Berlin - Berlín
|Federal state and capital of Germany|
Location of Berlin in Germany
Location of Berlin in Europe
|Entity||Federal state and capital of Germany|
|Mayor|| Michael Müller |
SPD / Verdes / Left
|Subdivisions||12 districts (distritos)|
|• Total||891,69 km²|
|• Media||34 m s. n. m.|
|Water course||River spree|
|• Total||3,700,000 hab. [ 1 ]|
|• Density||3891.3 hab / km²|
|• in summer||HONOR|
|Registration||B e I|
|Official community number||11000000|
|Official Web site|
|Member of: Eurocities , Global Cities Dialogue|
Berlin, officially the City-State of Berlin (in German , Berlin , pronounced / bɛɐ̯ˈliːn / ( listen ) ) is the capital of Germany and one of the sixteen German Länder . It is located in the northeast of Germany. The rivers Spree , Havel , Panke , Dahme and Wuhle flow through the city. With a population of 3.5 million inhabitants, Berlin is the most populous city in the country and in Central Europe , as well as the first city in population and the fourth urban agglomeration among the countries of the European Union , according to Eurostat data. [ 2 ]
Berlin was successively capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1918), of the Weimar Republic (1919-1933) and of the Third Reich (1933-1945). After World War II , the city was divided; the eastern part of the city became the capital of the German Democratic Republic , while the western region of the city became an enclave of the Federal Republic of Germany in the interior of East Germany .
Berlin is a world city and a world-class cultural and artistic center. It is one of the most influential cities in the political sphere of the European Union and in 2006 it was elected Creative City by UNESCO.
Berlin lies east of the Elbe River, on what was the eastern border of the eastern Frankish kingdom . These regions were inhabited by Slavic tribes; for this reason most cities and towns in northeastern Germany have Slavic names and the same region was called Germania Slavica . The typical suffixes of Germanized place names of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, the prefixes are usually Windisch and Wendisch. The name Berlin therefore has Slavic roots. It is related to the words berl or birl , which in polabo meant "non-arable land" [ 3 ]Or "uninhabited land", respectively. [ 4 ] It is also derived from the combination of berl (in this case with the possible meaning of swamp ) plus the aforementioned Slavic locative suffix -in , which indicated a place; in other words, "swampy place", a presumption strengthened because it is generally named with an article: Der Berlin . [ 5 ] [ 6 ]
The popular etymology German associates with bear the shield of the city , because in German Bär , pronounced [ber] , [ 7 ] means bear. From it its foundation was attributed to Alberto, the Bear ( Albrecht den Bären ). [ 8 ]
The earliest evidence of settlements in the present-day Berlin area are the foundations of a house dating from 1174, found in excavations at Berlin Mitte , and a wooden beam dating from around 1192. [ 9 ] The earliest written records of Cities in the area of present-day Berlin date back to the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. [ 10 ]
The central part of Berlin dates back to two cities: Cölln is mentioned for the first time in a document from 1237, and in a document from 1244 reference is made to Berlin, on the other side of the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel . the traditional founding date is 1237. [ 11 ] Over time, the two cities formed close economic and social ties, and benefited from basic right on the eastern trade routes from Bruges to Novgorod . In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common foreign policy. [ 12 ]
In 1759 , East Prussia was in the power of the Russians who had taken Berlin in the framework of the Seven Years' War . Russia withdrew in 1762 because, on the death of the empress, his successor, Peter III , who admired Frederick the Great of Prussia, signed a peace treaty.
As Brandenburg was part of the kingdom of Prussia , Berlin became the capital of the German Empire (in 1871 ) when Prussia achieved the unification of Germany , after first defeating Austria in the Seven Weeks War ( 1866 ) and then ending the Second French Empire by defeating its army in the Franco-Prussian War . Since then it has experienced a considerable demographic increase, going from 824,484 inhabitants in 1871 to 1,888,313 in 1900 and 4,024,165 in 1925. The city became a cultural, architectural and financial center worldwide.
Capital of Nazi Germany , Berlin reached its maximum demographic in 1939 with 4,338,756 inhabitants. The Führer Adolf Hitler planned urban major works by Albert Speer and the renaming of this as Germania, which were not carried out due to the onset of World War II , during which most of the city was destroyed by the aerial bombardments carried out by the British Royal Air Force and the USAAF , the aviation of the United States, to which was added the battle of Berlin against the Soviet army represented by Georgy Zhukov. Thousands of civilians were killed as a result of bombing and land battles. After the defeat of the Nazi regime , Berlin was divided into four sectors under the administration of the four allies .
In 1948 , the three western sectors ( West Berlin ), those that were under the respective control of the United States, France and the United Kingdom, were reunited within the framework of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), to which the Soviet Union replied with the blockade of West Berlin and the creation of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1949 , with its capital in East Berlin . This blockade failed thanks to the airlift maintained by Western forces from the FRG.
In 1961 , the GDR built the so-called Berlin Wall to separate the two parts of the city, and in fact to isolate West Berlin from the GDR, in order to end the emigration of East Germans to the West. The wall, which had a total of 144 km, was one of the best-known symbols of the Cold War and the partition of Germany. Many people died trying to overcome the harsh surveillance of the GDR border guards as they headed to the western sector. The exact number of victims is subject to dispute and is not known for sure. The figures for the different versions range between 86 and 238 deaths.
Many West Berliners also left the city for feelings of insecurity or for economic reasons: the isolated city nestled in Soviet-influenced territory, although massively subsidized, could not offer the same opportunities as the rest of the country, which contributed to the decrease in the number of inhabitants.
The Berlin Wall fell on 9 of November of 1989 , to accepting the government of the GDR the free movement of citizens between the two parts of the city. Almost a year later the GDR disappeared, in fact annexed to the FRG, which in 1990 moved its capital from Bonn to Berlin, thereby giving the population of the former republic entry into the EEC .
Many buildings and historic sites such as Potsdamer Platz and the Reichstag have been renovated. Many of the best architects in the world build or rebuild a whole series of public and private buildings. Urban reorganization activities are complemented by urban instruments for social urban planning and other European programs, such as URBAN II. [ 13 ]For example, the district of Prenzlauer Berg, together with those of Friedrichshain and Weissensee, was included in the European Union's development aid program, as part of this EU URBAN initiative for urban areas. The characteristic of this concept of planned financing is the interconnection between the different aspects of the program: social, urban, economic. This district was the largest coherent urban redevelopment area in Europe. [ 14 ]
It was expected that by the year 2020 we finished building the Imperial Palace in the city that was destroyed in 1950 [ 15 ] , but the pandemic of the coronavirus was delayed. This project includes the creation of a large cultural center inside the new building, whose facade will be an exact copy of the original.
The Berlin Wall falls on 9 of November of 1989 to the GDR accepting the free movement of citizens between the two parts of the city. The following year, with the German Reunification, the GDR disappeared, in fact annexed to the FRG, which moved its capital from Bonn to Berlin in 1990 , thereby giving the population of the former republic access to the European Union (EU).
Berlin is once again the center of political power and numerous buildings are built to once again house the main institutions of the country. However, the restoration of the Reichstag building is the work that best symbolizes the rebirth of the city.
In order for Berlin to become the capital of Germany again by law, a vote had to be held in the Bundestag in June 1991, where it was decided to transfer the institutions from Bonn to Berlin. The transfer of the federal government and the Foreign Ministry took place in 1999 .
Following German reunification , various enthusiasts have launched the project to officially return the name of Prussia to the region made up of the states of Berlin and Brandenburg. In a referendum held in 1996, the majority of the inhabitants of Brandenburg and East Berlin spoke out against the merger of the two states, while those of West Berlin spoke in favor. [ 16 ] Despite the setback, the initiative on the merger has continued and its final completion is scheduled for 2009 after being again submitted to a referendum. However, it is not certain that, if the merger is approved, the new State resulting from it will receive the name of Prussia, and the possibility of simply calling it Berlin-Brandenburg is being considered.. [ 17 ] [ update ]
Since the 1990s , Berlin has been going through a serious economic and financial crisis, [ update ] due, on the one hand, to the consequences of reunification (which, among other things, doubled the number of civil servants that the City Council had to pay) , and on the other, the bankruptcy of a state banking company in 2001. Berlin's public debt multiplied between 1992 and 2001, from 10 billion euros to 61.9 billion euros. [ 18 ] This latest scandal caused a change in the regional government and the replacement of the conservative Eberhard Diepgen by the social democrat Klaus Wowereit, who was the first leader of his party to agree to a government in coalition with the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), heir to the Unified Socialist Party of Germany of the GDR. The management of this "red-red government" was marked by the continuous need to cut expenses, as well as by an economic policy focused on increasing the attractiveness of Berlin by investing in culture - especially popular culture - thus contributing to its fame. of dynamism of the city.
In 2011 Wowereit was reelected as mayor, but this time in coalition with the CDU . In 2014, Mayor Wowereit resigned from his post worn down by mismanagement of the new Berlin airport. [ 19 ] and was replaced by Michael Müller , who holds the position to this day. Following the 2016 Berlin State Elections , Müller formed a governing coalition between the SPD , Alliance 90 / The Greens and Die Linke , the second of its kind in German history.
On the other hand, the political importance of Berlin within the European Union was confirmed by the German Presidency of the Council of the Union in 2007 , during which drafted the " Berlin Declaration " .
Administrative districts [ 20 ]
|Neighborhood||Population||Surface (km²)||Inhabitants (km²)|
Berlin maintains official alliances with 18 cities. City twinning between Berlin and other cities began with Los Angeles in 1967 . The East Berlin associations were canceled at the time of German reunification and were later partially re-established. During the Cold War , associations mirrored existing blocs, with West Berlin associating capitals in the West, while East Berlin was associated primarily with Warsaw Pact cities and their allies.
There are several joint projects with other cities, such as Belgrade , Copenhagen , Helsinki , Johannesburg , Shanghai , Seoul , Sofia , Sydney and Vienna . Berlin participates in associations of international cities such as the Union of Capitals of the European Union, Eurocities , the Network of European Cities of Culture, metropolis, Conference at the Summit of the most important cities in the world, the Conference of Capital Cities of the World . The cities officially twinned with Berlin are the following:
The exact geographical location of the Berlin City Hall is 52º 31 '12 "North latitude, 13º 24' 36" East longitude. The greatest extension in an east-west direction is about 45 km, and in a north-south direction about 38 km. The surface of the city is approximately 892 km². Berlin is completely surrounded by the federal state of Brandenburg and is located to the east of the Federal Republic of Germany , approximately 70 km west of the border with Poland . The city is one of the conurbations of the Federal Republic.
Berlin is located in a region formed during the ice age in the Urstromtal (old riverbed) of Warsaw-Berlin, between the Barnim and Teltow plateaus . The historic center of Berlin is at the narrowest point of the Spree River as it passes through the Urstromtal. In Spandau , the westernmost district of Berlin, the Spree empties into the River Havel , which runs north-south through western Berlin. The course of the Havel often resembles a seascape, with Lake Tegel and the Großer Wannsee being its largest widenings .
Located in north-eastern Germany, Berlin covers a total area of 892 km² and is divided into 12 districts or neighborhoods.
These districts are Mitte, Friedrichshain - Kreuzberg, Pankow, Charlottenburg - Wilmersdorf, Spandau, Zehlendorf - Steglitz, Schöneberg - Tempelhof, Neukölln, Treptow - Köpenick, Marzahn - Hellersdorf, Lichtenberg and Reinickendorf. It is interesting that within the city, 264 km² are occupied by forests, green spaces and recreation, and another 60 km² are mirrors of water and rivers,
The city has an oceanic climate (Cfb) where Berlin summers are characterized by pleasant temperatures and humid weather. Spring and fall are cool; they are not as humid as summer. Winter is cold, nights are long and the sun hardly shines in the afternoons; the winter season is characterized by being very humid with continuous rains and snowfalls; when waves of icy air from Russia occur, the cold becomes intense or even crude, and the temperature does not exceed -7 ° C.
|Berlin average climatic parameters|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||15.0||17.0||23.0||30.0||33.0||38.6||38.8||35.0||32.0||25.0||18.0||15.0||38.8|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||2.9||4.2||8.5||13.2||18.9||21.8||24.0||23.6||18.8||13.4||7.1||4.4||13.4|
|Temp. media (°C)||0.5||1.3||4.9||8.7||14.0||17.0||19.0||18.9||14.7||9.9||4.7||2.0||9.6|
|Temp. min. media (° C)||−1.9||−1.5||1.3||4.2||9.0||12.3||14.3||14.1||10.6||6.4||2.2||-0.4||5.9|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||-26.1||-25.0||-13.0||-4.0||-1.0||4.0||7.0||7.0||0.0||-7.0||-9.0||-24.0||-26.1|
|Rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||10.0||8.0||9.1||7.8||8.9||7.0||7.0||7.0||7.8||7.6||9.6||11.4||101.2|
|Hours of sun||46.5||73.5||120.9||159.0||220.1||222.0||217.0||210.8||156.0||111.6||51.0||37.2||1625.6|
|Source # 1: World Meteorological Organization (UN) [ 21 ]|
|Source # 2: HKO [ 22 ]|
One tenth of Berlin's population is made up of citizens of other countries. Many of these immigrants arrived as temporary workers, although they eventually settled in the city. The most important group of these workers is the Turks , followed by Italians , Poles , Russians and other sub-groups from the states of the former Yugoslavia and various nations of Africa and Asia .
Berlin's population has grown rapidly since the end of the Second World War, when it had fallen to only 2.3 million. Today Berlin has 3.4 million inhabitants. Factors that contributed to the population growth included the return of residents evacuated during the war, an influx of East Germans to West Berlin, and large numbers of people who came as immigrants. Between 1957 and 1990, young people from the Federal Republic of Germany had the opportunity to escape military service if they lived in West Berlin. Since German reunification, hundreds of thousands of newcomers have arrived in the city.
About 59% of the population of Berlin do not profess a religion. About 19.8% [ 23 ] of the population belong to the Evangelical Church, 9.4% to the Catholic Church [ 24 ] and 3% to other Christian confessions . Other religions are practiced by small segments of the population, mainly Islam , with 8.8%.
More than 60% of Berlin residents have no religious affiliation , [ 25 ] for this reason Berlin is sometimes called the "European Capital of Atheism ." [ 25 ] Within the remaining 40% of the population that does declare itself religious, the predominant religion is Protestantism (18.7% of the total), [ 26 ] followed by Catholicism (9.1%), [ 26 ] the Islam and other groups Christians. Christian groups that are neither Protestant nor Catholic mostly identify with the Orthodox Church - because of the eastern European origin of that segment of the population. [ 27 ] There is an important Muslim community that represents more than 8% of the population and has 76 mosques for worship. [ 28 ] There are 12,000 registered Jews (0.3%, although some estimates put the figure at 50,000), of which approximately 80% come from former republics of the former Soviet Union . [ 27 ] They have several synagogues, including the largest of those in Germany.
However, by number and for historical reasons, it is Protestants who represent most of the religious activity in the city and have the most representative churches and places of worship. An example of this is the Berlin Cathedral , belonging to the Evangelical Church in Germany , the largest Protestant organization in Germany and also in Berlin through its branch in the city, the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesia Upper Lusatia (EKBO ).
In 2006, the nominal GDP of Berlin was experiencing a growth rate of 1.5% (2.7% in Germany). In 2013, Berlin's GDP reached € 102.9 billion, [ 29 ] or € 31,000 per inhabitant. Of the thirty companies that make up the German DAX index , Siemens AG and Deutsche Bahn are based in Berlin. Among the 20 largest employers in Berlin are the railway company Deutsche Bahn (DB), the famous university hospital company Charité , the local public transport company BVG, the service provider Dussmann and Piepenbrock.
In 2015 the unemployment rate was 10%, higher than the German average, as well as the EU average.
- Secondary sector
Bayer Health Care and Berlin Chemie are large pharmaceutical companies based in the city. Berlin Adlershof is one of the 15 largest technology parks in the world. Research and development are of great economic importance, and the Berlin-Brandenburg region ranks among the top three innovative regions in the EU .
- Third sector
The capital of Germany has for years been synonymous with culture, design and startups. Berlin is specializing in areas such as e-commerce, new digital media, and social media games. [ 30 ] The German headquarters of Universal Music and Sony Music are in Berlin. Local, national and international television stations, such as RBB , MTV Europe , VIVA , TVB , and N24 are based in the city.
In 2010, the growing tourism sector encompassed 746 hotels with 112,400 beds and around 20.8 million overnight stays, making Berlin the third most visited city in the European Union.
- Free University of Berlin ( FU Berlin )
- Humboldt University of Berlin ( HU Berlin )
- Technical University of Berlin ( TU Berlin )
- Berlin University of the Arts ( UdK )
- University of Potsdam
It is one of the cultural capitals of Europe for its concentration of museums, libraries, galleries and top-class musical events. The city is home to the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra - considered one of the best in the world -, the Berlin Symphony Orchestra (Berliner Symphoniker), the Berlin German Symphony Orchestra (former RIAS), the Radio Berlin Symphony Orchestra and other groups as well. such as lyrical activity concentrated in the German Opera ( Deutsche Oper Berlin ), the State Opera ( Staatsoper Unter den Linden ) and the Berlin Comic Opera . In the theater it is the headquarters of important companies as well as the legendaryBerliner Ensemble . The city has remarkable architectural examples, halls and auditoriums such as the Konzerthaus , the Philharmonie hall, etc.
- Berlin International Film Festival : Every year in February, the Berlinale festivalevokes the magic of the film world between the towers and glass palaces of Potsdamer Platz. An international jury chooses the winners of the Golden Bear and the Silver Bear.
- Berlin International Literature Festival : Draws large audiences annually to ecumenical trends in contemporary prose and lyric. In the first fortnight of September, a hundred authors meet in the German capital who not only share their texts with the audience, but also express their opinions and vicissitudes on current political or cultural issues of the countries of origin in which they symposia organized for this purpose.
Places of interest
- Berlin Wall : There are still some sections of this construction that divided not only the city of Berlin, but also the world into two diametrically opposed ideologies. In Mühlenstraße you can see a stretch of more than a kilometer of this relic of the past. Checkpoint Charlie , which was one of the access points for foreigners in East Berlin and a clandestine escape for some inhabitants of the GDR,is also preserved in good condition. Currently next to Checkpoint Charlie is a museum dedicated to the history of the wall and those who tried to cross it in various ways.
- Brandenburg Gate : Monument located a few meters from the collapsed wall, in the no-man's-land between the wall itself and the barracks and watchtowersof the GDRpolice ( Volkspolizei ); today it is a symbol of the reunification of the country.
- Reichstag : Since 1999 it is again the seat of the federal parliament, called the Bundestag . In its reconstruction, only the outer walls were left; the interior is brand new. Its glass dome is accessible to the public and offers a magnificent panoramic view of the city, especially at night.
- Siegessäule ( Victory Column): 69 m high monument located in Tiergarten parkthat commemorates three German victories in the 19th century. It is crowned by a statue of Nike , the Greek goddess of victory. It can be accessed up to its peak, where you get a privileged view of the city. It was popularized as the meeting place for angels in the movie So Far, So Close! from the German director Wim Wenders .
- Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche : Church located in the Center of West Berlin (former West Berlin), suffered the bombings of the Allies during the Second World War. Only a large tower survived these bombings that has been preserved without restoring to remember the consequences of the war, housing the Freiheitsglocke (Liberty Bell)in its upper partand to which a modern building for the parish was annexed. In fact, this church is also known as "the church in remembrance of the futility of war". The entrance to the church is free and it opens its doors from 9 in the morning to 7 in the afternoon, every day of the week.
- Potsdamer Platz : In the heart of West Berlin is the new Potsdamer Platz, which in the 1920s was one of the most popular spots in all of Europe. After the fall of the wall, it became a huge construction project, in which today you can find modern shopping centers and skyscrapers that mark a new era for Berlin.
- Unter den Linden ('under the linden trees') is the main boulevard in the city. Begins in Paris Square in the east side of the Brandenburg Gate , which houses the Academy of Art , the famous Hotel Adlon and the embassies of France and the United States . From this square it travels 1.5 km east to the bridge called Schlossbrücke, which serves as a link with the Museum Island and the east center of Berlin. In a square adjacent to this avenue Unter den Linden is the (Catholic) cathedral of Berlin , right between the OperaStaatsoper Unter den Linden (one of the three that the city has) and the building known as the Kommode , and is dedicated to Saint Hedwig .
- Friedrichstraße : Former cultural, economic and commercial center of Berlin. He is currently trying to regain his importance in the city.
- Alexanderplatz : In the center of the former East Berlin is this large square where the former communist government of the GDR left its most visible mark. Near this square is the368 m high television tower, which can be seen from almost anywhere in the city. Built in the 1960s , the tower has a circular panoramic restaurant that rotates on itself and from which a wide panorama of the city can be seen. Formerly the allegorical statue of Berolina stood on it.
The surroundings of Alexanderplatz are full of monuments and large old buildings, squares and shops of all kinds. The monuments include the City Hall ( Rotes Rathaus ) and the Cathedral (Protestant) of Berlin ( Berliner Dom ); both buildings have a particular architecture.
- Holocaust Memorial : The 2,711 concrete blocks remember the horrors of the Jewish Holocaust by Nazism . This monument, designed by the architect Peter Eisenman , is located a few meters from the Brandenburg Gate .
Museums and art galleries
Berlin is home to 365 museums. The set on Museum Island is a place declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco and is situated in the northern part of the Spree Island between the Spree and Kupfergraben. Already in 1841 it was named "district dedicated to art and antiquities" by a royal decree. Consequently, the Altes Museum (Old Museum) in the Lustgarten , the Neues Museum (New Museum) showing the bust of Queen Nefertiti , the Old National Gallery of Berlin , the Pergamon Museum and the Bode Museumthey were erected there. The names of the buildings did not necessarily correspond to the content of the collections they exhibited.
Outside of this Museum Island , there are many others. The Gemäldegalerie (Gallery of Paintings) focuses on the paintings of the "old masters" from the 13th to 18th centuries, while the Neue Nationalgalerie (New National Gallery, built by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ) specializes in European painting of the century XX. These two museums are part of the Culture Forum, the so-called "Kulturforum".
In the spring of 2006, the expanded German Historical Museum ( Deutsches Historisches Museum ) in the Zeughaus was reopened with an exhibition dedicated to German history through the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Another museum dedicated to the Wall is the Museum of the Checkpoint Charlie wall .
In the Museumszentrum Berlin-Dahlem ( Dahlem district), there are several museums of world art and culture, such as the Museum of Indian Art, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Ethnological Museum, the Museum of European Cultures, as well as the Museum of the Allies (a museum about the Cold War ), the Brücke Museum (an art museum).
- Berlin Aquarium : it is one of thelargest aquariums in Germany.
- Bauhaus-Archive : is an architecture museum of the integrated design school founded by Walter Gropius .
- German Museum of Technology (Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin) in Kreuzberg : it has an extensive collection of historical technical artifacts.
- Egyptian Museum in Berlin : part of the Neues Museum (New Museum) on Museum Island , it houses one of the world's most important collections of objects from Ancient Egypt, including the famous bust of Queen Nefertiti .
- Berggruen Museum : houses more than one hundred works by Picasso and works by Henri Matisse , Paul Klee and Alberto Giacometti . It is located opposite the Charlottenburg Palace .
- Beate Uhse Erotic Museum (currently closed, pending new location) near the zoo: it claims to be the largest erotic museum in the world.
- Humboldt Museum of Natural History near Berlin Hauptbahnhof : it has the world's largest assembled dinosaur skeleton and the best existing specimen of an Archeopteryx .
- Jewish Museum of Berlin : it has a permanent exhibition of two thousand years of German-Jewish history.
- Stasi Museum , in Lichtenberg, on the grounds of the former East German Ministry for State Security ( Stasi ) .
- Story of Berlin Museum : combines new audiovisual technologies with the history of the city. In it you can also visit one of the 23 underground bunkers that remain in the city.
- Filmmuseum , museum of German cinema.
- Haus der Kulturen der Welt , located in the Tiergarten , an international contemporary art museum.
Theaters and operas
- German theater
- Berliner Ensemble
- Friedrichstadt Palace
- Theater of the West
- Theater and comedy on Kurfürstendamm
- German opera
- Weird opera
- Renaissance Theater
- RambaZamba Theater
The Permanent Forest contract was a 1915 agreement between Berlin and Prussia for the acquisition of forest around the city. The term Permanent Forest, as part of the name of the contract, refers to its purpose of remaining unchanged over time.
In contrast to the central and eastern parts of the city, which are densely urbanized, the western areas open up to wooded green areas, with the lakes fed by the Spree and Havel rivers, offering the visitor leisure and natural spaces.
Tiergarten is a large park located in the center of the city. In its early years it was a hunting area and later it became a large green area for the use and enjoyment of Berliners.
Botanical Garden is one of the largest and best known in Europe; It also has an important collection of prepared plants and a specialized library.
Berlin enjoys a high-level reputation as a host city for international sporting events, hosting the 1936 Olympic Games , where Germany led the overall medal table of that year, it was chosen by the European Swimming League to host the 2002 European Swimming Championship , resulting in a huge success for Germany.
It also hosted the 1974 Soccer World Cup , the 2006 Soccer World Cup and the 2014-15 UEFA Champions League final , played between FC Barcelona and Juventus in Turin on June 6 , 2015 , ending this one with victory for those of Barcelona (3-1), thus achieving their fifth wound.
The 2009 World Championships in Athletics was recently held in the remodeled Olympic Stadium. It also hosted the World Polo Championships in 1989 . The Berlin Marathon , and the IAAF Golden League are held every year in Berlin.
|Airport||IATA code||ICAO code|
|Berlin Schönefeld Airport||SXF||EDDB|
|Berlin Tegel Airport||TXL||EDDT|
|Berlin-Brandenburg Willy Brandt Airport||BER||EDDB|
The Berlin Underground (in German Berliner U-Bahn , from Untergrundbahn) is one of the most functional and practical in Europe. Together with the surface train ( S-Bahn ), it forms a dense urban transport network that facilitates travel around the German capital. The metro is managed by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe ( BVG ) to which buses and trams also belong. The S-Bahn, like trains with other cities, is managed by the Deutsche Bahn (DB).
Regarding the railway system, the Berlin Central Station (in German Hauptbahnhof ) is a 900 million euro project started in 1992, which began to be built in 1995 and was inaugurated in May 2006, just in time for the celebration of the Soccer World Cup in Germany .
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- (en alemán)
- «Klaus Wowereit's resignation" I make my office available " » . Spiegel Online - 26 de agosto de 2014 (en alemán) . Consultado el 21 de julio de 2018 .
- "Regionaldaten" . Amt für Statistik Berlin Brandenburg (in German) . Retrieved July 21, 2018 .
- "World Weather Information Service - Berlin" . Worldweather.wmo.int. October 5, 2006 . Retrieved April 7, 2012 .
- "Climatological Normals of Berlin" . Hong Kong Observatory . Retrieved May 20, 2010 .
- EKD http://www.ekd.de/download/kirchenmitglieder_2007.pdf
- chiesa cattolica
- Connolly, Kate (26 de abril de 2009). «Atheist Berlin to decide on religion's place in its schools». The Guardian. Consultado el 12 de enero de 2015.
- "Kirchenmitgliederzahlen am 31" (in German) . Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland. December 31, 2010 . Retrieved January 12, 2015 .
- "Berlin – Statistik" (in German) . 2010. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014 . Retrieved January 12, 2015 .
- «Statistical Report: Table 11» (en alemán) . diciembre de 2010 . Consultado el 12 de enero de 2015 . "The actual number of Muslims can only be estimated on the basis of this total number, which also includes members of other religions (e.g. minorities from the countries of origin, Germans with a one-sided migration background) and non-religious people."
- Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg. (in German)
- Nine great cities in which to start your next business
- Charnock, Richard S. (1859). Local Etymology: A Derivative Dictionary of Geographical Names (en inglés). p. 325.
- C. von Kertbeny, Karoly M. Kertbeny (1831). Berlin, wie es ist (en alemán) . p. 337.
- Wikimedia Commons houses a multimedia gallery about Berlin .
- Wikinews has news related to Berlin .
- Wiktionary has definitions and other information about Berlin .
- Wikivoyage hosts travel guides to or about Berlin .
- Official website (in German)
- Official Website (in English)
European Capital of Culture
Venue for the 1995 World Heritage Committee Sessions