Document files - Archivo de documentos

Drawing of an archive cabinet, Würzburg municipal archive , Germany .

The term archive (Latin archīvum ) is commonly used to designate an ordered set of documents. It is the set of documents and information of all kinds, organized in a rational way and properly registered and preserved, in order to disclose or provide information. However, "archive" is a polysemic word that refers to:

  • The documentary fund, as a set of documents produced or received by a natural or legal person in the exercise of their activities.
  • The place where said fund or documentary collection is kept.
  • The institution or service responsible for the custody and archival treatment of the fund.

The archivist is the science that deals with the techniques applied to files.

The function of the archives is to be sources for history and memory, and to guarantee the exercise of rights. [ 1 ]


Currently, the official deposits of public and private documents are called archives . In another time, they called chartarium , scrinium , tabularium . Their existence is recorded in Ancient Egypt , Assyria , Greece and Rome and from some texts of the Holy Scriptures it is inferred that they also existed in the people of Israel . As a general rule, with the exception of the Assyrian and Persian palatial estates, the archives of ancient civilizations were located within the temple grounds. In Rome, the treaties of peace and covenant were preserved in the temple ofCapitoline Jupiter . The annals of the pontiffs in Juno's, the birth records in Saturn's.

Archives of the Catholic Church

The Church had archives since its inception, to preserve the sacred books and the acts of the martyrs . They consist of the archives of the Vatican or the Pontifical ones, from the third century (from San Antero , year 235 ) which today enjoy the reputation of being among the best organized in the world.

National Archives

The National Archives gather the official documents or archives of public, judicial, political and military institutions or organizations, and in some cases private, for their preservation, consultation and investigation. In some cases such as America , Spain and Portugal they are important for the historical reconstruction of the colonial era. They are the historical evolution of the State Archives that, although they had the same purpose of conserving documentation, were not open to the public.

Archives in Spain

In Spain , the more or less general archives of Castile are known from Juan II and Enrique IV . Felipe II organized that of Simancas ( 1561 ) already founded before by Carlos V ( 1549 ) and from him came in part the Archivo de Indias , created by Carlos III in 1785 and established in Seville . The Central Archive of Alcalá de Henares and the National Historical Archive of Madrid date from the mid- 19th century, which with the previous two make up the four general Archives of the kingdom.

These files are followed in importance by the regional ones, namely:

Among all of them, the Aragonese Crown is considered a model of organization, which has treasured documents since 848 . [ citation needed ] There are also other special files, judicial, provincial, municipal, notarial, business, cathedral, parochial.

See also


  1. «The magic of digital archives» . AL DÍA News . May 31, 2019 . Retrieved June 1, 2019 .

external links

Online files and documents