Australia ( English pronunciation: / əˈstɹæɪljə / ( listen ) ), officially the Commonwealth of Australia (in English , Commonwealth of Australia , pronounced / ˈkɒmənˌweɫ̩θ ɒv əˈstʲɹæɪljə / ), is a sovereign country of Oceania , whose form of government is the federal constitutional parliamentary monarchy .
The country occupies the main continental mass of the platform called Sahul , plus some islands in the oceans Pacific , Indian and Antarctic . The countries closest to Australia are Indonesia , East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north, the Solomon Islands , Vanuatu and the French dependency of New Caledonia to the northeast, and New Zealand to the southeast. Australia is the sixth largest country in the world with an area of 7,741,220 km². [ 1] Its capital,Canberra, is located in theAustralian Capital Territory. The country's population (according to the 2020 estimate) [ 5 ] is more than 25 million inhabitants, concentrated mainly in the large coastal cities:Sydney,Melbourne,Brisbane,Perth,Adelaideand the capitalCanberra.
Australia has been inhabited for at least 46,000 years [ 6 ] by Australian Aborigines . Its discovery would have occurred after sporadic visits by Spanish and Portuguese who explored the northern and western coast of Australia, although without advancing inland due to the small number of explorers. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] scans initiated in the seventeenth century were continued by Dutch fishermen, explorers and traders Europeans. Until now it is argued that the first to land on the eastern coasts was the British navigator James Cook , who arrived in New Zealand in 1769 and in 1770 in Australian lands. [ 10 ] Because of this, the eastern half of the continent was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 , and in 1788 a penal colony was established in New South Wales . Due to the settlement of settlers, their population growth and the exploration of new areas, during the 19th century another five British colonies were established . On January 1By 1901, the six colonies federated forming the Confederation of Australia. Since its institution it has maintained a liberal democratic political system and has continued to be a monarchy within the British Commonwealth of Nations .
In the conventional division into continents, Australia is included in Oceania , which also groups the islands of the Pacific . However, English speakers often speak of the 'Australian continent' without Australia, from a geological point of view , constituting a continent . New Zealand and the adjacent islands also do not make up a continent with Australia as they do not belong to the Sahul platform , but are often associated with it due to historical and political proximity.
Etymology and origin of the name
The Australia toponym comes directly from the Latin adjective australis that is to say 'southern' or 'relative to the south'. [ 11 ] Indeed, during classical antiquity there were scholars who mentioned a Terra Australis Incognita ('Unknown Southern Land'); including the geographers Pomponio Mela (? -45 AD) and Claudius Ptolemy (90 / 100-170 AD). On these texts the late medieval and Renaissance scientific cartography was developed . During the Age of Discovery, the idea of a great land located in the extreme south of the world was unanimously accepted, for which all the expeditions that arrived in the southern hemisphere looked for indications of the supposed great southern continent. Of this continent, the island of Australia was considered its northern part, for which it received the name of "land of the south." [ 11 ]
The first concrete application of the name, however, corresponds to the Spanish expedition of the Portuguese Pedro Fernández de Quirós discovered the archipelago of the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu ) in 1606, whose largest island was named Austrialia (sic) del Espíritu Santo , [ 12 ] [ 13 ] name Quiros himself chose in reference to the feast of the Holy Spirit, and to a lesser extent to the House of Austria ( Austria with the suffix of belonging; lia) to which the Spanish monarch belonged. In this place name some authors [ 14 ] see a play on words or a confusion between the southern adjective and the dynastic name: Austria. Australia would refer both to the land of the south and the ruling family in Spain, Portugal and the Indies [ 15 ]
The oldest document in English that contains the word Australia dates from 1625. It is " A note of Austrialia del Espíritu Santo, written by Sir Richard Hakluyt ", published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus , which refers to the aforementioned island of the archipelago New Hebrides, discovered by Quiros 1606. [ 18 ]
Alexander Dalrymple used the word "Australia" in Historical Collection of voyages and discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean ( A Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean ) in 1771 , to refer to the entire southern region of the Pacific Ocean. In 1793 , George Shaw and Sir James Smith published Zoology and Botany of New Holland ( Zoology and Botany of New Holland ), in which they wrote "the vast island, or rather continent, of Australia, Australasia or New Holland" ( " the vast island, or rather continent, of Australia, Australasia or New Holland»).
The later use of the name "Australia" is due to the work published in 1814 A Voyage to Terra Australis [A Voyage to Terra Australis], by the navigator Matthew Flinders who first circumnavigated it. Despite the title, which reflected the British Admiralty's view of legitimate place names, Flinders used the word "Australia," and the success of the book eventually popularized the word. The governor of New South Wales Lachlan Macquarie later used it in messages sent to England . In 1817 it recommended official adoption, and in 1824 the Admiralty authorized it.
The history of Australia began with the arrival of humans to mainland Australia from the north more than 65,000 years ago, [ 19 ] (and even 68,000, according to some studies). [ 20 ] Despite having been discovered in the 16th century by Spanish and Portuguese sailors, who for strategic reasons had kept its discovery secret, its written history only began with the Dutch explorers who spotted it in the 17th century.. They, however, implied that the southern land was uninhabitable and unsuitable for colonization, thus leaving the way open for subsequent British expeditions .
Interpretation of Australian history is still a matter of discussion today, particularly as it relates to the treatment of Australian Aborigines by European colonizers.
With regard to Australia, prehistory is understood to be the period from the immigration of its first inhabitants to the first confirmed European sighting, in 1606 , which can be included as part of its early history. Australian prehistory is considered to be a few thousand years longer than in other parts of the world because there are no records of human events on the continent prior to contact with Europeans. Recent studies have concluded that the first Europeans who sighted the island were the Spanish when they were sailing through the Pacific . Helmets belonging to 16th century Spanish soldiers have been found in Australia .
The exact date of the first human settlements in Australia is still up for debate. However, the southern land is believed to have been inhabited by humans for 65,000 years, [ 19 ] although some researchers claim it was 48,000 years ago; [ 21 ] at that time there was a period of massive ecological change believed to have been the result of human actions. The first Australians were the ancestors of today's Aboriginal Australians who came across land bridges and narrow sea passes from Southeast Asia.. It is important to note that during most of the prehistory of Australia, it was linked to New Guinea, so for tens of thousands of years both populations evolved together. Only between 14,000 and 7,000 years ago with the rise in sea level both land masses were separated.
Most of these people were hunter-gatherers with a complex oral tradition and spiritual values based on worship of the land and belief in Dreamtime . The islanders of the Torres Strait , ethnically Melanesian , from that time inhabited the islands of the Torres Strait and parts of the extreme north of Queensland ; They have cultural practices that are different from those of other Australian Aboriginal groups . It is also known that the dingo, the only domesticated mammal available in Australia, was brought there from Southeast Asia and is relatively recent on the island, it has only been found since 1500 BC. C.
Contact with Asians
In 1603 Father Matteo Ricci , an Italian Jesuit who spent a long time in China , made a map of the world known at the time. In the space where Australia would be located, he noted: No one has been to this southern land, therefore we know nothing about it . He also wrote Tierra del Fuego and Tierra de Loros in Chinese characters , [ 22 ] thus suggesting that the Chinese knew of or perhaps had even visited Australia.
The first writings on the discovery of Australia by European explorers date from the beginning of the 17th century . However, some writers have argued that Australia may have been discovered by Portuguese navigators in the 16th century ; recently the journalist Peter Trickett wrote in Beyond Capricorn that Cristovão de Mendonça arrived at Botany Bay in 1522 , two hundred and fifty years before the English. The thesis of the book is tried to demonstrate by means of a fragment of a Portuguese map . [ 23 ]Furthermore, it seems probable that there was knowledge of the Australian northern coast as early as the 16th century , given that representations of it appear in the Spanish and Portuguese cartography of the time, as well as some sketches in the French. It is possible that the Spanish sailor Francisco de Hoces reached the coast of Australia in 1526 , although there is no conclusive evidence of the fact. [ 24 ]
Another supposed discovery of Australia corresponds to the trip commanded by Juan Fernández and (probably) Juan Jufré (1576) whose ships, departing from Peru, arrived at a mountainous land located at 40º south, which is identified either with New Zealand or with Australia. This trip, not much witnessed, however, had no consequences. [ 25 ] [ 26 ]
In the times of Felipe III , Fernández de Quirós, after Mendaña's journey, was trained through the Count of Monterrey of Peru to navigate the so-called Balboa Sea from El Callao to the west, with three ships and three hundred crew members. Admiral Luis Váez de Torres , in whose honor the strait that separates Australia from New Guinea has been named , and the expedition's chronicler Luis de Belmonte Bermúdez were part of it. Belmonte would later publish a review of the expedition published posthumously with the title: “ History of the discovery of the southern regions by General Pedro Fernández de Quirós”. The expedition discovered, that same year, the New Hebrides islands which they baptized as “ Austrialia (sic) of the Holy Spirit ”. These lands were, in the words of Quirós, " the fourth part of the world ." However, those lands were not colonized in those years, since they were outside the area of interest of the crown; when their colonization was finally approved; Pedro Fernández de Quirós had already died and the project was never carried out. [ 28 ] During that expedition, months after the discovery of the New Hebrides, the aforementioned Torres sailed through the strait that today bears his name, between October 1 and 9 out of 1606, and at that time, in all probability, he sighted the Australian northern coast. [ 29 ]
In 1616 the Dutchman Dirk Hartog reached a western island today called Dirk Hartog ; in 1642 his compatriot Abel Tasman discovered the island then called Van Diemen's Land (today, in his honor, Tasmania ) and in 1644 he entered the Gulf of Carpentaria . Tasman names the sighted land New Holland and maps the northern coast from the Cape York peninsula to the Northwest Cape in Western Australia . However, no establishment attempts had yet been made. In 1688 the British pirateWilliam Dampier lands at Shark Bay ; In 1696 , Willem de Vlamingh , a Dutch navigator , explored the western coast and named the Swan River in whose estuary the present city of Perth sits .
In 1770 , the Endeavor expedition commanded by James Cook sailed and mapped the eastern coast, landing for the first time on the mainland at Botany Bay on April 29 . Cook headed north and, before leaving, landed on Possession Island, in the Torres Strait , on August 22 , 1770 . There he formally claimed the Australian east coast and named it New South Wales .
Upon returning to Britain , the reports made during Cook's expedition generated interest in the new world, seeing it as a solution to the problem of British penal overcrowding, aggravated by the loss of the American colonies . [ 30 ] Consequently, on May 13 , 1787, eleven ships commanded by Ar left Portsmouth. Phillip to Botany Bay with some 1,500 people on board including sailors and officers, in addition to 772 cows. The fleet reached Botany Bay and, as the place was inhospitable, they moved to Port Jackson, the current site of Sydney. The captain became the first colonial governor and the landing date, January 26 , 1788 , is the first national day.
Settlement and colonization
New South Wales ( 1788 ), Van Diemen's Land present-day Tasmania ( 1825 ), Western Australia ( 1832 ), South Australia ( 1836 ), Victoria ( 1851 ) and Queensland ( 1859 ). The Northern Territory was founded in 1863 as part of the colony of South Australia. Victoria and South Australiathey had been founded as “free”, that is, they were never penal colonies, although before they had received some prisoners from Tasmania, never from the United Kingdom. Western Australia was also founded free, but later accepted transport due to severe labor shortages. New Zealand belonged to New South Wales until 1840 , when it became a colony of its own. Convict transport was being progressively abolished throughout Australia between 1840 and 1864 .
From the 1 of February of 1827 until December of June of 1831 , the Territory of the North was divided by the parallel 20º S in Australia Septentrional and Central Australia . From a small portion of the New South Wales, it was founded in 1915 the Jervis Bay Territory , which covers 6677 hectares only; belonged to the Australian Capital Territory until 1989, when the latter acquired a government of its own, after which Jervis Bay became a separate territory, administered by the Ministry of Territories.
The native population , estimated at three hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants towards the settlement, was considerably reduced in the next 150 years, due to infectious diseases together with cultural disintegration and resettlement that the colonizers forced them to do in their advance. The separation of Aboriginal children and their families, which some historians and indigenous people argue should be considered genocide under current legal norms, possibly contributed to the demographic decline of the original inhabitants. [ 31 ]These national historical interpretations are a matter of discussion and are described by some as exaggerated and fabricated for political or ideological reasons. [ 32 ] The debate that arose on this matter is known within Australia as "historical wars" . Following the approval of the 1967 referendum , the federal government gained the power to implement new laws regarding Aborigines. Traditional landholding ( native title ) was not recognized until the case of Mabo against Queensland (No. 2) of the Supreme Court modified the notion of Australia as terra nullius at the time of the European occupation.
- Timeline of Australian colonial foundations
- 1788 - Founding of New South Wales , western extension to the 135th meridian, including all adjacent oceanic islands. Including New Zealand .
- 1825 - The western border of New South Wales extends to the 129 ° E meridian. Van Diemen Land Foundation , present-day Tasmania.
- 1829 - Charles Fremantle claims the Swan River Colony for England .
- 1832 - The Swan River Colony changes its name to Western Australia .
- 1836 - Foundation of South Australia with the 132 ° E parallel as its western border.
- 1840 - Founding of New Zealand .
- 1846 - Founding of Northern Australia , which included present-day Northern Territory and most of Queensland , with the meridian 26 ° S as the southern boundary. Although abolished in December of the same year.
- 1851 - Foundation of Victoria .
- 1856 - Van Diemen's Land is renamed Tasmania , in honor of its discoverer.
- 1859 - Founding of Queensland with the 141 ° E meridian as its western boundary.
- 1860 - The western border of South Australia changes from the 132 ° E meridian to 129 ° E.
- 1862 - The western border of Queensland changes from the meridian 141 ° E to 139 ° E.
- 1863 - South Australia takes control of the Northern Territory to the detriment of New South Wales .
- 1911 - Founding of the Australian Capital Territory . Transfer of control over the Northern Territory to the national government.
Own colonial government and discovery of gold
The gold rush started in Australia in the early 1850s . The Eureka Stockade rebellion of 1854 was an early expression of nationalist sentiment - the flag used to represent this rebellion was seriously considered as an alternative to the Australian flag . The gold rushes attracted many immigrants from Great Britain , Ireland , Europe , North America, and China .
Between 1855 and 1890 , the six colonies individually obtained their own colonial rule, administering most of their internal affairs while they were still part of the British Empire . London maintained control over mainly international issues, such as defense and maritime traffic. Gold brought a period of great prosperity, but followed by a depression at the end of the economic expansion, 1890s .
Federation and world wars
In 1901, Australia passed a law that prohibited non-whites from settling in. [ 33 ]
The Australian Capital Territory was founded in 1911 in an area formerly belonging to New South Wales in order to delineate the exact location of the proposed new federal capital, Canberra ( Melbourne was the capital from 1901 to 1927 ). Control over the Northern Territory was transferred from South Australia to the Confederacy in 1911 . Australia participated in World War I willingly; [ 34 ] many Australians saw the involvement (and subsequent defeat) of theAustralian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) in the Battle of Gallipoli as the birth of the nation, this being their first major military performance. On the other hand, the Australian intervention in the Kokoda Road campaign (in WWII ) is considered by many to be self-defense.
The Westminster Statute of 1931 abolished most of the constitutional connections between Australia and the United Kingdom, but the former did not accept it until October 1942 . [ 35 ] The impact of the British defeat after the fall of Singapore in 1942 and the threat of a Japanese invasion caused the United States to become the new ally and protector of the Confederacy.
With World War II over , the Australian government instigated a massive program to attract European immigration. Having narrowly prevented the Japanese invasion and suffered attacks on Australian soil for the first time, it was believed that the country must "populate or perish." Immigration attracted traditional emigrants from the United Kingdom alongside, for the first time, large numbers of southern and eastern Europeans. The growing Australian economy did not degrade unlike the European one, which had been devastated by war. In Australia, immigrant newcomers found employment in government-assisted programs, such as the Snowy Mountains Scheme.. Two million people came to the burgeoning southern nation between 1948 and 1975 .
The Liberal Party , founded in 1944 , dominated the situation immediately after the war, with its president and founder, Robert Menzies , defeating in 1949 the then president of the Labor Party , Ben Chifley , who had already held the position of prime minister from 1945 to 1949. . Menzies oversaw the postwar expansion; he would become the national leader to spend the longest in that position. The manufacturing industry , which had previously had a minor role in an economy dominated by primary production, expanded enormously. Since the 1970sand the abolition of White Australia policy , immigration from Asia and other parts of the world has also been encouraged; As a result, national demographics , culture, and image have been radically transformed.
Australia signed the ANZUS treaty in 1951 with the United States and New Zealand and sent troops to the Korean War and the Malay Emergency . Melbourne hosted the 1956 Olympics . British-Australian nuclear tests and rocket launches began near Woomera , South Australia , around the same time. The population reached 10 million inhabitants in 1959 .
Since 1951 , Australia has been a military ally of the United States under the auspices of the ANZUS treaty . The last constitutional ties between the United Kingdom and the Confederacy were removed in 1986 by the Australia Act , ending any British role in the Australian states and abolishing judicial appeals to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom . [ 36 ] However, Australia continues to be a constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom as its Queen . In 1999, voters rejected a move to turn the nation into a republic with a 55% majority of the votes. [ 37 ]
Politic and government
The Confederation of Australia is a constitutional monarchy and has a parliamentary system of government . Queen Elizabeth II is currently the head of the Australian State and uses the formal title of Queen of Australia , fulfilling a different role than she exercises in other kingdoms of the Commonwealth . She is nominally represented by the governor general at the federal level and by the governor of each state. Although the Constitution provides broad executive powersto the governor general, their implementation is generally carried out only with the advice of the prime minister. The most notable exercise of power reserved for the Governor General, outside of the Prime Minister's direction, was the removal of Gough Whitlam from the latter political office during the Australian constitutional crisis of 1975 . [ 38 ]
- Legislative branch : the Parliament of Australia , including the Queen, the Senate and the House of Representatives . The queen is represented by the governor general, who in practice only exercises constitutional power with the approval of the prime minister.
- Executive power : the Federal Executive Council (the governor general in agreement with the executive directors). In practice, the councilors are the prime minister and the ministers of state.
- Judiciary : the Supreme Court of Australia and other federal courts . State courts formally became independent from the Privy Council Judiciary Committee when the Australia Act was passed in 1986 .
The Confederation Parliament, which is bicameral , is made up of the Queen, the Senate (upper house), made up of 76 senators, and the House of Representatives (lower house), made up of 150 members. Members of the lower house run in one-man constituencies, commonly known as electorates (“electorates”) or seats (“benches”). The seats in the House of Representatives are assigned to the states according to the population of each of them. In the Senate, each state, regardless of its population, is represented by 12 senators, while the territories (the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory) are represented by two senators each. Elections for both houses take place every three years, renewing only half of the Senate seats corresponding to the states and all of the senators for the territories. This means that the senators for the states hold said office for a period of six years and the territorial senators hold said offices for a period of three years. The party or coalition that has the support of the majority in the House of Representatives forms the Government, the leader of that party becoming the prime minister.
There are three main political parties : the Labor Party , the Liberal Party, and the National Party . Independent members and minor parties - including the Greens and Australian Democrats - have gained representation in parliament, mainly in the upper house, although their influence has not been of great importance. In the 2007 elections , the Labor Party won, remaining in power until 2015, the year in which it won a coalition led by the Liberal Party . In the 2004 elections, the Coalition won control of the Senate, this being the first time in more than 20 years that a party (or a coalition of parties) has done so while also at the head of the national government. By 2006, the Labor Party was in power in all states and territories. The voting is compulsory for every citizen over 18 years both territorial or state level as well as in national elections. [ 39 ]
In recent decades Australia's foreign relations have been marked by a close relationship with the United States , the signing of the ANZUS treaty , and the desire to develop relations with Asia and the Pacific , particularly through the Association of Southeastern Nations. Asian and Pacific Islands Forum . Relations with the UK are also close. Much of the Australian diplomatic effort focuses on the liberalization of international trade. In 2005 , Australia secured its presence at the first East Asia Summit. It is also a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations , in which the Commonwealth's Heads of State meetings constitute the main forum for cooperation among the nations that comprise it. Australia is part of the Cairns Group , the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation , the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development , and the World Trade Organization . The nation has supported several major bilateral trade agreements, the most recent being the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement . He is a founding member of the United Nations and maintains an international aid program through which 60 countries receive assistance.
The Australian armed forces - the Australian Defense Force (ADF) - comprise the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), with a total of some 53,000 men among them. three armies. All branches of the ADF have intervened as peacekeeping forces, both regional and United Nations (most recently in East Timor , Solomon Islands and Sudan ), in assistance after disasters, and in armed conflicts, including the invasion of Iraq from 2003 . The Government appoints the head of the Defense Force. In the 2016 budget- 2017 , military defense spending was 2% of the country's GDP , the 12th highest in the world . [ 40 ] The Australian armed forces are equipped with modern weaponry. [ 41 ]
|CESCR||CCPR [ 44 ]||CERD [ 45 ]||CED||CEDAW [ 47 ]||CAT||CRC||MWC||EARL [ 51 ]|
|Signed and ratified, signed, but not ratified, neither signed nor ratified, No information, has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.|
Australia is divided into six states, two mainland territories, and other smaller territories. The states are New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (QLD), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS), Victoria (VIC), and Western Australia (WA). The two mainland territories are the Northern Territory (NT) and the Australian Capital Territory(ACT). In most of their affairs, territories function similarly to states; however the Confederation parliament has the power to override any legislation of the state and territorial parliaments. Instead, federal law can only override state laws relating to certain areas as set out in section 51 of the Australian constitution ; all residual legislative powers are handled by state parliaments, including hospitals, education, police, judiciary, highways, public transportation, and local government.
Each state and territory has its own legislature ( unicameral in the case of the Northern Territory, the Australian Capital Territory and Queensland, and bicameral in the remaining states). The lower house is known as the Legislative Assembly ( House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania) and the upper house is called the Legislative Council . The head of government of each state and territory is called premier or chief minister respectively. The Queen is represented in the states by a governor, in the Northern Territory by an administrator , and in the Australian Capital Territory by the Governor General.
Australia also has several minor territories. The Federal Government administers a separate area within New South Wales, the Jervis Bay Territory , as a naval base and seaport for the national capital. Australia also has the following inhabited external territories: Norfolk Island , Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) ; and the uninhabited outer territories of the Ashmore and Cartier Islands , the Coral Sea Islands , the Heard and McDonald Islands and the Australian Antarctic Territory ; as for two alleged islands, the Dougherty and the EmeraldThese have been considered fiction for years and, therefore, are categorized as ghost islands .
Australia is one of the 14 independent countries that make up Oceania and is the sixth largest in the world. Surrounded by the Indian , Glacial Antarctic and Pacific oceans , it is separated from Asia by the seas of Arafura and Timor .
Australia's 7,741,220 km² area [ 1 ] is found on the Indo-Australian plate . Australia has a coastline of 25,760 km in length [ 1 ] and claims a large exclusive economic zone of 8,148,250 km². This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory .
The Great Barrier Reef , the largest coral reef in the world, lies just off the northeast coast and stretches for more than 2,000 kilometers. With a width of 100 to 300 km, it makes up a large number of islands. In terms of relief, Australia occupies one of the oldest and least elevated continental masses on the planet.
At 2,228 m altitude , Mount Kosciuszko in the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain in mainland Australia; however Mawson Peak , in the remote Australian territory of the Heard and McDonald Islands , is even higher at 2,745 meters. The largest monolith in the world, Mount Uluru , is located in the Northern Territory.
A huge part of the country is desert or semi-arid . Australia is the driest and flattest inhabited country, and the one with the least fertile soils. Only in the southeast and southwest is there a temperate climate. The northern part of the country with a tropical climate , has a vegetation consisting of rain forests , forests , grasslands , mangroves and deserts . The climate is strongly influenced by seasonal tropical low pressure systems that produce cyclones in the northern region, and by themarine currents , including the oceanic-atmospheric phenomenon of El Niño , which is correlated with periodic droughts .
The Australian hydrography is an evident proof of the drying process that the island-continent undergoes; The two most important rivers, the Darling and the Murray, despite having lengths greater than 2000 km, carry a meager flow in almost their entire section that gives them the appearance of narrow streams; except Tasmania and perhúmeda area of the far north, the vast majority of watercourses are in paleocauces reality or wadis , something similar happens with its "lakes" in times present the great Australian lakes are depressions with Salares and some gaps in its background. On the other hand, there is an important aquifer in the eastern half of Australia.that contributes the emerging waters of the Great Artesian Basin .
View of Pedder Lake in Tasmania
Flora and fauna
Although much of Australia is desert or semi-arid , it has a great diversity of habitats , from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests . Due to the great age of the continent, the low fertility of its soils, its different variable climates and its prolonged isolation from the rest of the continents, the Australian biota is unique and diverse . About 85% of flowering plants , 84% of mammals , more than 45% of birds , and 90% of fish in temperate coastal areas are endemic . [ 52] Many ofAustralia'secoregionsand theindigenousspeciesthat live in them are threatened by human activities and theintroduction of alien species. TheEnvironmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act of 1999is the legal framework used for the protection of threatened species. Numerousprotected areashave been created bythe Biodiversity Action Planto protect and conserve theuniqueecosystemsof the continent; 64wetlandsare registered under theRamsar Conventionand there are also 16 declared sitesWorld Heritage of Humanity . Australia is ranked number 13 in the world in the Environmental Sustainability Index in 2005 .
Most Australian woody plants are evergreen and adapted to fire and drought , including many species of eucalyptus and acacia . There is a very rich variety of endemic legume species that thrive even in nutrient-poor soils thanks to their symbiosis with the Rhizobia bacteria , and fungi that make mycorrhiza possible .
It is considered that the current predominance of xerophytic flora typical of semi-arid, arid and desert areas is due to a desertification process that began some 30,000 years ago due to the previous irruption of Homo sapiens between 50,000-45,000 years ago.
Scientists from the Australian Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) also found 80 seamounts, some more than 500 meters high and 25 kilometers wide; 145 underwater canyons, and corals two meters high and up to 2000 years old. The sheer dimensions of the mountains and canyons demonstrate "how slowly these environments grow and how long it would take them to recover from any change," according to marine biologist Nic Bax.
Australian fauna is famous for the presence of striking marsupials and monotremes ; In addition to these typical and famous animals, Australia is characterized by the extraordinary abundance of poisonous animals, many of them lethal to humans: the Chironex fleckeri ( sea wasp or irukandji ) is a small jellyfish that frequents the seas of the northern sector of Australia, also poisonous octopuses (such as Hapalochlaena lunulata ) and poisonous fish , sea snakes ; some of the spiders abound on landmore deadly being the presence of many of them frequent in the cities. Another Australian characteristic: it is the continent with the greatest variety of lizards .
The best known indigenous animal species include, as noted, monotremes ( platypus and echidnas ) and marsupials ; Australian marsupials are characterized by the adaptive variety of their species, being herbivores and carnivores and species that by evolutionary convergence look like rodents or that look like canids, and among them stand out various species of kangaroos , the koala , wombats , the Tasmanian devil , the bandicut and the (extinct in the 1930s ) Tilacinoor "Tasmanian Tiger"; and birds such as the emu , the kookaburras , the lyre bird , the cockatoo or the Australian parakeet . Among the native placental mammals, sugar gliders are striking ; the dingo was introduced by the Asians who traded with the Australian aborigines around 4000 BC. C. Large crocodiles and other reptiles such as monitor lizards (especially Varanus giganteus ), the Australian dragon and some of the snakes exist in the waterways of northern Australia.deadliest on the planet.
Many animal and plant species became extinct after human settlement, including the Australian megafauna some 30,000 years ago, such megafauna included Marsupial Lions and Giant Kangaroos ; others have become extinct since European settlement, such as the Tasmanian Thylacine .
Between 2000 and 2013, 22% of Australia's intact forests ("natural" landscapes considered not artificially fragmented and not degraded) were destroyed. The deforestation rate tends to accelerate [ citation needed ] . One third of the insect species recorded in Australia are in danger of extinction. [ 54 ]
Shortly after his election in 2013, Prime Minister Tony Abbott abolished the Ministry of Science, the Climate Change Authority and the Climate Commission. It also announced the abolition of the carbon tax , introduced in 2012, which aimed to reduce CO 2 emissions , of which Australia is one of the largest emitters, by forcing the 500 most polluting companies to buy emission permits. In 2014, the government approved the discharge into the waters of the Great Barrier Reef of dredging waste from the expansion of a coal export port. [ 53 ]
Australia is very strongly impacted by global warming : January 2019 is the warmest month in the country's history and nine of the ten warmest years were recorded after 2005. Among the consequences, scientists observed an increase in drought in some parts of Australia, as well as the frequency of floods and large-scale fires.
Australia is the country with the "largest ecological footprint" per capita in the world in 2017. If every person in the world consumed like the average Australian, humanity would need 5.2 planets of the earth to support itself. [ 55 ]
In 2019, Greenpeace includes Australia on the list of developed countries that do not have legislation to limit or reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. According to the NGO, Australia's power plants in the Latrobe Valley and Lake Macquarie region are among the most polluting in the world. [ 56 ]
Global warming effects
Global warming has led to an increase in wildfire risks. [ 57 ] Already below 1 degree warming, the wildfire season is expanding "with great confidence". [ 57 ] This effect can be observed in Australia. The climate report from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and research organization CSIRO shows a significant increase in fire risk in recent decades. [ 58 ] The report summarizes this as follows: "Climate change, including rising temperatures, is contributing to these changes." [ 58 ]Wildfires in Australia in 2019 burned a record area of around six million hectares. This corresponds to roughly twice the area of Belgium . Several hundred houses were victims of the flames.
Australia has a thriving market economy , with per capita income slightly higher than the UK , Germany and France , in terms of purchasing power parity . The nation is in second place in the Human Development Index carried out in 2015 by the United Nations , being surpassed only by Norway ; ranks sixth in the quality of life index of The Economist magazine ( 2005 ), in addition to being the fourth freest economy according to the Index of Economic Freedomprepared by the Heritage Foundation . In recent years, the Australian economy has weathered the global economic downturn, which is visible in the growth of its domestic economy and in the maintenance of business and consumption .
In the 1980s , the Bob Hawke government began a process of economic reform by floating the Australian dollar in 1983 and deregulating the financial system. [ 59 ] Since 1996 , the Hawke government has continued the process of microeconomic reforms, including partial deregulation of the labor market and privatization of state businesses, notably the telecommunications industry . [ 60 ] A substantial reform in the system of tax was implemented in July of the 2000with the introduction of the 10% Value Added Goods and Services Tax , which has somewhat reduced the heavy reliance on corporate and personal income (income) taxes that still characterizes Australia's tax system.
The Australian economy has not suffered a recession since the early 1990s and was the only advanced economy that did not experience a recession due to the global financial slowdown in 2008-2009 . For May of 2012 , the unemployment was 5.1%. [ 61 ] The tertiary sector of the economy, including tourism , education and financial services , comprises 69% of GDP . The agriculture and exploitation of natural resourcesthey comprise 3% and 5% of GDP respectively, but they contribute substantially to national exports . The most important export markets for Australia include Japan , China , the United States , South Korea and New Zealand . [ 62 ]
Most of the more than 25 million Australians live concentrated in major cities. Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I , [ 63 ] spurred by an ambitious immigration program . In 2016 , the top five groups that made up 26% of foreign-born Australians were originally from the UK , New Zealand , China , India and the Philippines . After the abolition of the White Australia policy in 1973, numerous government initiatives promoted ethnic harmony based on a multicultural policy . [ 64 ]
For many years Australia only allowed whites to colonize the country: mostly people from Great Britain, Italy and Greece . In 1972 this policy was changed and since then immigrants have come from all over the world. The "new Australians" include the Vietnamese, Japanese and Chinese. These groups have contributed their own languages, festivals and gastronomy.
The indigenous population - aboriginal inhabitants of the continent and islanders of the Torres Strait - was 798,365 inhabitants (3.3% of the total population) in 2016 , detecting a significant population growth of this group since the 1976 census, which registered an indigenous population of 115,953 people. The Australian aborigines tend to dedicate themselves to traditional livestock and agriculture, although many have adopted an urban lifestyle offered by the growth of large cities such as Sydney or Melbourne. However, there they tend to be concentrated in poor neighborhoods, where, together with Asian immigrants, they have high unemployment rates and job insecurity, all of which is cushioned thanks to intermittent state financial support for these groups. They also have lower educational levels than the rest of Australians, which makes it difficult to find a stable, well-paid job adapted to modern times. [ 62 ]
Like other developed countries, Australia is experiencing an aging demographic, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. A large number of Australians (759,849 in the period 2002 - 2003 ) [ 65 ] live outside their native country. Australia has maintained one of the most active immigration programs in the world to drive population growth. Many immigrants are well prepared when it comes to their education, although there are also refugees .
The English is the most spoken language in the country and is spoken and written in a variant known as Australian English . According to the 2016 census , English is the only language spoken in the home of around 72.7% of the population. After this, the most widely spoken languages in the home environment are Mandarin (2.5%), Arabic (1.4%), Cantonese (1.2%), Vietnamese (1.2%) and Italian (1.2%). A considerable proportion of first and second generation immigrants are bilingual .
It is believed that between 200 and 300 Australian Aboriginal languages existed at the time of first contact with Europeans. Only about 70 languages have survived and around 20 are currently in danger of disappearing. Indigenous languages are the main language for 50,000 people (0.02%). Australia has an indigenous sign language known as Auslan , which is the main means of communication for around 6,500 deaf people in the country.
The Spanish (0.6%), with 140 thousand speakers is the ninth language of influence of the country. Most of Australia's Spanish speakers are of Argentine , Uruguayan , Chilean or Spanish origin . Australian Spanish speakers can be found in large metropolises, mainly Sydney and Melbourne . The Spanish-speaking community in Australia is number 25 in the world with a population that can easily exceed 100,000 people, plus the community of Brazilian residents with more than 20,000 people totaling the various migrations of these Ibero-American communities.
Australia has no state religion . In the 2016 census , 52.1% of Australians identified as Christian : 22.6% of Australians were Catholic , 13.3% were Anglican and 16.3% were other Protestant or Orthodox denominations . Australian followers of non-Christian religions comprise 8.2% of the population (2.4% were Buddhist , 2.6% Muslim , 1.9% Hindu and 0.4% profess Judaism ). A total of 30.1% were categorized as non-religious (this includes philosophical positions such as thesecular humanism , atheism , agnosticism and rationalism ) and 9.6% refused to answer or did not give an adequate answer for a correct interpretation. [ 66 ] As in many Western countries, the level of active participation in religious worship is much lower than the population that is followers of that religion; weekly church attendance is approximately 1.5 million people, about 7.5% of the population. [ 67 ]
School attendance is compulsory from at least 6 to 15 years old throughout Australia (up to 16 in South Australia and Tasmania , and up to 17 in Western Australia ), contributing to a 99 literacy level in the adult population % approximately. Government grants have enabled the establishment of 38 Australian universities and, although several of them are private, most receive government contributions. There is a state-based vocational training system, known as TAFE Institutes(Technical and Further Education), and many businesses train staff to prepare them as new traders. About 58% of Australians aged 25-64 have a college or university degree; [ 62 ] the university population index of people who are between the ages specified above —49% - is the highest among the countries that make up the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development . [ 69 ] The life expectancy is 80.9 years (fourth highest in the world).
|Main urban agglomerations in Australia|
| ||Town||Condition||Population||Town||Condition||Population|| |
|1||Sydney||New south Wales||4.504.469||11||Hobart||Tasmania||212.019|
|6||Gold Coast-Tweed||Queensland / New South Wales||577.977||16||Darwin||Northern Territory||124.760|
|7||Newcastle||New south Wales||540.796||17||Launceston||Tasmania||105.445|
|8||Canberra||Australian Capital Territory||351.868||18||Albury-Wodonga||New South Wales - Victoria||104.609|
|9||Wollongong||New south Wales||288.984||19||Ballarat||Victoria||94.088|
|June estimate for 2009 from the Australian Bureau of Statistics [ 70 ]|
The primary basis of Australian culture was Anglo-Celtic until the mid- 20th century , although distinctive Australian features had been acquired from the Aboriginal environment and culture . For the past 50 years, Australian culture has been heavily influenced by American popular culture (particularly on television and film ), by large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking countries, and by neighboring Asian countries. The vigor and originality of Australian arts - movies , opera , music , painting , theater ,dance and handicrafts - have achieved international recognition.
Australia has a long history when it comes to the visual arts, beginning with indigenous rock paintings . Since the times of European settlement, the Australian landscape has been a common theme in national art , which is evident in the works of Arthur Streeton , Arthur Boyd and Albert Namatjira , among others. Aboriginal traditions are mostly transmitted orally (oral tradition ) and are closely related to ceremonies and stories about the time of dreams . The music , dances andAustralian Aboriginal art has a notable influence on the performing and visual arts of contemporary Australia. The nation has an active tradition of music , ballet, and theater ; many of the performing arts companies receive public funding through the Australian Council for the Arts . There is an orchestra in each capital city, and a national opera company , the Australian Opera , which gained prominence thanks to the opera singer Dame Joan Sutherland ; the music of Australia includes classical music , thejazz and many other genres of popular music . The main representative of Australian popular music is the singer Kylie Minogue , recognized for her notorious worldwide success Can't Get You Out Of My Head , in addition to her acclaimed participation in the 2000 Sydney Olympics.
The literature of Australia has also been influenced by the landscape; for example, in the works of writers such as Banjo Paterson and Henry Lawson . The character of colonial Australia, reaffirmed in the country's literature, had a great impact on the modern stage of the nation and was noted for its egalitarianism and anti- authoritarianism . In 1973 Patrick White was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature , becoming the only Australian to receive this award; is recognized as one of the greatest writers in the English language of the 20th century . The Australian Englishit is a major variety of English; Its grammar and spelling are largely based on British English , with phrases and expressions typical of a rich vernacular and a unique lexicon .
Australia has two national public broadcasting companies ( ABC and SBS ), three commercial television networks, three pay television services , and numerous public television channels and radio stations . The film Australia has achieved commercial and critical success. Each major city has its own daily newspapers; There are also two national daily newspapers: The Australian and The Australian Financial Review . According to Reporters Without Borders , in 2005 the Commonwealth ranked 31st in the world in terms of freedom of the press, ranking below New Zealand (9th place) and the United Kingdom (28th place) on this list , but above the United States . The fact that it occupies that position, not very high, is mainly due to the limited diversity in media ownership . Most of the print media is controlled by either the News Corporation or John Fairfax Holdings .
The cuisine of Australia reflects its historical past multicultural: the local cuisine of the Australian aborigines , called bush tucker or bushfood , the British cuisine and Irish of the first European settlers who came mainly from the British Isles , and the contributions of Asian cuisine and Mediterranean brought by immigrants who arrived after the First World War . Meat and fish are basic ingredients. The typical Australian dish par excellence is the meatloaf .
The sport , supported by a warm climate that favors the outdoors activities, plays an important role in the Australian culture. Furthermore, the majority of Australians live in coastal areas, making the beach a regular playground and part of the country's identity. [ 71 ] 23.5% of Australians over 15 years of age regularly participate in organized sporting activities. [ 62 ] There is a high-performance center, the Australian Institute of Sport , from which many of the elite athletes that the country has given have come from, and which is considered one of the most important high-performance sports centers in the country. all the world.
At the international level, Australia excels in cricket , hockey , netball and rugby , [ 72 ] in addition to water sports such as swimming or surfing. [ 73 ] Other popular sports include Australian football and soccer , basketball , horse racing , baseball , and motor racing .
Australia has participated in each edition of the modern-era Olympic Games and in all Commonwealth Games . It has hosted the 1956 and 2000 Olympics and has been in the top five countries with the most medals won since the 2000 games . In addition, it is the only country in the southern hemisphere to have won a gold medal at the Winter Olympics . The Commonwealth Games of 1938 , 1962 , 1982 and 2006 were also held in Australia .
Other major international events that frequently take place in this country include the Formula 1 race known as the Australian Grand Prix , the Rally Australia scoring for the World Rally Championship or international cricket competitions.
In tennis, Australians are known for their serve and volley play and they enjoy tennis players of the quality of Patrick Rafter , Lleyton Hewitt , Samantha Stosur , or Alicia Molik among others, they also celebrate the Australian Open in Melbourne, one of the four tournaments of courts of the Grand Slam , whose headquarters is the Rod Laver Arena, named in honor of his historic player winner of 11 Grand Slam titles.
The golf is another popular sport, with several Australian players in the two major circuits of the world, the PGA Tour and European Tour . Greg Norman is the Australian player with the most titles, and players like Adam Scott and Jason Day are in the top five in the world.
The Australian National Soccer Team is Australia 's representative soccer team . "The Socceroos", as they say, have qualified for the Soccer World Cup on 5 occasions, 2 with the OFC and 3 with the AFC . In 2006, Australia, tired of always winning in Oceania , left the OFC and joined the AFC in order to participate in much more competitive tournaments. Also, he won the Asian Cup in 2015 . Within Australia, there is a professional soccer league, the A-League that has been played since the 2005-2006 season , and the most winning team is Sidney FC with 5 titles.
Corporate and government sponsorship of many prominent sports and athletes is common. Televised sport is also popular; Some of the highest marks on the Audience Index were reached by programs that televised the Olympic Games and the finals of soccer competitions, both local and international. [ 74 ]
The cycling is a sport booming, with figures such as Cadel Evans , Michael Rogers , Stuart O'Grady and Robbie McEwen to the head. They also stand out in track cycling , a modality in which they have won several world championships .
The ship Australia II was proclaimed the winner of the America's Cup sailing in 1983 and became the first non-American ship to win the Hundred Guineas Cup in America's Cup history. [ citation required ]
- Portal: Australia . Content related to Australia .
- Ashmore and Cartier Islands
- Christmas island
- Cocos Islands
- Islas Heard y McDonald
- Isla Norfolk
- Isla Macquarie
- Lord Howe Island
- Great Barrier Reef
- Coral Sea Islands
- Bush (landscape)
- CIA. "Australia - Geography - World Book of Facts" . Retrieved February 13, 2017 .
- Population clock in Australian Bureau of Statistics , accessed July 27, 2020.
- "Australia: Gross domestic product 2018" . International Monetary Fund . Retrieved September 22, 2018 .
- "Human Development Index (HDI)" . hdr.undp.org (in English) . United Nations Development Program (UNDP) . Retrieved December 11, 2019 .
- "Population clock". Australian Bureau of Statistics website. . Consultado 27 de julio, 2020.
- "Archaeologists find the oldest ax in the world in Australia" . 2016 . Retrieved May 13, 2016 .
- Vasco, Diary. «Diariovasco.com | PRINTED EDITION - The Failed Spanish Discovery of Australia » . www.diariovasco.com . Retrieved March 13, 2016 . «Luis Váez de Torres (Spanish) was the first man to cross the strait that separates New Guinea and Australia. Some historians claim that Torres certainly had to see Cape York (Australia's northernmost tip), but that in not seeing a long coastline he must have mistaken it for an island. The first European to make landfall in Australia was the Dutchman Dirk Hartog, on the west coast. '
- Ayuso, Miguel (January 17, 2014). «The kangaroo drawn in a 16th century manuscript that could change History. News from Alma, Corazón, Vida » . Retrieved March 6, 2016 .
- king, l. «This is how the« Galician granaries »of the Antipodes are» . ABC.es . Retrieved March 13, 2016 .
- Leon, Diary of. "An archaeologist insists that the Spanish discovered Australia . " León newspaper . Retrieved March 13, 2016 . «It is proven that the Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch explored the northern and western coast of Australia, (…) The legendary adventurer received permission from the British Admiralty to travel to New Zealand, where he arrived in 1769, and a year later he first set foot on land Australian. "
- "Australia" (in English) . Online Etymology Dictionary. October 28, 2015. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016 . Retrieved December 12, 2018 .
- State Library of New South Wales. The voyages of Discovery, The Spaniards, Queirós Presentation Memorials (in English with image of the printed text in Spanish). Accessed 08/26/2018.
- Australian Dictionary of Biograpies, sub Quiros, Pedro Fernandez de (1563–1615) . Online version, consulted 08/26/2018
- Barber, Peter et al. Mapping Our World: Terra Incognita To Australia, National Library of Australia, 2013, p. 107.
- Gerritsen, Rupert. A NOTE ON ‘AUSTRALIA’ OR ‘AUSTRIALIA’ The Globe, Journal of The Australian and New Zealand Map Society Inc.Number 72, 2013 p. 23 - 30.
- SANZ, Carlos (1973). Australia, its discovery and its name . General Directorate of Cultural Relations. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Madrid.
- OSÉS, Boris. Australia and its discovery . Arbor, No. 357, Vol. 92. p. 89.
- Purchas, vol. iv, pp. 1422-32, 1625. This appears to be variation of the original Spanish "Austrialia" [sic]. A copy at the Library of Congress can be read online .
- Clarkson, Chris et al. (2017) "Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago"; Nature 547: 306–310. doi :10.1038/nature22968
- "Fossil challenge to Africa theory" . 2001 . Retrieved January 8, 2007 .
- Gillespie, R. (2002). Dating the first Australians. Radiocarbon 44:455–72
- Rolls, Eric, Sojourners, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane 1992, ISBN 0-7022-2478-2, p11.
- Barreda, José. Cristóvão de Mendonça: discoverer of Australia? , article published in Blographos with a review of Trickett's book. Consulted 08/26/2018
- Robert Langdon, The Lost Caravel re-explored (1988), ISBN 0-9588309-2-4
- Medina, José Toribio. El Piloto Juan Fernández, Santiago de Chile, 1918, reprinted by Gabriela Mistral publishing house, 1974, pp. 136, 246
- Vázquez de Acuña, Isidoro "General Juan Jufré pioneer of Chilean navigation to the other side of the Pacific Basin (1575)", Derroteros de la Mar del Sur, year 12, num.12, 2005,
- SPATE, OHK. 'Erédia, Manuel Godinho de (1563 - 1623)' in: Australian Dictionary of Biography, v. 1 .. Melbourne (Australia): Melbourne University Press, 1966. p. 357-358. Online edition, accessed 08/26/2018
- OSÉS, Boris (1975). Australia and its discovery . Arbor, vol. 92, no. 357. p. 89-94.
- Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (May 30, 2005). "Ancient heritage, modern society" . Archived from the original on December 22, 2010.
- Norval Morris and David J. Rothman, eds. The Oxford History of the Prison: The Practice of Punishment in Western Society (1995) p. 76
- Tatz, C. (1999). Genocide in Australia, AIATSIS Research Discussion Papers No 8, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra
- Windschuttle, K. (2001). The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, The New Criterion Vol. 20, N.º 1, 20 de septiembre.
- Bean, C. Ed. (1941). Volume I - The Story of Anzac: the first phase Archivado el 28 de agosto de 2008 en la Wayback Machine., First World War Official Histories, Undécima edición.
- Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 (Cth).
- Australia Act text Archived 2012-02-02 at WebCite
- Australia 1999 referendum Archived 2016-08-09 at the Wayback Machine . Accessed July 27, 2016
- Parliamentary Library (1997). The Reserve Powers of the Governor-General
- «What happens if I do not vote?». Voting within Australia - Frequently Asked Questions. Australian Electoral Commission. Consultado el 21 de octubre de 2006.
- SIPRI Fact Sheet
- Department of Defence To Defend Australia (Budget 2006-2007)
- Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (updated list). "List of all United Nations Member States that are parties or signatories to the various United Nations human rights instruments" (web) (in English) . Retrieved October 21, 2009 .
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights , monitored by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights , monitored by the Human Rights Committee.
- CCPR-OP1: First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights , monitored by the Human Rights Committee.
- CCPR-OP2: Second Optional Protocol , aimed at abolishing the death penalty .
- International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, monitored by the Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
- International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
- International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women , monitored by the Committee for the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.
- Convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment , monitored by the Committee against Torture .
- CAT-OP: Optional Protocol to the Convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. ( pdf version )
- Convention on the Rights of the Child , monitored by the Committee on the Rights of the Child.
- CRC-OP-AC: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on participation in armed conflict.
- CRC-OP-SC: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography .
- International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families . The convention will go into effect when it is ratified by twenty states.
- Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities , monitored by the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
- "About Biodiversity" (in English) . Archived from the original on February 2, 2007 . Retrieved November 8, 2016 .
- https://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2014/01/31/l-austral-sacrifie-de-plus-en-plus-l-environnement-au-profit-de-l-economie_4357839_3244 .html
- IPCC (2019). https://www.ipcc.ch/report/srccl/
- Macfarlane, I. J. (1998). Australian Monetary Policy in the Last Quarter of the Twentieth Century. Reserve Bank of Australia Bulletin, Octubre
- Parham, D. (2002). Microeconomic reforms and the revival in Australia’s growth in productivity and living standards. Conference of Economists, Adelaida, 1 de octubre
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. Labour Force Australia. Cat#6202
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. Year Book Australia 2005
- Australian Bureau of Statistics,
- Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. (2005). The Evolution of Australia's Multicultural Policy Archivado el 19 de febrero de 2006 en la Wayback Machine.
- Parliament of Australia, Senate (2005). Inquiry into Australian Expatriates
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2071.0 - Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia - Stories from the Census, 2016" . Archived from the original on September 20, 2017 . Retrieved September 17, 2017 .
- NCLS releases latest estimates of church attendance, National Church Life Survey, 28 de febrero de 2004
- QS World University Rankings 2015/16 Archived December 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , topuniversities.com. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- OCDE: Education at Glance 2005 Archivado el 23 de julio de 2013 en la Wayback Machine.: Percentage of foreign students in tertiary education.
- "Australia - Australian Bureau of Statistics' (in English) . 2011. Archived from the original on January 18, 2016 . Retrieved March 8, 2011 .
- «The Beach». Australian Government: Culture Portal. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Commonwealth of Australia. 17 de marzo de 2008. Archivado desde el original el 26 de febrero de 2010.
- Pereira da Costa, Lamartine (2013). Worldwide Experiences and Trends in Sport for All. Meyer & Meyer Verlag. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-84126-085-3.
- Pike, Jeffrey (2004). Australia. Langenscheidt Publishing Group. p. 103. ISBN 978-9812347992.
- Australian Film Commission. What are Australians Watching?, Free-to-Air, 1999-2004 TV
- Wikimedia Commons hosts a multimedia gallery on Australia .
- Wikimedia Atlas: Australia
- Wikivoyage hosts travel guides to or about Australia .
- Wikinews has news related to Australia .
- Australian Embassy in Spain.
- Australian Embassy in Mexico.
- Chamber of Commerce Asia Pacific Chile.
- Satellite views of major Australian cities.
- About Australia. From the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (en inglés).
- Australia Act 1986 .
- Australian Bureau of Statistics .
- Australian Government Entry Portal .
- Australian flags.
- Australian Republican Movement .
- Australians for a Constitutional Monarchy (en inglés).
- Commonwealth Government Online .
- Community organizations portal .
- Cultural Institutions .
- History of the Australian nation - State Library of NSW (en inglés).
- FAO Country Profiles: Australia.