The bus , bus , route , colectivo , fleet , bondi , guagua , micro , villavesa or omnibus (see the section « Regionalisms ») are the most common names of the vehicle designed to transport numerous people through urban roads. It is generally used in urban and interurban public transport services and with a fixed route. Its capacity can vary between 10 and 120 passengers. In bus rapid transit systems , the capacity of the buses can vary between 160 and 240 passengers.
Bus is an apheresis of the Greek word autos and the Latin omnibus . Omnibus is derived from the owner of a hat shop, Monsieur Omnès, who with a play on words called his shop "Omnes Omnibus." It was located in front of one of the first carriage stations in Nantes , France, in 1823. Omnès is the Latin resonance of omnes which means "all" and omnibus "for all." The citizens of Nantes shortly after gave the nickname "Omnibus" to the vehicle. When horse-drawn transportIt was motorized from 1905, the omnibus was called bus, a term, which like buses, is still used. [ 1 ]
Denominations used for buses, according to their capacity and function, used in the Spanish-speaking world.
|Argentina||Colectivo , bondi (very colloquial, urban trips) ómnibus , micro (interurban; «micro» is the shorthand for microómnibus and initially it was used for small urban buses, currently this word is customarily used for large interurban buses mostly in Buenos Aires Aires). "Micro" is the common name for urban transport in the Cuyo region .|
|Bolivia||Fleet , coach , bus and omnibus (for travel and tourism), collective , gondola (school bus), micro (for urban transport), mini or minibus (for urban travel vans), coaster , trufi taxi , (for cars or vans who do the neighborhood public service)|
|Chile||(la) Micro , hare (only for small buses), bus (for intercity trips), taxibus (in Concepción ), accordion or Cuncuna (for Transantiago articulated buses)|
|Colombia||Bus , minivan , colectivo , bus , chiva , fleet (for inter-municipal trips)|
|Costa Rica||Bus , bus , minibus , minivan , chivilla , windbreaker , canned|
|Cuba||Guagua , omnibus , yutong|
|Ecuador||Bus , minivan , collective|
|The Savior||Minibus , bus , coaster , minivan|
|Spain||Bus , regular bus , bus , coach or regular car (generic). Van (Huelva and south of Madrid), ladies (Huelva and Seville), socibus (bus that makes the Madrid-Andalusia route), Valencian and you eat (Jerez de la Frontera for intercity buses), you eat (in Cádiz, to the interurban bus) , micro (small buses), mini and minibus (small buses, designed for streets in which a conventional bus could not travel), Villavesa (Pamplona ), urban ( Vitoria ), tusa (Badalona, Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Sant Adrià de Besòs), carraca (Buen Pastor, Milans del Bosch and Barón de Viver, Barcelona), alsa ( Asturias , Cantabria and León ), COA ( Melilla ), blasa ( Alcorcón , Móstoles , and Villaviciosa de Odón ), trolley ( Pontevedra ), truck ( Málaga ), alsina(Granada, Pava (Jaén) and some areas of Lérida), bus ( Canarias , Puerto Real and Villajoyosa ), coach ( Barcelona ), Vitrasa ( Vigo city buses ), jardinera (internal airport buses that take passengers from the terminals to the planes and vice versa), autedia ( Guadix region ), salcai or utinsa (south or north of Gran Canaria , respectively), tallesa ( Extremadura ), cooperative (Aljarafe ), it is also called mail (in the province of Almería , since in the 60s and 70s it was on the buses where the letters of the Post Office service, formerly state, traveled)|
|Guatemala||Van , bus , donkey , bus|
|Honduras||Bus , bus|
|Mexico|| Truck , micro (with female gender in parts of Mexico City), pesero or kamikaze (if it is a combi), chato , chimeco , burra , guajolotero (to the buses that go from town to town) totolero (if it is a bus very old), metrobús (articulated), route , caterpillar (to those articulated in León , Guanajuato ), route . |
In Baja California , bus , donkey (generic), calafia (minibuses), trunk route (to articulated ones)
|Nicaragua||Bus , van , route , microbus (if it is small)|
|Panama||Bus , chiva , bus , red devil (very colloquial), metrobus (new in the system that is in change)|
|Peru||Ómnibus , bus , Mirabús (double-decker buses for tourism) micro , cúster, combi (the latter refer to the smallest)|
|Paraguay||Micro , collective , omnibus|
|Puerto Rico||Guagua , pisicorre (small bus)|
|Dominican Republic||Guagua , bus|
|Uruguay||Ómnibus (to all: urban, interdepartmental and international) and bondi (slang)|
|Venezuela||Bus , bus (large), autobusete , minibus , microbus , truck , donkey (big bus) * , burra (buseta or short bus) * , Expresos (bus 2 story) * , camionetica , route (the minibuses ), collective (usually the one belonging to some transport company, used for long trips), Yutong (refers to the units belonging to the Chinese bus brand , due to the phenomenon ofbrand vulgarization ). It is little used in the state of Portuguesa .|
|Bus size comparison [ 2 ]|
Engine position *
* Does not apply to all models
Medium bus between minibus and bus, whose length is between 8 and 10.5 meters and is designed to carry between 60 and 80 seated and standing passengers.
Bus with two or more module-type sections.
Car two folds
Very typical in urban and peri-urban transport in countries of the British Commonwealth .
Large capacity vehicle for the transport of interurban or long-distance passengers.
Electric traction bus, without rails, that takes the current from an overhead cable through a double trolley.
A tourist tram or tourist trolley, also called a tourist bus, is actually a minibus with rubber wheels , normally powered by diesel , sometimes with compressed natural gas , thought to look like an old-style tram .
The goats are typical buses Colombia , Ecuador and Panama adapted craft for rural public transport, especially considering the mountainous geography of the Andean Region. They are characterized by being very colorful and decorated. The upper part has a rack used for transporting luggage.
Type of motorization
Among the electric bus options on offer in Europe is the Breda Menarinibus Zeus M-200 E, with a capacity for 30 passengers, a range of 120 km provided by lithium ion batteries . [ 3 ] [ 4 ] One of his first clients was the City of Figueras . [ 5 ]
The Gulliver model from the Italian company Tecnobus is also available. [ 6 ]
The use of the bus as a way to reduce the use of private cars has led to the introduction of the natural gas combustion bus in some cities for these means of public transport. The use of vehicular natural gas (NGV) reduces, although it does not eliminate, by more than 85% the emissions of nitrogen oxide and suspended particles, the main pollutants that affect human health, and up to 20% emissions of CO 2 main greenhouse gas that generates climate change ; Regarding the use of fuels for vehicles, it is today an important alternative to improve air quality in cities.
Currently in Spain more than 2,900 vehicles with natural gas circulate, mainly heavy urban vehicles, such as garbage collection trucks or buses. A total of 26 towns have supply stations, including Barcelona, Burgos, Madrid, Salamanca, Seville and Valencia.
Several German cities have guided busesthat circulate along exclusive lanes delimited by curbs of a certain height on each side of the track supported by small horizontal wheels that guide the bus. The vehicle can enter and exit the system through funnel-shaped entrances where the bus fits. Trolleybuses or mixed vehicles can enter this same system at the operator's convenience. They can also circulate through tunnels and mixed routes with tram lanes. In these cases, the circulation of any other vehicle that tries to enter the road is prevented. There are also lines in which the support of the vehicle is carried out on a wooden track (planks) and the lateral guidance is carried out by a metallic guide; This system is usually used where there is a previous railway line, normally on suburban lines, and where commuter trains run.intermodal . The system is similar to that of the Paris metro lines, whose wagons have wheels fitted with tires. The great disadvantage of this type of guidance is its higher energy consumption compared to railway equipment, (it takes ten times more energy to drive a given weight while rolling on tires than on rails, and energy is also lost due to friction on the side wheels ).
In Castellón the TVRCAS is already operating, a guided trolleybus with electric motors integrated in the vehicle's wheels, (also equipped with a diesel generator to be able to circulate if necessary where there is no catenary / rail). It uses laser guidance with markings on the road and exclusive platform, but it can drive without them.
Rapid Transit bus in reserved lanes with «optical guidance» system in Eindhoven , Holland (Netherlands).
Flying guide of a guided bus in Mannheim , Germany.
Close-up of a guidebook on a bus in Suffolk , England.
Bus service in public transport
Rapid transit bus
They are medium and high capacity transport solutions on the surface; based on buses that circulate in exclusively reserved lanes, and are accessible only from the stations. One of the advantages that are used in their favor is that construction costs tend to be lower than those of systems such as subways or trams, having a similar capacity to mobilize passengers. However, unlike underground systems, they occupy a road space on the surface, which can hinder their implementation in large densely urbanized cities and alter the flow of traffic in them. Despite the difficulties that arise when implementing this type of means of transport, day by day they have been well received in large cities. In cities with a subway system,
This type of system has been implemented in cities such as Barcelona , Bogotá , Buenos Aires , Caracas , Mexico City , Curitiba , Hamburg , Lima , Montreal , São Paulo , Ecuador , La Paz Bolivia , San Salvador El Salvador , among many others.
Transportation service carried out by buses between the main cities of the provinces. The system has as its starting point and destination the interprovincial bus stations. In general, this service does not include stopovers or stops in the middle of the way, however they can occur when the trip exceeds 5 hours. In case the connection is made between provinces of different countries, the transport category will be International and not Interprovincial.
The first mass-produced bus model was the B-type double-decker bus designed by Frank Searle and operated by the London General Omnibus Company; It entered service in 1910, and nearly 3,000 had been built by the end of the decade. Hundreds were used for military purposes on the Western Front during the First World War . [ 10 ]
In 1939 the RT model was created by Albert Arthur Molteno Durrent, chief engineer of the London Transport's Bus and Coach Division, a double-decker type bus , many without a roof, which replaced trolleybuses and trams . In 1954 the first Routemaster RM was built . [ 11 ] Today only two lines of the famous traditional red buses circulate, the rest of the lines still operate modern versions of the same.
The Buenos Aires Omnibus
The urban bus in Buenos Aires and various towns in Argentina is known as Omnibus . Its history dates back to the late 1920s, when some taxi owners decided to establish a service with pre-arranged routes and fixed stops. Since the service was well accepted by the Buenos Aires population, the businessmen began to use all the available space (not only internal car seats, but also the "traspuntines").
Ultimately, the origin of the Argentine Omnibus was a taxi without a clock, which occupied all the seats and made a fixed route, in a vehicle adapted for this purpose (first large saloons, then modified trucks and then body truck chassis). At the end of the 1980s, the collective as a vehicle, after the evolution of the chassis and bodywork for buses, stopped being produced, however, the Omnibus system and its culture are maintained to this day. [ 12 ]
Urban furniture and bus stops
- Catalonia intercity bus
- Barcelona city bus
- Metropolitan Transportation System
- Metropolitan Mobility Network
- Transmetro (Barranquilla)
- Transmetro (Guatemala)
- TransMetro (Monterrey)
- Metrobús (Caracas)
- Metropolitan Transport of Valparaíso
- Urban bus
- Transportation planning
- Bicycle carrier
- Transbordador STS
- Public transport
- Histoire générale des transports Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine . Website of the French Transport Museum - (in French) - Consulted on 02/19/2012
- From various manufacturer sales brochures
- «DILIXI triumphs at the Madrid International Bus and Coach Fair with the Zeus and Avancity 0 Pollutant Emissions» . Accessed 2009 .
- «Our Products - Tecnobus - Bus and minibus for public transport» . Archived from the original on August 8, 2010 . Accessed 2009 .
- "bases" . Archived from the original on January 27, 2010 . Accessed 2009 .
- "Solaris Bus & Coach" . Accessed 2009 .
- Fifty laser-guided driverless buses will link Valencia and Alicante with their interurban areas
- Robbins, G. J.; Atkinson, J. B. (1991). The London B-Type Motor Omnibus (3rd edición). Twickenham: World of Transport. ISBN 1-871979-04-8.
- History of the Routemaster Bus - Accessed February 19, 2012
- The stylistic evolution of the Buenos Aires urban collective - Consulted on June 8, 2009
- Wikimedia Commons hosts a media gallery on Bus .
- Wiktionary has definitions and other information about bus .
- The Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy has a definition for bus .