorio & Eumenes . 1st revised edition; 2007. ISBN 978-84-249-2881-0 .
- Volume VII: Demetrio & Antonio; Arato & Artajerjes; Galba & Otón; Dión & Bruto . 1st revised edition; 2009. ISBN 978-84-249-3597-9 .
- Volume VIII: Focion & Cato the Younger; Demosthenes & Cicero . 1st revised edition; 2010. ISBN 978-84-249-0865-2 .
- S ALUSTIO C RISPO, C AY (1772). Conjuration of Catilina . Complete work. 1 volume in Latin with Spanish translation. Buenos Aires: Editorial Losada .
- Volume I: Complete work . Introduction, translation and notes by María Eugenia Steinberg . 1st revised edition, 1st reprint; 2007. ISBN 978-950-03-9523-6 .
- ---------- . Jugurta's War . Complete work. 1 volume in Latin with Spanish translation. Madrid: Editorial Gredos .
- Volume I: Complete work . Translation by Joaquín González Álvarez . 3rd revised edition, 5th reprint; 1990. ISBN 978-84-249-3420-2 .
- ---------- . Conjuration of Catilina. Jugurta's War. Stories. Letters to Caesar. Against Cicero . Complete work. 1 volume translated into Spanish. Madrid: Editorial Gredos .
- Volume I: Complete work . Introduction, translation and notes by B. García Ramos . 1st revised edition, 1st reprint; 1997. ISBN 978-84-249-1879-8 .
- S UETONIO T RANQUILO, C AYO . Lives of the Twelve Caesars . Complete work. 2 volumes translated into Spanish. Madrid: Editorial Gredos .
- Volume I: Caesar & Augustus & Tiberius . Introduction by Ramírez Verger . Translation by Rosa María Cubas . 1st revised edition, 2nd reprint; 1992. ISBN 978-84-249-1492-9 .
- Volume II: Caligula & Claudius & Nero & Galba / Otto / Vitellius & Vespasian / Titus / Domitian . Translation by Rosa María Cubas . 1st revised edition, 2nd reprint; 1992. ISBN 978-84-249-1494-5 .
- Wikimedia Commons hosts a multimedia category on Ancient Rome .
- Atlas of the Roman Empire
- Ancient Rome Portal in Wikipedia.
- Ancient Rome at Artehistoria.com .
- Reading in the Roman world
- Rome history
- The Roman Law Library de Yves Lassard y Alexandr Koptev.
- Rome Reborn , a 3D reproduction of Rome between 1000 BC. C. and 550 d. C. Accessed January 18, 2018
- Samuel Ball Platner (1863 - 1921) and Thomas Ashby (1874 - 1931): A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome ( Dictionary of Ancient Rome places ).