1) Ride cymbal|
2) Floor tom
3) Toms 1 and 2
4) Bass drum
5) Snare or snare
6) hi hat or setbacks
The drummer / drummer often uses sticks or brushes to hit the drumheads and cymbals.
The drums are a set of percussion musical instruments used by many musical groups .
The term "drums" also refers to the musician who plays these instruments, as does the term "drummer", both equivalent. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] This instrument was born of the need to produce different percussion in one clustered system and comfortable to touch simultaneously by a single person.
The percussion instruments are considered the oldest of the musical instruments together with the wind or harmonics. The origin of the drums is located in the United States at the end of the 19th century and lies in the union, in 1890 , of a few instruments that were played separately until then: the snare drum, the bass drum and the cymbals, popularized by the European music but all of Turkish origin.
Before all the instruments were united and while their union was not popular, they were played by several people (between 2 and 4), each of whom was in charge of some of the percussion instruments. But the losses during the First World War affected the gentry, which used to have small private orchestras, and they were forced to reduce the number of musicians, and in many cases these, especially the percussionists, learned to play various instruments by the time.
Composition of a battery
The drums are composed of a set of drums , commonly made of wood, covered by two heads that are commonly made of a material derived from plastic and depending on the drum is one type of head or another. There are very basic patches to the most complex patches, composed of a layer of a base plastic, another with oil that saves the sound and creates a "reverb" and another that is the striking section made of a material derived from latex for the longer duration of it. A drum is made up of two heads, one striking (at the top) and the other resonant (at the bottom). These drums can vary their diameter, affecting the tone , and the depth, varying the sensitivity on the resonance head.
In addition, the drums are also accompanied by the essential cymbals , other relatively common accessories (such as the cowbell , tambourines , wooden blocks , among others) and occasionally any object that produces a sound with a certain musicality and to the drummer's taste. The drums can be tuned with a tuning key and a system of lugs and tuning pins that tighten the head. The tighter the head, the sharper the sound it emits, and the less tight the head is, the lower the sound emitted.
- Bass Drum : Usually has a diameter from 45'7 to 66 cm (18 " to 26"), and a depth of between 35'6 to 55'9 cm (14 "and 22") although they are also found from 16 inches up to 28 inches in diameter. The most used is the 22 × 18 ”. The kick drum is generally operated with the foot via a pedal with a mallet. It can also be operated with a double pedal, using the two feet that are commonly connected by means of a gimbal system that activates the second hub, although there are various systems, including some activation with the heel and toe. The bass drum has the deepest and most powerful voice of the whole ensemble and, therefore, it fulfills a basic function of foundation in the interpretation. In heavy metal There may be two pedals located in front of the kick drum for increased speed.
- Snare , snare or snare drum: They usually have a diameter of 14 ", but there are from 10" to 17 ". The standard depth is 5.5 ", which can vary from 3.5" (piccolo) to 8.0 ". Unlike other drums, the box has a bordona or set of wires, placed in contact with the patch resonance produces its sympathetic vibration and sound characteristic to zoom box. Its function is to mark the bars, which does not prevent it from being used freely, achieving changes in the march and / or setbacks
- Tom toms or toms : They measure from 6 ”to 15” in diameter. They are generally mounted on the bass drum, but if more than two are used, they have additional supports. Toms often go on cymbal stands. Currently the toms or also called aerial toms go on exclusive pedestals for toms and come in various designs, one of the most common being those that resemble the pedestals of the snare drum.
- Tom base or floor tom (goliath or pig ): They measure from 14 ”to 20” inches in diameter. They generally have individual legs, but sometimes allow them to be anchored to a cymbal pedestal.
- Crash or Finish : Medium cymbal from 12 "to 22". It is used to emphasize musical passages and for some rhythms.
- Ride or Rhythm : Large cymbal whose diameter varies between 17 ”and 24”, although there are brands as a curiosity that made them from 26 "and even up to 32". The most common are those of 20 "21" and 22 ". They are often used to carry the rhythm as a substitute for the hi-hat.
- Splash: Small saucer ranging from 5 ”to 13” inches. They are used for special effects, commonly in low-intensity passages.
- China ': Saucer manufactured from 10 ”to 22”. There is also the china-splash, from 8 "to 12" inches. They are used for effects. Their design is characteristic as they are placed upside down. It has a certain sound similarity to the crash.
- Bell : cymbal between 4 and 12 inches thick, used for effects and breaks, rarely to carry the pulse. It is common to find it in the configuration of the drummers of genres such as Deathcore or extreme metal. Its sound is very pure, similar to that of the ride bell but without the base. Its shape is that of a splash with the huge bell, and it is almost unbreakable; its sustain is very long and it is usually placed face up.
- Crash ride: Medium-large 18 ”-22” cymbal. There are people who use them as Crash and as Ride, and people who use them only as Crash, due to their greater power.
- Hi-hats , Charleston , Charles , or Setbacks : System consisting of 2 cymbals installed on a pedal stand that allows one to fall on the other making them sound. They are manufactured between 10 "and 15", although they have even been manufactured in 16 "and 17". The most common is the 14 "and the 15". It can be normal or edge (edge), the latter is that the platter that goes down (bottom) has a corrugated edge that gives a better sound for certain genres. Hi-hats can be played closed and open, using the pedal.
- There are also cymbals with "special" effects, such as cup chime, bell, chopper, spiral trash, china-splash, and so on. that produce truly unique and characteristic sounds to expand the musical possibilities of the instrument.
- There are also some drummers that include a gong (often for decoration) in their cymbal set . These are usually made from tiny 6 "to 60" gongs, although gigantic 80 "gongs are also made.
Drum and cymbal setups are tailored to the drummer's taste. For this reason, sizes and shapes and even brands vary, since each one of them provides a unique and easily characteristic sound.
The brushes have at one of their ends a comb of hairs or bristles, usually metallic or plastic, allowing them to hit in a softer and melodic way, so they are generally used in styles such as Jazz , Swing or Blues , although any drummer of any style you can use them.
Drumsticks vary according to material (wood, fiber or aluminum), thickness, length, type, tip material (wood or nylon), tip shape (walnut, oval, barrel ...) and weight to play with greater or lesser speed, intensity, precision or with different tones in the case of using plush-tipped drumsticks, depending on the characteristics of each drummer.
Generally, the heaviest ones are used for more forceful styles such as Hard Rock and Metal because of the power they provide, and the lighter ones for softer styles such as Jazz or Pop , although each drummer usually uses what they are most comfortable with. feel.
The pedals are used to control various elements of the drums with your feet, usually the hi-hat cymbals and the drum kick. On occasion, although not as common, some drummers use pedals on snares, drums, or other hi-hats that they control with remote pedals.
Kick pedals basically consist of:
- A platform on which the foot applies force.
- A beater with a heavy end that hits the head of the bass drum, surfaced in various materials such as wood, plastic, or felt.
- A spring system or other system that causes the necessary tension to return the pedal hub to its rest position.
- A cam that transforms the up-down rotary movement of the deck into the back-forward rotary movement of the hub.
- A mechanical connection between the pedal and the cam. This is usually a nylon, Kevlar, or a single or double steel chain. In recent years, the direct drive system is gaining popularity, in which a rigid piece joins the platform and the cam.
The operation of the hi-hat cymbal pedal is similar, although its function is to horizontally close the two cymbals and separate them again when the pedal is released, so it does not have a cam and a hammer.
Traditionally, a single kick pedal has been used, although in recent decades the double pedal (a second pedal joined by a CV joint) has gained considerable popularity, allowing the drummer to play the kick drum with two feet, thus being able to play more patterns. complexes in the same way that you touch with your hands. In addition, it has the advantage of not having to resort to a second complete bass drum with its pedal (double bass drum) at the cost that this entails.
The double pedal is a device similar to the single pedal with the advantage of being able to control the kick hits with both feet. The double pedal articulates two mallets most of the time to a single kick drum, thus obtaining the advantage of a similar sound in each hit. Incorporating this type of pedal into the drum kit presents certain challenges since it is difficult to fit the pedal into the existing set. Sometimes the musician has to re-position the snare brackets with their fit with the hi-hat or hi-hat being especially difficult, since the pedals of both devices should be positioned directly under the player's foot.
One of the pioneers of the use of the double kick pedal was jazz drummer Louie Bellson . [ 3 ] Subsequently, this type of pedal has been used mainly in rock, metal, hardcore, and related groups. Also, many independent professional studio drummers excel at using this device.
Other instruments that can commonly go on drums are, among others:
The drums are very open to the taste of the musician himself by using a variety of sounds. For this reason, although very similar pieces are generally used, each drummer is free to incorporate any object that produces a sound worthy of applying musically.
Electronic drums generally consist of virtual heads, or electronic pads, similar to practice pads (made of low-vibrating material), which produce a specific and programmable sound. There are some models that allow you to play over music or other rhythms already recorded previously or already included in the sound box installed in the electronic drums. Many drums already have many sounds included to program in the patches and not have to include any more instruments.
The different parts of a common electronic drum kit are (some types may include more):
- 1 snare drum or snare drum
- 3 tom (usually 2 on the kick pad and one on the opposite side of the snare)
- 1 bass drum
- 2 cymbals ( crash and ride )
- 1 hi-hat cymbals ( hi-hat )
- 1 kick pedal
- 1 pedal for the hi-hat , generally not found on higher-end electronic drums, which usually include a normal hi-hat stand just like acoustic drums.
- Rack ("scaffold" to mount the elements)
- A module that processes the sounds that are played and generates the sound signal.
For the most part, they are "alternate" drums that are used for contemporary electronic rhythms, they are very versatile but sometimes very limited in terms of sound, tuning and feeling, since as we have mentioned previously, in general their "patches" are electronic and programmable sound and therefore do not provide a very good response or feel.
In any case, nowadays the manufacturers of electronic drums have many technologies that seek to homologate sounds, appearance and sensation to the hit, even having sounds that imitate different types of woods, different sounds in the areas of the pads (imitating rimshots or hits on the bell, center and edge of the plate, metal alloys, and / or marks in the case of cymbals). There are also some that use traditional heads and some hybrid or electroacoustic heads, which can be used both ways.
Another advantage is that they can be easily connected to a computer, with which an infinite number of sounds can be experienced and it is easy to record. There are drummers like Phil Collins , Neil Peart from Rush, and Rick Allen from Def Leppard , who use kits with both systems.
The way of playing drums has evolved over time as the needs of drummers change.
First of all, it should be noted that currently there are not only wooden drumsticks to play, but there are also brushes or brushes, rubber or felt drumsticks, etc.
The way to grip the drumsticks is called grip or in English, " grip ". The most common way of taking them today is the Matched Grip , which although it has variants, basically consists of:
- Look on the drumstick for the point where the rebound occurs most easily and lasts as long as possible. It is approximately between the first quarter and the first third of the drumstick (at the end that is not the tip), as it is the point at which the reaction forces in our hand are canceled when striking, allowing a more forceful hit. with minimal effort.
- Close your hand by holding the drumstick with your thumb and index finger, trying to leave a space so that the drumstick can swing easily when striking.
- Bounce the drumstick in the palm of the hand and the tom to achieve greater speed.
Finger and wrist movements are used mainly, elbows and arm are also used, depending on the distance, strength and technique of each drummer.
The term " percussionist " refers to the musician who plays academic ( classical music ) or Latin percussion , although the person who plays the drums is referred to as a "drummer" or "drummer," interchangeably. [ 1 ] [ 2 ]
It is assumed that he needs to have coordination, musicality, the ability to create-maintain time and energy, since he usually has to play several percussion elements at the same time. One of the most important functions of the drummer is to maintain the tempo or pulse of the song, either to "generate" the time and for the other musicians to follow, or to create different rhythms around that tempo, giving the very different dynamic song.
Professionals capable of performing in any style of music are called "studio drums" or "session drums", in addition to being prepared to perform most musical works with a few minutes of analyzing the master score or a sheet music. drums. [ 4 ]
A fundamental element in a drummer is to have an appropriate physical condition, given the mechanical nature of the percussion instrument. According to a study conducted at the University of Chichester , England , a drummer in an hour-long concert can burn between 400 and 600 calories, which puts him on the same level as a professional footballer. The study carried out by Dr. Marcus Smith, a sports medicine specialist, yielded other interesting data about the extraordinary physical effort that these musicians exert in each presentation.
- Royal Spanish Academy and Association of Academies of the Spanish Language (2014). "Drummer . " Dictionary of the Spanish language (23rd edition). Madrid: Espasa. ISBN 978-84-670-4189-7 .
- Fundéu BBVA (January 21, 2010). drummer / drummer . Retrieved April 7, 2014 .
- Mattingly, Rick (2006). All About Drums: A Fun and Simple Guide to Playing Drums, unpaginated. Hal Leonard. ISBN 9781476865867.
- Thomas Lang. "Thomas Lang talking about work as a musician." . YouTube (in English) . Retrieved December 29, 2012 .
- BBC Mundo.com. "The drummer, an elite athlete . " BBC World . Retrieved May 4, 2014 .