Argentina - Argentina

Argentinian republic
State member of Mercosur

Flag of Argentina.svg
Coat of arms of Argentina.svg

Motto : In Union and Freedom [ a ]
Anthem : Argentine National Anthem

ARG orthographic (+all claims).svg

Capital
(and most populous city)
Buenos Aires
Escudo de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

34°35′59″S 58°22′55″O / -34.599722222222, -58.381944444444Coordenadas: 34°35′59″S 58°22′55″O / -34.599722222222, -58.381944444444 Ver y modificar los datos en Wikidata
Seat of government Pink House
Official language

Castilian ( de facto ) [ 1 ]

Regionally, the Guaraní (co-official in Corrientes ) , the Qom , the Moqoit and the Wichí (co-official in Chaco ) have co-officers
• Spoken Languages ​​of Argentina
Demonym Argentine, -na
Form of government Presidential federal republic
President Alberto Fernandez
Vice President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers Santiago Cafiero
Legislative body Congress of the Argentine Nation Ver y modificar los datos en Wikidata
Independence
May Revolution

Declared

Recognized
of Spain
25 May 1810 (211 years old)
July 9, 1816 (204 years old) [ b ]
9 July 1859 (161 years old)
Surface Position 8
• Total 2 780 400 km² [ c ] [ 2 ]
• Water (%) 1,1 %
Borders 11 968 km[2]
Coast line 4989 km[2]
Highest point Aconcagua Ver y modificar los datos en Wikidata
Total population 32nd position
• Estimate (2020) 45 195 777 [ 3 ]
• Census (2010) 40 117 096 hab. [ 4 ]
Density (est.) 16,26 hab./km²
Start ( PPA ) 27th position
• Total (2021) Crecimiento USD 1 015 008 mill.[5]
Per capita Crecimiento USD 20 370[5]​ (60.°)
START (nominal) 31st position
• Total (2021) Crecimiento USD 418 150 mill.[5]
• Per capita Crecimiento USD 9122[5]​ (71.°)
IDH (2020) Crecimiento0.845 [ 6 ] ( 46th ) - Very high
Gini coefficient Red Arrow Up.svg42.9 means (2019) [ 7 ]
Currency weight ($, ARS)
Time zone UTC−3
ISO code 032 / ARG / AR
Internet domain .ar Ver y modificar los datos en Wikidata
Telephone prefix +54
Radio prefix AYA-AZZ, LOA-LWZ, L2A-L9Z[8]
Country acronym for aircraft LQ, LV
IOC Code ARG Ver y modificar los datos en Wikidata

Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , [ e ] is a sovereign country in South America , located in the extreme south and southeast of said subcontinent. It adopts the republican , democratic , representative and federal form of government .

Argentina is organized as a state federal decentralized , integrated since 1994 by a national state and 24 prime jurisdictions [ 9 ] or self - governing states, [ 10 ] [ 11 ] which are 23 provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA) , the latter designated as the Federal Capital of the country. All self-governing states have a constitution , flag, and security forceown. The 23 provinces maintain all the powers not delegated to the national State, have three autonomous powers and guarantee the autonomy of their municipalities . [ 12 ] [ 13 ]

It is a member of Mercosur —block of which he was founder in 1991—, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Organization of American States (OAS).

In 2019, its Human Development Index (HDI) was 0.845, placing it in the group of countries with very high human development, in position 46. [ 14 ] Adjusted for inequality, Argentina falls four places in the ranking, while According to the gender inequality index, its location falls to 75th place. [ 14 ] In education, the law establishes that public spending on education should not be less than 6% of GDP, although, despite this, spending was 5.5%. % of GDP in 2017 [ 15 ] with a literacy rate of people over 15 years of age higher than 99%. [ 16 ]

The Argentine economy is the second most developed and important in South America. According to the World Bank , its nominal GDP is 27th in the world. [ 17 ] Due to its geopolitical and economic importance , it is one of the three sovereign Latin American states that is part of the so-called Group of 20 and also integrates the group of NICs or new industrialized countries . [ 18 ]

It is the only Latin American country that has a scientific research and teaching center among the top ten in the world, [ 19 ] and the Ibero-American country with the highest number of Nobel Prize winners in science . Its technological and scientific capacity has allowed it to design, produce and export satellites , [ 20 ] build nuclear reactors and be the first producer of software , aircraft , among other things. It is considered a regional power . [ 21 ]

It has provided growing nuclear cooperation to countries in Latin America , the Maghreb, the Persian Gulf , Southeast Asia and Oceania, based on the capacities developed by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and by the prestigious state company INVAP . [ 22 ] It is the Latin American country that has won the most Nobel prizes —five in total—, three of them related to science.

With an area of ​​2,780,400 km², [ 2 ] it is the largest Spanish-speaking country on the planet, the second largest in Latin America and the eighth in the world , if only the continental surface subject to effective sovereignty is considered. Its continental shelf , recognized by the UN in 2016, reaches 6 581 500 km², [ 23 ] becoming one of the largest in the world, [ 24 ] extending from the American continent to the South Pole in Antarctica , to across the South Atlantic . If the islands are countedMalvinas , Georgias of the South , Sandwich of the South and numerous other smaller islands (administered by the United Kingdom but of sovereignty in dispute ), plus a portion of the Antarctic area called the Antarctic Argentina to the south of parallel 60 ° S, over which Argentina claims sovereignty, the area amounts to 3 761 274 km². [ 25 ] It is one of the twenty countries that have a permanent presence in Antarctica, being among them the one with the largest number of permanent bases , with six bases in total.

Its territory brings together a great diversity of climates , caused by a latitudinal amplitude that exceeds 30 ° —including several geoastronomical zones -, a difference in altitude that ranges from 107 m below sea level ( Laguna del Carbón ) to almost 7000 meters above sea level. and the extension of the maritime coastline that reaches 4,725 km. Wide humid plains border with extensive deserts and high mountains, while the presence of tropical and subtropical climates in the north, contrast with the snowfalls and extreme cold in the mountain areas and the south.

Its continental American territory, which covers a large part of the Southern Cone , limits to the north with Bolivia and Paraguay , to the northeast with Brazil , to the east with Uruguay and the Atlantic Ocean , to the west with Chile and, always in its American sector , to the south with Chile and the Atlantic waters of the Drake Passage .

The first records of settlers in the current Argentine territory date back to thirteen thousand years BP , during the Paleoamerican . In protohistoric times , the pre-Columbian period , it was inhabited by numerous indigenous peoples , some of whom still inhabit the country; Among them Guaycurúes , Guaraníes , Mapuches , Tehuelches and Diaguitas , the latter were part of the Inca Empire . The Spanish colonization of the current Argentine territory began withexploratory trips from the year 1512 , the establishment of a population in 1528 and the distribution of the territory to the advanced ones . Later, it came under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of Peru . In 1776, the Spanish Crown founded the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata , which would be a political entity preceding the current Argentine Republic. On May 25, 1810, it achieved de facto independence when the last Spanish viceroy who ruled from Buenos Aires was deposed , [ 26 ] organizing the First Government Junta . July 9, 1816independence was proclaimed in San Miguel de Tucumán . [ 27 ]

Toponymy

The official name of the country is República Argentina, literally, "República del Plata". By ellipsis, it is usually called, "Argentina". The use without article is very widespread and is not considered incorrect [ 28 ] , although the Argentine Academy of Letters has described it as "reprehensible". [ 29 ]

Argentina is the feminine of the poetic adjective " argentino " that indicates something that has qualities of silver or related to it [ 30 ] , from the Latin argentum that means "silver". [ 31 ] Argentum , in turn, comes from the Proto - Italic : * argentom , derived from the protoindoeuropeo : * h₂r̥ǵn̥tóm , noun formed from the adjective * h₂erǵ- meaning "white" or "bright". [ 32 ] [ 33][34][35]

Argentina was a poetic denomination of the riverside countries of the Plata , [ 36 ] river so named because it was an access to the silver deposits of Upper Peru , where the city of La Plata (Charcas, current Sucre) was also called Civitas Argentina (Ciudad Argentina). [ 37 ]

The use as a toponym, although with a different declination, appears for the first time in 1554 on the map of Lopo Homem : where the territories of the littoral region are called: Terra Argentea [ 38 ] Later, in 1602, Martín del Barco Centenera He chooses it, in imitation of La Araucana , as the title of an epic poem about the conquest: La Argentina . [ 28 ] From then until the end of the 18th century, Argentina and Argentino were literary denominations of the territory and the settlers of the River Plate region . [ 28 ]

With the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and its subsequent independence as United Provinces of the Río de la Plata , Argentina and Argentina became more common, although sometimes with a connotation restricted to Buenos Aires and the nearby provinces. [ 28 ]

The Constitution of 1826 , used Argentina as the official name of the State and, since then, despite the rejection of said constitution, it has been used regularly. Starting in the 1830s, Rosas , formally Governor of Buenos Aires, was "in charge of directing the foreign relations of the Argentine Republic" [ 37 ] .

The Argentine Constitution of 1853 indicates [ 39 ] that: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation" are the names of the state, while "Argentine Nation" is used to sanction laws. In 1860, in the city of Paraná , then capital of the Argentine Confederation, President Derqui decreed that to "standardize administrative acts" the Argentine Republic would always be used. [ 40 ] Two years later, in 1862, Bartolomé Miter , the first president of the reunified country, referred to his position as: President of the Argentine Nation .41]

Story

Prehispanic period

Cueva de las Manos , on the banks of the Pinturas River , in the province of Santa Cruz , 7300 BC. C. The oldest art in South America.

The pre-Hispanic history of Argentina refers to the local cultural developments of the current territory of the Argentine Republic prior to the conquest and colonization by Spain .

The first population registry of the territory currently controlled by Argentina dates back to the 12th or the 13th st millennium AP , according to the findings of Los Toldos and Piedra Museo . [ 42 ] Among the original peoples , hunters and gatherers inhabited Patagonia , the Pampa and the Chaco . The farmers settled in the northwest , Cuyo , the Sierras de Córdoba and later in Mesopotamia . Tastil, in the northwest, it was the largest pre-Columbian city located in the current Argentine territory, with a population of 2000 inhabitants. [ 43 ]

The Argentine indigenous peoples were divided into two large groups: hunters and gatherers, who inhabited Patagonia , the Pampa and the Chaco ; and the farmers, settled in the north , Cuyo , the Sierras de Córdoba and, later, in Mesopotamia .

The first traces of human life in this territory correspond to peoples of a Palaeolithic cultural level that three thousand years ago incorporated the first Mesolithic and Neolithic cultural contributions . [ 44 ] Until the time of the conquest and the European colonization , the Argentine territory has been occupied by various indigenous peoples, with different social organizations can be divided into three main groups: [ 45 ] [ 46 ]

  • Hunters and gatherers of basic oceanic canoe foods , such as the yagán or yámana and the haush in Tierra del Fuego and the Tierra del Fuego channels . Hunters and gatherers, who inhabited Patagonia , the Pampa and the Chaco
  • Advanced hunters and food gatherers such as the Pampas , in the center-east: hets in the prairies and steppes of the Pampas and North Patagonia ; and chonks in Patagonia —invaded since the s. XVIII by the Mapuche potters from the mountain range of Patagonia - and the Qom and Wichi in the Chaco region . [ 47 ] Also belonging to this group are the Charruas and Minuanes , which had incorporated pottery.
  • The farmers ceramics such as Guarani and Andean cultures and derivatives. Starting in the second millennium, the Avá (an Amazonian people known since the 17th century by the Spanish as "Guaraníes") invaded the NEA and the Argentine Littoral ; They were cultivators of manioc and avaty or maize in the form of slash (cutting and burning of forests) and therefore semi-sedentary. [ 45 ] Cultures centered on agriculture and livestock in the norththey were purely sedentary, and had developed commercial networks encompassed in the group currently called " Quechua "; After establishing a quasi-state system around local manors , they were subdued by the Inca empire around the year 1480. Influenced by these Andean cultures, other peoples such as the Diaguitas , Calchaquies and Huarpes developed less developed agriculture and livestock, adapted to the conditions of the flat and mountainous regions of the center of present-day Argentina and Cuyo. [ 45 ]

In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Inca Empire conquered part of the current provinces of Jujuy , Salta , Catamarca , the extreme west of the province of Tucumán , the western part of the provinces of La Rioja and San Juan , the northwest of the province of Mendoza and, probably, the north of Santiago del Estero , [ 48 ] incorporating their territories to Collasuyo , which was the southern part of Tahuantinsuyo or regions of such empire.

Traditionally, the conquest is attributed to the Inca monarch Túpac Yupanqui . Several lordships in the region, such as the Quechuas , the likanantai (atacamas) , the huarpes , the diaguitas and others, tried to resist, but the Incas managed to dominate them, transferring to their territories the mitimaes or colonists deported from the chichas tribes . who lived in what is the southwest of the current Bolivian territory. Others, such as the sanavirones , the lule - tonocoté and the henia-kâmîare(popularly called "comechingones"), they successfully resisted the Inca invasion and remained independent manors. [ 45 ]

They created agricultural and textile centers, settlements ( collcas and tambos ), roads (the " Inca trail "), fortresses ( pucarás ) and high mountain sanctuaries. Some of the main ones are the pucará de Tilcara , the tambería del Inca , the pucará de Aconquija , the sanctuary of Llullaillaco , the shincal of London and the ruins of Quilmes .

Spanish conquest and colonization

La Argentina - Del Barco Centenera - Portada original.jpg

The Spanish conquest and colonization of Argentina refers to the period between the 16th century and the early 19th century in which a part of the current territory of Argentina was conquered and colonized by the Spanish Empire . In this period the expression Argentina (country of silver) appears for the first time to designate an area without defined limits that extended from the Río de la Plata towards the northwest. The period also includes the arrival for the first time of Spaniards to various areas of the current Argentine territory, at which time in many cases they adopted the name with which the indigenous peoples already called that region and in others they designated them with new names.

The colonial period in Argentina is usually divided into three periods: the discovery and conquest , during which the explorations of the territory and the foundation of the major cities were carried out; the period of the governorates, during which the Spanish settlements fought against the indigenous populations and tried to consolidate, registering few territorial and economic changes; and the viceregal period extending until May Revolution of 1810 , which was sent off the Spanish viceroy and named one board self - government . The Argentine War of Independence is already usually cited as part of the history of Argentina.

Europeans first arrived in present-day Argentine territory in 1516 , with the expedition of Juan Díaz de Solís down the Río de la Plata. Later the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes in 1520 anchored their ships in the Bay of San Julián , today the province of Santa Cruz . The strong Sancti Spiritus was the first European settlement, installed in 1527 on the banks of the Parana River. The first exploration of the northwest and center of the country was the entry of Diego de Rojas in 1543. The cities of Asunción (1537), [ f ] Santiago of the Estero(1553), Córdoba (1573) and Buenos Aires (1536/1580) were the bases of the colonial establishment that was imposed in the northern half of current Argentine territory, subject to the authority of the Spanish Crown (the Government of the Río de la Plata ). The Spanish Empire founded several cities and imposed a colonial rule on the population that inhabited a series of regions that roughly correspond to the fourteen provinces that were confederated in 1860 to form the Argentine Republic. At the end of the colonial period the Spanish Empire created the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, which included the fourteen aforementioned provinces and the territories of the current republics of Bolivia , Paraguay and Uruguay .

Due to the bull of Pope Paul III Sublimis Deus of 1537 , the indigenous men were declared with all the effects and capacities of Christians. [ 49 ] [ 50 ] In the Spanish Empire social unity was conceived through the unity of the faith of the Catholic Church . In the first century of colonization, the Spanish Empire conquered approximately a third of the current Argentine territory, subduing the native peoples that inhabited it and producing a demographic catastrophe , which is why the European conquerors introduced kidnapped slaves into theBlack Africa . In the seventeenth century, the Guaraní Jesuit missions were established , missionary communities founded by the Society of Jesus among the Guaraní and related peoples, whose purpose was to evangelize and avoid the enslavement of the indigenous people of the current provinces of Misiones , Corrientes and part of Paraguay. and Brazil . They successfully fulfilled their task, until in 1768, the Spanish King Carlos III ordered the Jesuits to be expelled .

A large part of the current territory of Argentina and the indigenous peoples that inhabited it was not under the colonial rule of Spain, mainly the Chaco regions (under Wichi and Qom rule ) and Pampean - Patagonian (under Tehuelche - Mapuche - Ranquel rule ). . Between 1560 and 1667 the Diaguita lordships maintained a long resistance known as the Calchaquí Wars in the current northwest of Argentina .

During most of the colonial period, the Argentine territory was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru , until in 1776 King Carlos III of Spain created the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata with part of its territory . The city of Buenos Aires was designated as its capital due to its growing importance as a commercial center and with the idea of ​​better resisting an eventual Portuguese attack, as well as to have easier access to Spain through Atlantic navigation. [ 51 ]

In the 18th century, the natural multiplication of bovine cattle and bighorn horses in the Pampas plains , the Eastern Band of the Río de la Plata and southern Brazil, caused the appearance of a special type of independent peasant on horseback called gaucho —in the in the case of men— and china —in the case of women. The gauchos developed a culture of their own characteristics , they joined and would fight in the War of Independence and faced the ranchersto guarantee their right of access to livestock and land, until they were expired in the second half of the 19th century. This wealth in wild cattle also led to the appearance of indigenous equestrian traditions in the Chaco , the Pampa and Patagonia , who engaged in an intermittent struggle for livestock resources with the Spanish and Creole population .

Until the middle of the 19th century, much of Patagonia and the Pampas remained under the control of different indigenous peoples: mainly, Chonks and then also the Mapuches in Patagonia and Ranqueles in the Pampas plain until the last quarter of the 19th century. Also, the territories of much of the Chaco region were not colonized by Europeans, but remained inhabited by indigenous peoples such as the SOMC , moqoits (mocovís or mocovíes), pilagás and wichisuntil the beginning of the 20th century. The sedentary indigenous population was subjected to permanent dependency relationships with respect to the Spanish population. Although over the generations it was absorbed into a population ethnically identifiable as "Creole", this process of mestization was not total, as evidenced by the participation of populations from the Northwest of present-day Argentine territory in the great indigenous uprising of 1780 with its epicenter in the Cuzco , led by the Inca Tupac Amaru II .

Independence

1818 Pinkerton Map of of La Plata (Southern South America, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia) - Geographicus - LaPlata-pinkerton-1818.jpg

In the History of Argentina, it is known as the Period of Independence as the period between the May Revolution of 1810 and the Anarchy that dissolved all national authorities in 1820 . [ 52 ] [ 53 ]

During this period, the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata - initial name of the current Argentine Republic - began its existence as a sovereign country , successfully sustained it through a prolonged War of Independence and declared its independence . But also during this period they failed to give themselves a central government and a constitution that were accepted by all their provinces on a permanent basis. [ 54 ]

It was also during this period that several territories that had been part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata were definitively separated from Argentina: Paraguay , for having supported its own independence process ; [ 55 ] the Alto Peru , to continue on to Spanish , of which later would become independent as the Republic of Bolivia ; and the Banda Oriental , for having fallen under the power of Portugal , which would inherit it to Brazil , from which it would become independent as the Eastern State of Uruguay . [ 56]

The beginning of the period is established on May 25, 1810, the date of the creation of the first government of the United Provinces, and the end on February 11 , 1820, the day on which the last Supreme Director , José Rondeau , resigned and the National Congress . [ 52 ]

First Governing Board

Cornelio Saavedra , president of the First Board of the United Provinces of Río de la Plata
The military and politician José de San Martín .
Manuel Belgrano , member of the First Junta , military commander and creator of the Argentine flag .

The First Governing Board , officially the Provisional Governing Board of the Río de la Plata Provinces in the name of Mr. Don Fernando VII , was the Governing Board that emerged on Friday, May 25, 1810 in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata , as a consequence of the triumph of the May Revolution that deposed Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros and appointed Cornelio Saavedra as the President of the First Board of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata . The seat of the government was established in the Fort of Buenos Aires, which served since 1776 as the residence of the viceroys and where today the Government House is located . The First Board existed as such until December 18 of the same year, since with the incorporation of deputies from the interior it became the Big Board , which gave rise to the prolonged War of Independence of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. against Spain (1810-1824).

While the war for independence was unfolding, a complex dispute was also taking place over the form of organization of the new State, which in 1814 generated the start of a civil war that — with intermittence — would last for more than half a century. The leader of the federal fraction , the eastern José Gervasio Artigas was proclaimed Protector of the Union of Free Peoples , a league of provinces that refused to be administered by the unitary government of Buenos Aires. It organized the so-called Eastern Congress in Concepción del Uruguay, of which it is still debated whether it succeeded in proclaiming —as it was proposed— independence from Spain. [ 57 ]

On July 9, 1816, in the city of San Miguel de Tucumán , the congress of deputies of the northwestern and central-west provinces of the country and of Buenos Aires met, together with some exiled deputies from Upper Peru , [ g ] proclaimed the independence of the United Provinces in South America , using the following formula: [ 58 ]

[...] recover the rights that were stripped, and invested with the high character of a free and independent nation of King Ferdinand VII, his successors and metropolis [...] [ h ]

In various parts of South America the new governments had to face counterrevolutionary resistance from the royalist armies, which were trying to restore the authority of the Spanish monarchy in the region. The wars for independence began. Some of the main commanders were Manuel Belgrano , in command of the Army of the North , José de San Martín , creator of the Army of the Andes , Martín Miguel de Güemes , organizer of the gaucho war and Juana Azurduy , commander of the guerrilla war in the Upper Peru. The Argentine State considers San Martín as the greatest military hero of its independence and honors him with the title of " Father of the Nation ." Together with Simón Bolívar , they were the most responsible for the liberating deeds that ended with the Spanish presence on the continent.

The formation of the federal state

Juana Azurduy , general (PM) of the Argentine Army, assumed command of the wars in Upper Peru for the emancipation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata . It is honored in Argentina and Bolivia.
Juan Manuel de Rosas , federal leader of the Province of Buenos Aires between 1830 and 1852.

The first decades as an independent country were conflictive: faced with the hegemony of the Unitarians , the federals repeatedly rose up in defense of the autonomy of the provinces, leading - after the so-called Anarchy of the Year XX - to the division of the country into autonomous provinces generally governed by military leaders , while the country —except for a brief interval between 1825 and 1827— lacked a national government until 1852. Each province assumed full government within the scope of its territory.

The war of independence continued until 1825, but it was fought preferably on the northern border and in Peru . Meanwhile, the Eastern Province was invaded by the Kingdom of Portugal , from whom it passed to the Empire of Brazil . The consequent War in Brazil culminated in the Preliminary Peace Convention of 1828, which declared the disputed territory independent, with the name of the Eastern State of Uruguay . [ 59 ] Shortly before, in 1825, Upper Peru formed the Republic of Bolivia and the following yearhe was added the city of Tarija and its jurisdiction.

The remaining territory - which had managed to increase its territorial control somewhat with some successful military campaigns against the Indians - began to use the name "Argentina" officially in the mid-1820s . The official name "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" continues to be considered, constitutionally, an alternative name for the country, although it has fallen into practical disuse. [ 60 ]

At the beginning of the 1830s , the federals managed to triumph throughout the country, which adopted the name of the Argentine Confederation . For more than twenty years, the federal governor of Buenos Aires, Juan Manuel de Rosas , in fact assumed the highest national authority, although in theory he was only the depository of external representation for all the provinces. [ 61 ]

During the time of his hegemony he fought and defeated successive uprisings of the Unitarians, [ i ] a blockade of the Río de la Plata by France and then another joint blockade by Great Britain and France. He also maintained warlike conflicts against the Peru-Bolivian Confederation and against the so-called Government of Defense of Montevideo , the Uruguayan capital, due to the interference of the two parties of that country - white and red - in the Argentine civil wars.

Despite the peace that he was able to impose and the economic growth —at least in the Litoral provinces— Rosas's enemies demanded individual, political and expression freedoms, which were ironically annulled by the Buenos Aires governor; the core of their demands was the sanction of a political constitution that would formally organize the national state and guarantee the rights of citizens.

National Organization

Justo José de Urquiza , federal leader of Entre Ríos , first president of Argentina after the sanction of the Constitution.
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento , president and noted for his dedication to public education in Argentina.

In 1852, Rosas was defeated at the Battle of Caseros by the Big Army , an alliance between the provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes , the Colorado troops from Uruguay and others from Brazil . The alliance was headed by the federal anti-Rosista Justo José de Urquiza , governor of Entre Ríos, who assumed the provisional presidency. [ 62 ]

This period lasted until the sanction of a Constitution in 1853, which with some changes has governed the country until today. It adopted a federal regime, but the province of Buenos Aires separated from the Argentine Confederation, which had to establish its capital in the city of Paraná . In 1859, the Confederation defeated Buenos Aires at the Battle of Cepeda , forcing it to sign the Pact of San José de Flores , by which Buenos Aires rejoined what has since been called the Argentine Republic. However, the final reunification was achieved under the leadership of Buenos Aires after the Battle of Pavón (1861), during the presidency ofBartolomé Miter .

In 1865, Argentina again became involved in a civil war in Uruguay, to which Paraguay responded by occupying the city ​​of Corrientes . After signing a Triple Alliance with Brazil and Uruguay, [ 63 ] Argentina took part in the Triple Alliance War against Paraguay, which lasted five years and required the participation of 10,000 Argentine soldiers. [ 64 ] Paraguay was finally defeated in 1870, leaving a large part of its male population totally devastated and dead. [ 65 ]Despite its enormous economic cost and in human lives since it was the cause of the continuation of civil wars in Argentina, this country managed to consolidate its limits in the northeast, since the border was set on the Pilcomayo , Paraguay and Paraná rivers . [ 65 ]

During the presidencies of Miter and especially of Sarmiento and Avellaneda , Argentina was inserted in the world economy as an agro-exporting country, supported by an extensive railway network and the advancement of the educational system . After two bloody revolutions in 1874 and 1880, in this last year the city of Buenos Aires was federalized and a lasting balance was established between the provinces and the capital.

Conservative governments and early radical governments

Avellaneda was the third and last president of the period of the historical Argentine presidencies . He ruled between 1874 - 1880 .
Picture of Juan M. Blanes playing the swearing in 1898, of General Julio Argentino Roca Wounded in the forehead by an attempt against his in the old building of the National Congress .
President Roque Sáenz Peña achieved that in 1912 the law of secret and compulsory voting or called the Sáenz Peña Law was sanctioned .

Between 1878 and 1884 the so-called Conquest of the Desert and the Chaco took place , in order to put an end to the constant confrontations between natives and creoles on the border and to appropriate the indigenous territories, tripling the Argentine territory. The first conquest, promoted by Julio A. Roca , consisted of a series of military incursions into the Pampean and Patagonian territories dominated by the original peoples, distributing them among the members of the Rural Society , who financed the expeditions. [ 66 ] The conquest of the Chaco lasted until the end of the century, [ 67 ]Since its full incorporation into the national economic system only took place when the mere extraction of wood and tannin was replaced by the production of cotton . The Argentine government considered the indigenous as inferior beings, without the same rights as the Creoles and Europeans . [ 68 ]

Between 1880 and 1916, the National Autonomist Party (PAN) monopolized power on the basis of fraudulent elections, fostered by the sung vote system and for 25 years, the excluding figure was General Julio Argentino Roca . The so-called Conservative Republic or Oligarchic Republic organized a successful and modern agro-export model based on the so-called international division of labor imposed by the British Empire , oriented mainly to the production of meat and grains destined for the British market. In the traditional story, the country was seen at that time as "the breadbasket of the world." [69]

This economic model generated a concentration of wealth in a few hands and the social exclusion of the working classes and populations settled outside the Pampas region . The economy reached high levels of growth that attracted a large flow of immigrants, mainly made up of millions of Italians and Spaniards, and to a lesser extent followed by East Europeans and West Asians . The Argentine population, which represented 0.13% of the world population in 1869, would go on to represent 0.55% in 1930, a proportion in which, approximately, it would stabilize since then. [ 70 ]

The prosperity of the economy fueled the growth of a considerable middle class , made up mostly of immigrants or their descendants. European immigrants also introduced into the country new political ideas such as socialism and anarchism , as well as participated together with the local population, especially Afro-Argentines , in the creation of mutual aid organizations and trade unions . [ 71 ] [ 72 ] emerged as modern political parties Radical Civic Union (UCR) and the Socialist Party (PS).

After more than two decades of political and social conflicts, electoral fraud and serious acts of repression, in 1912 the Sáenz Peña Law was enacted , which established secret , compulsory and universal suffrage for male voters . In the first presidential election with secret suffrage, the conservatives were displaced from power by the radicals led by Hipólito Yrigoyen , who was president between 1916 and 1922, and between 1928 and 1930. During his first government, the student movement known as the reform began. university , which spread throughout Latin America and produced the workers' massacres of theTragic Week and rebellious Patagonia . Between both governments of Yrigoyen, the also radical Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear was elected president .

Alternation between coups and democratic regimes

Hipólito Yrigoyen , first president elected by the universal and secret vote of men (1916-1922 and 1928-1930). His overthrow marked the beginning of a series of recurring coups between 1930 and 1976.
Juan Domingo Perón was the first president to be elected by universal and secret suffrage of men and women when he was reelected in 1951. His wife, Eva Perón , played a key role in the imposition of the female vote and was a pre-candidate to integrate the presidential formula .
Arturo Frondizi ( UCRI ) was elected president in 1958 with Peronism outlawed.
Victims of the 1955 Plaza de Mayo Bombing .
Arturo Illia ( UCRP ) was elected president in 1963 with Peronism outlawed and former President Frondizi still detained by the military who overthrew him.
In 1974 María Estela Martínez de Perón ( PJ ) became the first American woman to hold the position of head of state.

On September 6, 1930, the first of a series of coups d'état in Argentina took place that led a civic-military group to establish a dictatorship justified by the Supreme Court as a " de facto government ", after overthrowing Hipólito Yrigoyen. This coup began a sequel to fraudulent governments known as the Infamous Decade . [ J ]

The Argentine agro-export model entered into crisis due to the closure of international markets caused by the 1929 Crisis . The country promoted an import substitution process that developed a large industrial sector . [ 73 ] The Infamous Decade was overthrown by the Revolution of '43 , a second coup that installed a military government in which an alliance between unions and some soldiers would take place that gave rise to Peronism . Despite pressure from the United States since this country entered the war in late 1941 when it was attacked by JapanArgentina remained neutral for most of the rest of World War II , joining the Allies on March 27, 1945, during the government of General Edelmiro Farrell , shortly before the end of the War.

In 1946 Juan Domingo Perón was elected president with the support of the unions organized in the Labor Party . Perón, accompanied by his wife Evita , led a new movement that emphasized social justice , political sovereignty and economic independence. Under his government, women's suffrage was established in 1947, the equality of men and women in family law, the equality of children born in or out of wedlock, the free university education, malaria was eradicated , etc. [ 74 ]

Through the Eva Perón Foundation , unprecedented social assistance was developed in the country, providing economic support to the most vulnerable sectors. Railways and foreign trade were also nationalized, and a strong industrialization process was generated, promoting heavy industry.

In 1951 Perón was reelected for a new presidential term with 63.40% of the votes in what constituted the first election with universal suffrage of men and women in Argentina. In 1952 Evita died. Almost 60 years later, the Woman of the Bicentennial would be declared , as the symbol of the protagonism of women in Argentine history. [ 74 ] The Peronism had broad adherence of the population, but also with a strong rejection of the opposition sectors, polarize the society Argentina Peronists and anti - Peronists. His policy hurt British interests, hitherto dominant in the economy, which supported the opponents. [ 75 ] The beginning of a conflict with the Catholic Church weakened the loyalty of vast sectors to the government and unified the opposition. [ 76 ]

On June 16, 1955, a civil-military conspiracy, using some thirty Navy and Air Force planes , bombed and machine-gunned the population of Buenos Aires in the Plaza de Mayo and other places. [ 77 ] This attack produced 308 officially identified victims, including 111 union activists including 23 women, a death toll that could not be identified due to the mutilations, and more than 700 injured. [ 78 ]

In September, Perón was overthrown by a new coup called the Liberating Revolution , which outlawed Peronism, many of whose supporters were imprisoned or shot, which earned the coup the nickname "Fusiladora Revolution." Peron was forced into exile until the end of the proscription in 1973. [ 75 ]

During the ban, Peronism will continue to influence politics and trade unionism - an area in which it won most of the elections - denying legitimacy to the authorities installed by undemocratic means and developing an opposition activity known to the Peronist Resistance .

In 1958, Arturo Frondizi ( UCRI ) was elected president in elections with Peronism banned but after making an electoral pact with Perón, being overthrown by a new military coup in 1962 . The coup this time had the peculiarity that power was assumed by the civilian José María Guido , appointed president by the Supreme Court of Justice that same day after the overthrow and arrest of Frondizi, alleging a power vacuum for his appointment . Although Guido formally held the presidency, the true material power resided in the military sphere. During his tenure, the confrontations between two factions of the Argentine Army became more acute., known as Blue and Red , leading to armed confrontations. The victory of the "blue" sector allowed General Juan Carlos Onganía to reunify the Army.

With Peronism still outlawed and former President Frondizi arrested, [ 79 ] in 1963 Arturo Umberto Illia ( UCRP ) was elected as president , who would also be deposed by a military coup in 1966, which would take the government to Onganía.

His dictatorship, the first of the three that made up the so-called Argentine Revolution (1966-1973), was also the first permanent dictatorship installed within the framework of the military regimes that multiplied in Latin America with active support from the United States through the School of the Americas and the doctrine of national security in the global framework of the Cold War . The abolition of political activity and state terrorism provoked an insurrectionary state of the population that manifested itself in the appearance of various guerrilla organizations - such as Montoneros , the FAR and theERP - and a large number of insurrectionary towns , such as Cordobazo , Rosariazo and Tucumanazo , among others. [ 80 ] Cornered by the popular insurrection, the dictatorship organized an electoral exit with the participation of Peronism - although preventing Perón's candidacy.

In 1973 Peronism was legalized and it triumphed in the presidential elections , starting what has come to be called the third Peronism . After the resignation of President Héctor José Cámpora , that same year, Juan Domingo Perón was elected president for the third time, thus precipitating his death nine months later. He was succeeded by his vice president and wife, María Estela Martínez de Perón . This period was characterized by an accelerated deterioration of the internal situation, as a result of the 1973 oil crisis and the generalized political violence, including the organization from the government of a para-police force called theAlianza Anticomunista Argentina (Triple A) which, together with the police and military forces, has assassinated hundreds of opponents since 1973 - several of them " disappeared detainees " - as well as the installation of clandestine detention centers in the framework of the repression ordered by the so-called decrees of annihilation . [ 81 ]

On March 24, 1976, a new military coup took place that installed a new permanent dictatorship called the National Reorganization Process , which would last almost eight years and would be internationally coordinated with the other South American dictatorships through the Condor Plan , under the protection of the United States. . During it, a state terrorism regime was implemented that carried out a systematic plan to kidnap, torture and eliminate opponents, classified by the courts as genocide , causing thousands of disappearances and hundreds of children who suffered the suppression of their identity .

The first military junta, from left to right: Emilio Massera, Jorge Videla and Orlando Agosti. Sentenced to life imprisonment in 1985 for crimes against humanity.

In response, human rights organizations were formed , such as the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo , which will play a crucial role in the "trial and punishment of the guilty" and in the recovery of the kidnapped babies whose identities had been suppressed. The union movement also put up strong resistance, even declaring several general strikes, despite the disappearances that affected it massively, the dissolution of the CGT and the intervention of the unions.

The dictatorship had the active support of the main business groups, occupying key functions of the government, as well as the International Monetary Fund , multinational companies, the main press media, along with prominent journalists and communicators. The economic plan followed the guidelines of the Chicago School - frequently identified with neoliberalism -. An important sector of the population supported the dictatorship, while another sector resisted it through guerrilla action , the creation of human rights organizations such as the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo , or union action and strikes .

The external debt , which will condition democratic governments as of 1983, went from 7,700 million in 1976 to 45,000 million dollars in 1983, in many cases the result of criminal operations for the benefit of economic groups and multinational companies. In 1978, there was a serious crisis with Chile over the limits of the Beagle Channel area , which brought both countries to the brink of war. In 1982 the Falklands war with the United Kingdom took place ; Argentina's defeat was one of the factors that led to the collapse of the military regime and the call for general elections for the following year.

Recovery of democracy

Raúl Alfonsín , president between 1983 and 1989, with the return of national democracy
Menem and his wife, Zulema Yoma, say hello on the balcony of the Casa Rosada; From this moment on, the Menemist era began, which lasted until 1999.
Fernando de la Rúa takes office in 1999, ending ten years of Menem government.

The history of Argentina between 1983 and 2003 [ 82 ] was marked by the recovery of democracy the year in which the period began, the prosecution of those guilty of human rights violations during the previous dictatorship - a feature that distinguishes the Argentine democracy from the other recovered democracies in South America—, the foreign debt crisis , the start of globalization , neoliberal reforms and the severe economic recession that began in 1998 that ended with the generalized crisis of 2001/2002, during which they were dozens of opponents have been murdered, including the massacres ofPlaza de Mayo of December 20, 2001 and Avellaneda . The period covers the first time in Argentine history for two continuous decades under a democratic regime and the first time that democratic presidents hand over power to democratically elected successors of another political party . [ 83 ]

The democratic government was reestablished on December 10, 1983. The new president was Raúl Alfonsín , from the Radical Civic Union , who decided to investigate the crimes against humanity of the dictatorship by creating CONADEP , an entity that produced a decisive report entitled Never again . The first three military boards were prosecuted and some of their members convicted, although also under their mandate and due to military pressure , impunity laws began to be enacted . In 1984 the border dispute with Chile over the Beagle Channel ended . In 1985 he agreed with the new democratic president of Brazil José Sarney, start the process of regional integration that would take place in 1991 under the name Mercosur .

After the 1989 presidential elections and the country's governance affected by a hyperinflationary process , Alfonsín was forced to leave the presidency and hand over command six months in advance. [ 84 ] He assumed Carlos Menem of the Partido Justicialista . With a strong role of Minister Domingo Cavallo, he stopped inflation through a convertibility regime and carried out a broad process of privatizations, deregulation, opening of the economy and external indebtedness, in line with the Washington Consensus1989 and IMF support. Socially, massive unemployment appeared and crime rose sharply, both becoming central problems on the political agenda. [ 85 ] In 1991 Argentina entered the war against Iraq without authorization from the National Congress, within the coalition led by the United States. [ 86 ] In 1992 and 1994 it suffered two major terrorist attacks , against the Israeli embassy and against the AMIA , with 23 and 85 deaths respectively, without the culprits being discovered, in investigations with many irregularities. [ 87 ]The border dispute with Chile for 481 km² located in the Lago del Desierto area was resolved . In 1994 a pact between Alfonsín and Menem allowed the reform of the Constitution and the following year Ménem was reelected. An arms trafficking operation to Ecuador and Croatia caused the explosion of the arms factory in Río Tercero , damaging the city, causing seven deaths and seriously affecting relations with Peru. [ 88 ] Social conflicts and strikes increased, exploding towns and roadblocks that gave rise to the piquetero movement . [ 89 ] In 1998 aa period of recession that lasted four years and led to the worst crisis in Argentine history. [ 90 ]

In December 1999, Fernando de la Rúa assumed the presidency of the Unión Cívica Radical , which at that time was part of La Alianza . It took measures to reduce the public deficit -among them the reduction of pensions- and make labor rights more flexible, following the indications of the IMF . [ 91 ] The economic and social crisis worsened and the government appointed the former minister of President Menem, Domingo Cavallo, who ordered the freezing of bank deposits (a measure known as " El Corralito "), which culminated in a generalized social insurrection.With dozens of murders caused by the forces of repression, which led to the resignation of the President on 20 December 2001. [ 92 ] [ 93 ] For two weeks of uncertainty it occurred several presidents, including the brief government Adolfo Rodríguez Saá , during which the country went into default by declaring a moratorium on foreign debt. [ 93 ] [ 94 ]

On January 2, 2002, the Legislative Assembly elected Eduardo Duhalde , from the Justicialista Party, as provisional president. Duhalde put an end to convertibility, establishing an asymmetric pesification regime, known as "el corralón." [ 95 ] The peso was devalued by 300% and banks did not return their clients' dollar deposits, prompting actions against them from broad sectors of the middle class. In this period, poverty rose to 56% of the population and unemployment to 26%, establishing the subsidies called Unemployed Heads of Household Plan, which reached a peak of two million plans in May 2003. The external debt reached to 135% of GDP. [ 96 ]That year inflation was 41% and the increase in food prices reached 74.9%. [ 97 ]

Kirchnerism and macrism

Evolution of poverty (US $ 1.90 per day) between 1991 and 2018 according to the World Bank .
Evolution of external debt from 2004 to 2019, in millions of dollars and in relation to GDP.
The Peronist Nestor Kirchner was elected in 2003, inaugurating the cycle known as kirchnerismo would be continued by Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner , president of Argentina between 2007 and 2015. [ 98 ]
Mauricio Macri , president from 2015 to 2019, hands over the baton to Alberto Fernández , current president.

The history of Argentina between 2003 and 2020 [ 99 ] has been characterized by the election on four occasions of Peronism / Kirchnerism ( 2003 , 2007 , 2011 and 2019 ) and once of Macrismo ( 2015 ), which was not re-elected by the population. At the end of the period, the COVID-19 pandemic occurred .

The period began with the recovery from the great crisis of December 2001 , caused by the outbreak of the convertibility of the peso and the dollar, giving way to the default of the foreign debt , with an enormous social cost, which put more than half of the population below the poverty line , with almost a third of unemployment .

In the presidential elections of 2003 , Néstor Kirchner defeated the Menemism represented by Carlos Menem himself , when the latter resigned from running for the ballot . [ 100 ] [ 101 ] During this period the Congress initiated the procedure of impeachment against five members of the Supreme Court , prompting the resignation of three and the removal of two others. [ 102 ]Impunity laws were annulled and trials for crimes against humanity during the dictatorship were reopened, in which several hundred repressors were convicted. [ 103 ] The dismantling of the FTAA was promoted . The debt with the IMF was canceled and a restructuring of the external debt was carried out with a strong reduction. GDP grew from $ 97 billion in 2002 to $ 329 billion in 2007. [ 104 ] Unemployment fell from 17.9% in 2002 to 8.5% in 2007. [ 105 ]Labor policy reestablished the annual parities (collective bargaining between employers and unions), established the annual setting of the minimum wage by tripartite agreement, reducing unregistered work from 50% in 2003 to 39% in 2007. [ 106 ] Inflation it was moderate, although with an upward trend: it went from 5.3% in 2004 [ 107 ] to an estimated around 15 or 20% for 2007, [ 108 ] although official statistics reported a considerably lower rate. [ 109 ]

In the 2007 presidential elections , Kirchnerism ( Frente para la Victoria ) again triumphed, leading as candidate Cristina Fernández de Kirchner , the first Argentine woman to lead a winning presidential formula. During this mandate (2007-2011) the retirement and pension funds were re-statized, the Universal Child Allowance was created and the Equal Marriage Law was approved . At the international level, he promoted the creation of UNASUR and CELAC . The social security system was re-nationalized , created the Universal Child Allowance , renationalizedAerolineas Argentinas , approved the law of equal marriage , repealed the Broadcasting Law of the dictatorship and sanctioned a new media law . Shortly after starting his term, he faced an extensive agricultural strike supported by massive demonstrations, due to the official policy of taxes on exports.

In the presidential elections of 2011 , Kirchnerism ( Frente para la Victoria ) triumphed for the third time, once again taking Cristina Fernández de Kirchner as a candidate, surpassing the votes of the two previous elections, with 54%. During his second term, 51% of the shares of the oil company YPF were reestablished , retirement was extended for housewives and precarious workers, the Audiovisual Communication Services laws were approved, the gender identity law was sanctioned , million netbooks to public school children ( Conectar Igualdad ), a new Civil and Commercial Code was approvedand the development of the industrial sector was promoted, highlighting the putting into orbit on October 16, 2014, of the ARSAT-1 satellite , a geostationary communication satellite by the state company ARSAT , having been built by the Argentine company INVAP . Subsequently, on September 30, 2015, the ARSAT-2 was launched , which, like the previous one, was put into orbit from French Guyana . With the development and putting into orbit of these satellites, Argentina became part of the select group of countries in the global space industry. [ 110 ] Likewise, it was foreseen within theNational Space Plan , the launch of ARSAT-3 , but said development was suspended, after the change in political administration that occurred after the 2015 elections. There was a strong judicial and media confrontation with Grupo Clarín . [ 111 ] During the two periods of Cristina Kirchner, poverty, unemployment and unregistered work were reduced and the middle class doubled. [ 105 ] [ 112 ] In 2012 began a long period of economic difficulties and deteriorating social indicators in the framework of the Great Recession world and especiallyeconomic crisis in Brazil , with inflation close to 30%, although official data continued to indicate lower rates. [ 113 ] The government took measures such as the establishment of regulations for the purchase of dollars, increased public spending, and various types of subsidies to industry and public services. During his two terms GDP grew from 329 to 548 billion dollars in 2014. [ 104 ]

In the 2015 presidential elections , Macrismo defeated Kirchnerism and non-Kirchnerist Peronism . Mauricio Macri (who was Head of Government of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires from 2007 to 2015) was elected president of the Republican Proposal (PRO), with the electoral alliance Cambiemos . A stage of complete change began in the direction that the Kirchnerist governments' policies had had up to that moment. The new government applied a series of measures such as the free acquisition of foreign currency, [ 114 ] reductions to withholdings on soy exportsand other cereals, [ 115 ] as well as mining exports, and a devaluation of the peso, which led to a decline in GDP due to the cooling of the economy. At the beginning of 2016, the Audiovisual Communication Services Law was modified by decree of Mauricio Macri, [ 116 ] making its antitrust regulations more flexible . [ 117 ] Energy rates and fuel prices increased, which were dollarized. Simultaneously, the government sharply increased the foreign debt. In 2018 Argentina suffered a strong capital outflow, which produced a 135% devaluation of the peso and led the government to return to the IMF, with a considerable increase in external debt . Contracting debt by issuing bonds (the largest in an emerging country in history), [ 118 ] the Argentine government agreed to payments to the vulture Funds in dispute with the country for amounts greater than those demanded by them; A first payment of 9300 million dollars, questioned in court, [ 119 ]Spawned a "third generation," a new batch of plaintiffs with bonds that did not enter previous debt swaps. [ 120 ] In less than two years (between December 2015 and June 2017) the debt issued by the Argentine government was almost 100 billion dollars, [ 121 ] reaching the figure of 216,351 million dollars in December 2017 . [ 122 ] in 2019 there was another 50% devaluation, capital flight, inflation higher than 50%, fell real wages and poverty increased to exceed 35%.

In the 2019 presidential elections , President Macri sought re-election but was defeated by the Peronist candidate Alberto Fernández , accompanied by Cristina Fernández de Kirchner as vice president. The start of the government coincided with the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic .

government

Casa Rosada , seat of the Executive Power

The Government of Argentina is a representative , republican and federal democracy , regulated by the current Constitution . Argentina was formed by the federative union of the provinces that emerged after the dissolution of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata , and by the incorporation of those that were formed from the national territories established as a result of the conquest of large territories natives.

Due to the federal nature of its political organization, Argentina has two parallel structures of government: on the one hand, the national structure, with its three powers; and on the other hand, the 23 provincial structures -which pre-exist to the Nation- plus that of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires , which have autonomy and are governed by three powers in each case. [ 123 ]

The federal government authorities are based in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires , which is currently the "Capital of the Republic" or "Capital of the Nation", names used in the national Constitution and in the federalization law , but called usual Federal Capital . The Federal Capital is governed by a system of autonomy and is subdivided into communes , while the provinces have subdivisions ("departments" or "parties") and municipalities (which may or may not coincide with the party / department, depending on the province) .

Executive power

President Alberto Fernández and Vice President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner , in the Presidential Assumption of December 10 , 2019
Casa Rosada , seat of the Executive Power.

The National Executive Power (PEN) is the executive body of the Argentine State . It is a unipersonal and pyramidal body that is headed by the president of the Argentine Nation , an official who must be elected every four years by direct , secret, universal and compulsory suffrage, in a double round together with the candidate for vice president . The constitutional reform of 1994 introduced the second round electoral mechanism, which is carried out between the two most voted options if in the first none had obtained more than 45% of the valid votes or, if having obtained the most voted option between 40% and 45%, there was a difference with the second option less than 10%. [ 124 ]

The president and vice president serve four years in their terms and can be immediately re-elected for one more term. [ 125 ] The Cabinet of Ministers of the President of the Nation is directed by the Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers , who is in charge of the administration of the country and is responsible to Congress. [ 126 ] As of December 10, 2019, the head of the PEN is Alberto Fernández , of the Partido Justicialista party that is a member of the Frente de Todos , with a mandate until December 10 , 2023. Is the ninth president since the restoration of constitutional order in 1983. [ 127 ]

The PEN is responsible for the leadership of the State and the international representation of the country, the command in chief of the Argentine Armed Forces and the leadership of the National Public Administration , among its main functions. The Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers , as well as the ministers and assimilated secretaries depend on him . It is the state level in Argentina that has the largest budget and the largest number of officials and employees.

The PEN also has collegislative functions and community tasks such as the promulgation of laws and the power to veto them , and in common agreement with the Chamber of Senators of the Nation , appoints the judges .

It is organized into two main areas: the Presidency of the Nation area and the presidential secretariats, and the Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers area.

Legislative power

LogoCongreso.png

The Congress of the Argentine Nation is the body that exercises the federal legislative power of the Argentine Republic . It is responsible for the formation and enactment of federal laws. In addition, it is in charge of the sanction of the civil, criminal, commercial, labor and mining legal codes, among others destined to organize the common substantive legislation. [ 128 ]

The Congress of the Argentine Nation is made up of a bicameral assembly with 329 members, divided into the Senate (72 seats), chaired by the Vice President of the Nation , Cristina Fernández de Kirchner , and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats), currently presided over by Sergio Massa , of the official political coalition Frente de Todos .

The Congress of the Argentine Nation meets between March 1 and November 30 of each year, although the President of the Argentine Nation may call extraordinary sessions or extend their extension. [ 129 ] In the first case, it is the president who determines the issues to be discussed, while in the second, the Congress of the Argentine Nation has free initiative. According to the interpretation of the Chambers, this extension of sessions can also be ordered by Congress.

Its headquarters are located in the Palace of the Congress of the Argentine Nation in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires , in the Plaza del Congreso which is located at the western end of Avenida de Mayo , which connects directly with the Plaza de Mayo , where the Casa Rosada is located , headquarters of the national Executive Power .

The Chamber of Deputies of the Argentine Nation is made up of a variable number of representatives depending on the population that the district has (each of the provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires ), but said number can never be less than three, They are elected through the proportional representation system ( D'Hondt system ), last four years in their mandate and are renewed by halves every two years (each district elects approximately half of its corresponding deputies every two years) and can be re-elected indefinitely . They are elected taking as a single district each province and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, where one votes, for a list of all the candidates of each political party or electoral alliance, for the positions that each district puts in dispute in that election. [ 130 ] By the Gender Parity Law , it establishes that the lists of candidates for the Congress of the Argentine Nation must be made up of 50% women and the other 50% men. [ 131 ] Since then, the participation of women in politics has increased notably, with the Argentine Republic being the South American country with the largest number of women in the Legislative Branch and being, in turn, among the top ten worldwide . [ 132 ]

The Chamber of Senators of the Argentine Nation brings together the representatives of the provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires . Each one corresponds to two senators for the majority and one for the minority, for a total of 72 Senators. These are elected by direct vote of the inhabitants of each district, using the incomplete list system, with two corresponding to the list with the highest number of votes and one to the one that follows. Their mandate lasts six years and is renewed by thirds every two years, corresponding to carry out the alternate district renewal elections, being able to be reelected indefinitely. [ 133 ]

The Congress of the Argentine Nation has an autonomous constitutional body of technical assistance: the General Auditor of the Argentine Nation , in charge of the control of legality, management and auditing of all the activity of the public administration. [ 134 ] Furthermore, within the scope of the Congress of the Argentine Nation, the Ombudsman of the Argentine Nation functions as an independent body, without receiving instructions from any authority. Its purpose is to defend human rights and constitutional and legal rights that may be affected by the Administration. [ 135 ]

Power of attorney

Judicial Power of the Nation (PJN) is one of the three powers that make up the Argentine Republic and is exercised by the Supreme Court of Justice (CSJN) and by the other lower courts established by Congress in the territory of the Nation.

It is regulated in the third section of the second part of the Constitution of the Argentine Nation . The Supreme Court is made up of five legal judges appointed by the President of the Nation with the agreement of the Senate, which requires a two-thirds majority for this. [ 136 ] [ 137 ]

The lower courts are in charge of resolving conflicts regulated by federal legislation throughout the country ( federal courts ) and, also, by common legislation in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires ( national courts ). The appointment of the judges is made by the President of the Nation with the agreement of the Senate, on the basis of a shortlist made up of candidates selected in public competition by the Council of the Magistracy , a multisectoral body, which has direct control of the judges and the administration of the judiciary. [ 138 ]The judges remain in their positions "as long as their good behavior lasts" and can only be removed in case of serious infractions, by a Jury of Prosecution , made up of legislators, magistrates and lawyers and senators.

Public ministry

The Public Ministry of Argentina is an independent constitutional body with functional and financial autonomy, with the function of promoting justice. The Public Ministry is considered by the doctrine as a fourth power , while another part maintains that it is an extra power body . [ 139 ]

It is a two-headed body, made up of the Public Prosecutor's Office , directed by the Attorney General of the Nation and in charge of the action of the prosecutors , and the Public Ministry of Defense directed by the General Defender of the Nation and in charge of the action. of the official or public defenders . [ 140 ] The Ombudsman is not part of this body, but rather constitutes an independent body within the scope of the National Congress, with functional autonomy.

Prosecutors are in charge of defending public interests in judicial processes, urging public action , while public defenders are in charge of defending the rights of people persecuted by the country's courts or who, for some reason, cannot exercise their defense, as in the case of minors, incapable or affected by discrimination.

Provincial governments

Types of provincial legislatures in Argentina.

Due to the federal system adopted by the Constitution, the provinces are autonomous and retain all power not explicitly delegated to the federal government.

All the provinces have a republican and representative constitution that organizes their own executive, legislative and judicial powers, and regulates the municipal autonomy regime . The provinces can enact laws on non-federal issues, but the main common laws ( civil , commercial , criminal , labor , social security and mining ) are reserved to the National Congress ( National Constitution , article 75, paragraph 12).

In all provinces, the executive branch is in charge of a governor who lasts for four years and who, in general, can be re-elected. Legislative power in some provinces is exercised by a unicameral legislature and in others by a bicameral legislature. [ 141 ] All provinces have a judicial branch with its corresponding provincial Superior Court and courts in charge of resolving conflicts governed by common law (civil, criminal, commercial, labor, local administrative). [ 142 ]

The Autonomous City of Buenos Aires has a special autonomy regime without becoming a province. A law enacted in 1880 confirmed it as the capital of the Republic and federalized it, separating it from the province of Buenos Aires . Its political organization also has a republican Constitution that establishes a government divided into three branches (executive, legislative and judicial) and a decentralization regime in communes. Restrictions on autonomy have led to the lack of its own police force and a judicial system until 2006 to resolve conflicts arising from the application of common laws. The holder of the executive power bears the title ofHead of Government of the City of Buenos Aires . As of 2020, 16 of the 24 first-order jurisdictions have unicameral Legislatures, while all deliberative councils throughout the country are also single-chamber. [ 143 ]

The National Constitution asks each province to organize a municipal system [ 144 ] and recognizes the municipalities' autonomy. [ 145 ]

The municipalities direct the destinies of each city or town; in general, its jurisdiction extends to the surrounding rural area and, on occasions, includes smaller localities.

External relationships

Countries with Argentine embassies.
Celebration of the 20 years of Mercosur: the initiators José Sarney and Alfonsín , with Lula and Kirchner .
Mauricio Macri with Barack Obama on his official visit to the Argentine Republic.

The foreign relations of Argentina are the relationships you have that country with other countries abroad, both in the field political , as in the fields economic , commercial , military , legal , geopolitical and geostrategic . Since its inception, Argentina has been a primary actor in South America and has played an important role on the global political scene, although its orientation and alliances have varied greatly over time and between different governments. Even so, Argentina has been characterized, in general, and with some exceptions, by a greater level of autonomy with respect to thegreat powers , and a more sovereign foreign policy, compared to other Latin American countries , due to their higher level of development , the perception of having an important role to play in the world, and the greater weight they have had throughout its history ideologies , intellectuals and anti-imperialist currents . In that sense, its foreign policy is comparable to that of other intermediate powers .

Argentina's foreign relations are managed by the Ministry of Foreign Relations, International Trade and Worship of the Argentine Republic . Currently, the Chancellor is Felipe Solá .

He participated in each phase of the Haiti operation and has also contributed to peacekeeping operations in various areas of the world. In recognition of his contributions to international security and peace, US President Bill Clinton designated Argentina as a Major non-NATO ally in January 1998. [ 146 ]

Argentina maintains a sovereignty dispute over the Malvinas , South Sandwich , Aurora and South Georgia islands , administered by the United Kingdom , together with their surrounding maritime areas. [ 147 ] Likewise, it claims almost 1 million square kilometers in Antarctica that are not recognized by another country, except partially by Chile.

During 2006, a dispute began with Uruguay due to the start of work on a pulp mill of the Finnish company Metsä-Botnia in the Uruguayan town of Fray Bentos . Argentina has sued Uruguay before the International Court of Justice arguing that the installation of the pulp mills is polluting and has been carried out in violation of the Uruguay River Statute . [ 148 ]

Defense and security

Armed forces

Destroyer ARA Almirante Brown of the Sea Fleet of the Navy Argentina leading a formation of ships in the UNITAS .

Argentine Armed Forces is a term that collectively represents the Argentine Army (EA), the Army of the Argentine Republic (ARA) and the Argentine Air Force (FAA), [ k ] in addition to the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Armed Forces ( EMCFFAA). All these institutions are part of the National Defense System and their main mission is to contribute to national defense to protect the vital interests of the Nation.

The President of the Argentine Nation is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, who addresses their issues through the Ministry of Defense . [ 150 ]

The oldest forces are the Army and the Navy, born in 1810, while the Air Force was created in 1945. Together, they formed one of the greatest powers in all of Latin America due to the military conflicts that Argentina had, but this power it was considerably reduced as of 1983. The last dictatorship allocated an average of 3.64% of GDP for defense expenditures. [ 151 ] The democratic governments that followed the dictatorship reduced the items corresponding to the Armed Forces, to an average of 1.22% of GDP for the 1984-2019 period. [ 151 ] Defense Minister Oscar Aguad , during Mauricio Macri's administrationDuring his tenure, he considered that the Argentine Armed Forces had "very poor equipment and very low wages." [ 152 ] [ 153 ] The administration Macri allocated to the Armed Forces, an average of 0.78% of the GDP, while Cristina Kirchner allocated 0.80% in the first term and 0.83% In a second. [ 151 ]

In times of peace, the forces carry out training activities, applied research, develop their own teams, and carry out peace missions throughout the planet. The minimum age to enter is 18 years, without there being a compulsory military service.

Since 2016 they have been merely authorized to shoot down hostile aircraft that enter the Argentine air space without prior permission, following a series of protocol steps such as alerting all national forces and the president, proceeding to identify the aircraft, warn it, intimidate it and in case If you do not give in, take extreme force. These drastic measures are in order to combat complex crime, organized crime, and drug trafficking that are increasingly worrying the country. [ 154 ]

Since 1980, the incorporation of women into the Armed Forces has been progressively authorized and since 2005 a gender policy has been implemented. The percentage of women in the military increased from 7.6% in 2006 to 16.8% in 2017. [ 155 ] [ 156 ] In 2015 the three forces numbered approximately 77 000 troops. [ 157 ] In 2018, the number of troops informed reached just over 83 000. [ 158 ]

Security forces

The security of territorial waters corresponds to the Argentine Naval Prefecture (PNA), that of border regions and critical infrastructure works to the Argentine National Gendarmerie (GNA) and that of airports to the Airport Security Police (PSA); these security forces report to the Ministry of Security .

The National Intelligence System directs intelligence actions , among which the Federal Intelligence Agency (AFI) stands out, although there are also different public bodies such as the Directorate of Judicial Observations , the Department of Interception and Capture of Communications , the Intelligence of the National Gendarmerie , the Anti-Corruption Office , among others. [ 159 ]

Each province has its own police force , which can work in conjunction with the Argentine Federal Police (PFA), the security force that deals with crimes of an exclusively federal scope or that involve more than one jurisdiction. The Federal Police was until 2009 the police force of the city of Buenos Aires , when the then head of the Buenos Aires Government Mauricio Macri created the Metropolitan Police of Buenos Aires , it was created within the framework of Law No. 2894, on Security Public, which was sanctioned on October 28, 2008and promulgated by means of decree 1354 of November 18 of that year. Regulation of the standard was registered on March 20, 2009 through Decree 210. [ 160 ]

Human rights

"House for Identity", former premises of the Higher School of Mechanics of the Navy (ex-ESMA).

In its Constitution, Argentina establishes the constitutional hierarchy of human rights treaties. [ 161 ]

According to the 2018 Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Program , Argentina has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.825. Globally, it is ranked 47th out of the 189 states that participate in the classification, pigeonholed as a country with a very high HDI that, together with Chile and Uruguay, are the only countries in Latin America that are at this HDI level. . [ 162 ]

Regarding human rights , regarding membership of the seven bodies of the International Bill of Human Rights , which include the Human Rights Committee (HRC), Argentina has signed or ratified:

UN emblem blue.svgStatus of major international instruments of human rights [ 163 ]
Bandera de Argentina
Argentina
International deals
CESCR[164] CCPR [ 165 ] CERD [ 166 ] CED[167] CEDAW [ 168 ] CAT[169] CRC[170] MWC[171] EARL [ 172 ]
CESCR CESCR-OP CCPR CCPR-OP1 CCPR-OP2-DP CEDAW CEDAW-OP CAT CAT-OP CRC CRC-OP-AC CRC-OP-SC CRPD CRPD-OP
Belonging Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Yes check.svgArgentina ha reconocido la competencia de recibir y procesar comunicaciones individuales por parte de los órganos competentes. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado. Firmado y ratificado.
Yes check.svg Signed and ratified, Check.svg signed, but not ratified, X mark.svg neither signed nor ratified, Symbol comment vote.svg No information, Zeichen 101 - Gefahrstelle, StVO 1970.svg has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.

Territorial organization

The territorial organization of Argentina is made up of several levels. In the first level are located the 23 provinces and the autonomous city of Buenos Aires , which is the capital of the nation where the seat of the federal government is located. In a second level there are 379 departments, 135 parties and 15 communes.

Provinces

In Argentina, each of the 23 federated states named in the Constitution of the Argentine Nation is called a province , which together with the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires constitute the first-order territorial divisions of the country. The provinces have full autonomy , are part of the Nation and are legally pre-existing to it, according to the principles of federalism established in the National Constitution. Legally Argentina was constituted as a federation of provinces and maintains by constitutional mandate the historical names of United Provinces of Río de la Plata andArgentine Confederation , in addition to the Argentine Republic (the only usual one).

Autonomous City of Buenos Aires

* Assembly of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, from left to right: the Casa Rosada * the Microcentro * the Kavanagh Building in Retiro * the Congress Palace and the square facing * the Obelisk at the intersection of avenues 9 de Julio and Corrientes * Caminito in La Boca * skyscraper in Puerto Madero

Buenos Aires , officially the City of Buenos Aires or the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA) [ 173 ] or the Federal Capital as it is the seat of the National Government [ 174 ] , is the capital and most populated city of the Argentine Republic . This metropolis is an autonomous city that constitutes one of the 24 districts , or "first-order jurisdictions" [ 175 ] , that make up the country. It has its own executive , legislative and judicial powers . It is located in the central-eastern region of the country, on the southern shore of theRío de la Plata , in the Pampean region . The City of Buenos Aires was ceded in 1880 by the Province of Buenos Aires to be the federal capital of the country. By virtue of the constitutional reform of 1994, it enjoys a regime of autonomy .

Its urban fabric resembles a fan that limits to the south, west and north with the neighboring Province of Buenos Aires and to the east with the Río de la Plata . Officially the city is divided into 15 communes that group 48 neighborhoods . From 1880 to the present is also called Capital Federal , [ 176 ] [ 177 ] [ 178 ] although since 1996 not officially figure with that name or in its own Constitution [ 179 ] nor in the Constitution . [180]

The estimated population of the city is 3 075 646 inhabitants [ 181 ] and that of the Greater Buenos Aires Agglomerate (made up of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires itself together with certain parties-municipalities of the bordering Province of Buenos Aires ) is 17 541 141 inhabitants, [ 182 ] the latter being the second largest agglomerate in Latin America , the second in South America and one of the 20 largest cities in the world. [ 183 ] [ 184 ]

Buenos Aires is a cosmopolitan city and an important tourist destination. [ 185 ] [ 186 ] Its complex infrastructure makes it one of the most important metropolis in America and is a global city of alpha category, [ 187 ] given its influences in commerce, finance, fashion, art, gastronomy , education, entertainment and mainly in its marked culture. [ 188 ] [ 189 ] A study of quality of life(2016) by Mercer Human Resource Consulting, the city is in position 93 worldwide and second in Latin America after Montevideo. [ 190 ] Its per capita income is one of the highest in the region. [ 191 ] [ 192 ] It is considered one of the 25 most influential cities in the world. [ 193 ]

Its urban profile is markedly eclectic . Spanish colonial , art deco , art nouveau , neo-Gothic , Italianate , Bourbon French and French academic styles are mixed . Due to the latter, added to its building development and marked European influence on its architecture in certain areas, it is known throughout the world by the nickname "The Paris of America ." [ 194 ]

Regions for economic and social development

The four regions in which the Argentine provinces were grouped before 2012. The province of Buenos Aires and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, in yellow, do not make up any region
The regions for economic and social development, or simply regions, are coordinating entities formally constituted in Argentina by interprovincial treaties, [ 195 ] which group together a number of provinces that voluntarily access. Among its main objectives is the improvement in the execution of public policies, the administration of economic resources, and the favoring of the economic and social development of the provinces that comprise them. The conformation of a region can respond to historical, geographical, economic, social, cultural and political aspects, there being no established criteria for its conformation.

Geography

Official map of Argentina drawn up in 2009. The surface of the Argentine continental shelf , recognized by the United Nations in 2016, is indicated in green . The map includes the territorial claims on the Falkland Islands , the Aurora Islands , the Georgia Islands , the Sandwich Islands. del Sur and Antarctica Argentina .

The territory of the Argentine Republic is the second largest in South America after Brazil , fourth in all of America and the eighth largest on Earth . If the claimed territories in Antarctica and Malvinas are counted , it makes it the seventh largest country in the world.

It borders Bolivia , Brazil , Chile , Paraguay and Uruguay . Its geography is very varied, being mostly plains in the east, mountainous areas in the center and mountains in the west. The country is crossed, in its western end, from north to south by the Andes mountain range . The highest peak in Argentina is Aconcagua , 6960.8 m above sea level .

The Argentine territory under effective sovereignty has a great longitudinal development: 4361 kilometers between the extreme north and the extreme south, from La Quiaca to Ushuaia , [ 196 ] which makes it one of the longest countries in the world.

The American continental surface of Argentina is 2,791,820 km² . [ 197 ] Of these, 2,780,400 km² correspond to the national area under effective sovereignty, [ 198 ] corresponding to the Federal Capital ( Autonomous City of Buenos Aires ) and 23 Argentine provinces . The rest is made up of the 11 410 km² of the Falkland Islands , territories in dispute with the United Kingdom , the country that controls them. [ 199 ]

The Antarctic continental surface - area under the postulates of the Antarctic Treaty - comprises 969 464 km². Of these, about 965 597 km² correspond to Argentine Antarctica (claimed territory). In addition, this area includes the South Shetland Islands and the South Orkney Islands . The remaining 3,867 km² are made up of the South Georgia Islands (3560 km²) and the South Sandwich Islands (307 km²) that are part of the South Atlantic Islands department of the Tierra del Fuego province, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands . as well as the Antarctic sector (included as a department).

The total area would thus amount to 3 761 274 km². Even so, this figure does not include: the Argentine oceanic strip of 200 nautical miles corresponding to the Argentine sea , nor the waters of the Río de la Plata . On the other hand, because of the United Kingdom's claim to extend its maritime area to 350 nautical miles (about 564 km) from the low-water coastline, starting from territories claimed by Argentina, or occupied by the United Kingdom but which are in litigation with Argentina, the claims of maritime extension of both countries overlap, both in the islands of the South Atlantic and in the projection from the Antarctic continent and its islands.

Location

Map of Argentina and its territorial claims.
Map ( Mercator projection ) in which most of the Argentine territory is transpolated (in the center of the map and with a gray tone) to equivalent latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (Europe, North America, Asia, etc.).

Argentina is located in the south of the continent of America , it is part of the Southern Cone together with Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay and southern Brazil. [ 200 ] It is located east of Chile, south of Bolivia and Paraguay, and west of Uruguay and Brazil.

The emerged territory over which Argentina exercises effective sovereignty extends for more than 33 ° of latitude between its extreme north and south, and for almost 20 ° of longitude from east to west. According to the website of the National Geographic Institute , [ 204 ] it is 1423 km from east to west and 3694 km long from north to south, stating that the extreme points are: to the east, a point located in the city of Bernardo de Irigoyen , in the province of Misiones , a; west a point west of Cerro Bertrand or Agassiz Norte in Los Glaciares National Park , Santa Cruz province:; to the north the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete rivers, in the province of Jujuy ; and to the south Cape San Pío , to the south of the Big Island of Tierra del Fuego