Black metal - Black metal

Black metal
Musical origins Heavy metal
Thrash metal
Doom metal
Hardcore punk
Anarcopunk
Horror punk
NWOBHM.
Cultural origins

First movement:
Early and mid -1980s , Europe

Second movement :
Early 1990s , Scandinavia
Common Instruments Voice , guitar , bass and drums
Popularity Media inside the metal. High in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe
Subgenres
Depressive black metal
Black metal atmosférico
Black metal melódico
Black metal sinfónico
Unblack metal
Mergers
Blackened death metal
Industrial black metal
Viking metal
Blackgaze
Blackcore

The metal black is a subgenus end of the heavy metal , it emerged in the mid- eighties . It is characterized by its letters with satanic overtones . It was born as a musical expression of the anti- Christian movements that proliferate around the European continent , [ 1 ] whose main impulse was through the burning of numerous Christian churches . [ 2 ] [ 3 ]

features

The Black Metal Traditional has features musical defined well: the voice is torn and acute, known as Shriek ( "squeak" in English), the guitars are fast and riffs are repetitive, the usual technique is picking tremolo and blast beats are the most used resource in the drums, and the bass for its part, is an instrument that goes into the background and is practically inaudible. In this genre, the creation of atmospheres in the compositions is prioritized over their technical complexity. For this reason, the low quality of production and post-production is an important element that the first bands used and is still in force, because, according toVarg Vikernes : '' A production that is too clean, would not manage to convey the feeling of coldness and desolation essential in Black Metal ''

The Satanism , whether symbolic or real dogma of faith, is used conceptually by bands of Black Metal as a banner of protest and dissent against Christianity , which has oppressed the pagan and polytheistic roots in Scandinavia. Being a dark subgenre, the feelings that this explores range from hatred , pessimism , melancholy and misanthropy mainly. Likewise, Black Metalit has the particularity of being the Metal side that more easily combines and adapts external styles without losing its distinctive sound; incorporating flutes, saxophones, harps, violins, keyboards, even ethnic / folk instruments, and also electronic instruments, which causes these combinations and evolutions to give rise to different sub - genres of it.

The theme of the Black Metal lyrics is broad; We can find bands that talk about environmental destruction ( Wolves in the Throne Room ), the occult and mysticism (Nightbringer), the apocalypse ( 1349 ), the work of JRR Tolkien ( Summoning ), medieval France ( Peste Noire ) the exaltation of nature ( Immortal ), solitude of the cosmos (Midnight Odyssey), Hinduism and Vedic rituals (Cult of Fire), human psyche (Akhlys), mental illness (Woods of Infinity), negativity (Hypothermia) Egyptian mythology (Anubi) , orthodox Satanism and theology (Novae Militiae) to others that tell stories, where theviolence and war are the main foundations ( Marduk ). There are two controversial currents within the genre, the first of which is Unblack Metal: which is the typical sound of traditional Black Metal, with the mitigation of using Christian lyrics; and it is rejected by lovers of the genre when arguing that it is a contradiction, since it is inconceivable that a musical trend that was born as a protest to Christianity, glorifies it with its lyrics. And the second stream is the National Socialist Black Metal (NSBM),which is also traditional Black Metal, with fascist lyrics and related to racial separatism. It is not predominant, but it is not non-existent either and it is an uncomfortable topic that many overlook.

It should be noted that the members of many groups use pseudonyms made from cabalistic or mythological names, so that it is not possible to know their true names or their identities. Some choose not to make the lyrics of their songs public, and playing live is not contemplated in their musical project; This is, in part, because one-man bands are relatively common in this music scene, but other bands follow the philosophy of the Netherlands group Stalaggh ; that in an interview, when asked about playing live, they replied, `` We are never going to play live. At concerts people socialize, and we are not going to support it. ''

Birth, origin and influences

Venom , the title of the Black Metal album was the inspiration for the second movement of 1990.
King Diamond set a new standard in singing with Mercyful Fate . They were also boosters with Venom .
Sodom had an important influence on black metal along with Destruction and Kreator .

The beginning of black metal is commonly identified with the appearance on the scene of the Norwegian black metal movement throughout the 1990s . [ 4 ] It was during this period that the development of black metal became apparent; however, the origin of the genre must be placed a little earlier, and in several places. Background like Angel Witch and her theme "Baphomet". See: Angel Witch (album) .

It was the English Venom who with their 1979 demo paved the way for the black metal wave to come. [ 5 ] Welcome to Hell , disco, 1981, was a well produced album but poorly recorded with aggressive and explicitly satanic attitude. The fans were divided in opinions regarding this group, [ 6 ] who with their second album, from 1982, titled Black Metal , gave the name to the genre and was a great influence for the creation of black metal , both by letter or aesthetics among other factors, although it is not a black metal albumIn its entirety, it presents a sound completely typical of the NWOBHM , but in the dirtiest and most aggressive of its versions, which greatly influenced thrash metal , a genre that laid the foundations of black metal that appeared in the late eighties and early of the nineties.

In 1977 the Italian band Death SS was founded , thanks to their theatrical performances on stage, which had Satanist and horror themes, plus their aesthetics, which included the use of one of the first remnants of the later corpse paint , they helped along with the Danish band Mercyful Fate to the development of the stagings so characteristic of the musical genre. This band debuted in 1982 with a four-song EP called Nuns Have No Fun ("The Nuns Have No Fun") and which would begin to have an impact in 1983, with the release of their first full-length album, Melissa . [ 7 ]Musically, Mercyful Fate were never considered as black metal , but rather as a traditional heavy metal band , but by theme, origin, and above all aesthetics, their mention cannot be ignored. [ 7 ] The Swiss group Hellhammer was also a notable influence, [ 8 ] releasing the demo Satanic Rites in 1983 and their EP, Apocalyptic Raids , in 1984 , which have become cult releases. Hellhammer disbanded and two of its members formed Celtic Frost whose Morbid Tales and To Mega Therionthey are considered foundational albums of black metal . [ 8 ]

The Swedish Ace Börje Forsberg, aka Quorthon , recorded Bathory , the first LP of the eponymous group Bathory , in October 1984 , [ 9 ] months after the band engraven his first work, including two songs on the Scandinavian Metal Attack . The album was recorded with quite rudimentary systems and with a low budget, giving the sound a very low quality which contributed to increase the darkness of a work, which added to the new stylistic elements that the band introduced, served to take another step towards sound. current black metal. Bathory could be considered therefore, also as one of the bands that began to develop the bases that Venom, Death SS and Mercyful Fate established. [ 9 ] Later Bathory would release another two albums, The Return in 1985 and Under the Sign of the Black Mark in 1987, works with a higher quality than the first album, where the evolution of the group and its introspection within black metal and His fundamental contribution to it is beginning to become apparent.

Also noteworthy are the thrash metal bands Destruction and Sodom , both from Germany, whose early work in the mid / early eighties developed musical elements of notable influence on the development and evolution of black metal . Destruction , a German thrash metal band formed in 1982, released their first EP Sentence of Death in 1984 with a satanic theme that set a precedent for the next generation of bands in the 1990s and early 21st century . [ 10 ]

Another of his great contributions to black metal was the 1986 LP Eternal Devastation , whose song "Curse the Gods" has been considered one of the pillars of old-school black metal , being even included by Fenriz (drummer of the Norwegian band Darkthrone ), in compiling Fenriz Presents: the Best Of Old School Black Metal in 2004. [ 11 ]

On the part of Sodom , a German thrash metal band formed in 1981, they recorded In the Sign of Evil in 1984 which, despite being clearly more thrash metal oriented , showed a satanic theme that would have an influence on the development of black metal. . This same sound is also found on his first album Obsessed by Cruelty .

Around the globe, more specifically in South America, there were bands like Sarcófago , Parabellum , Sepultura and Reincarnación, about whom it is speculated were cited as a source of inspiration by the late Euronymous, of the Mayhem band . The Italians Bulldozer , the Canadians Blasphemy, the Japanese Sabbat and above all, the American group VON , contributed with their musical styles between thrash, death and black; and its satanic lyrics, the necessary elements for the growth of the nascent genre. Other bands like Witchfynde from England sometimes use this genre.

Development

Mayhem , founding band of the Inner Circle .
Abbath, líder de Immortal.

During the 1990s the genre reached its maximum splendor in the Scandinavian region , the cradle of it, especially in Norway , where a movement known as True Norwegian Black Metal (in English "authentic Norwegian black metal ") appeared famous for its important musical significance, thematic and aesthetic within the genre of the bands that were included in it, especially the bands that were part of the so-called Inner Circle. The so-called «authentic black metalNorwegian ”is characterized musically by strange, cold, bleak, gloomy, and sometimes epic melodies, all of which make for a very atmospheric sound. As for the lyrics, they usually talk about hatred, darkness, Satanism, paganism, misanthropy and Scandinavian mythology, among other topics.

However, this music scene also reached great significance due to various cases in which it sponsored, promoted or was involved in events of criminal significance, such as the burning of religious venues in the early 1990s (some 52 churches burned throughout the state, accounted for Norwegian police, including wooden churches of Fortun and Stavkirke , artistic monuments from the twelfth century in Norway ) [ 12 ] [ 2 ] [ 13 ] and other violent cases because they be suicide , like Per Yngve Ohlinbetter known as "Dead", lead singer of Mayhem , currently considered a myth within the genre of black metal , [ 14 ] or as for example the murder of Øystein Aarseth , better known as Euronymous, guitarist of the band Mayhem, the October of August of 1993 , at the hands of Varg Vikernes , who was until then the bass player in the same band, and only member of the band Burzum . [ 12 ]

It was groups like Mayhem , Burzum , Darkthrone and Emperor , creators of the Inner Circle , that took the concepts of instrumental minimalism , ripped throaty voice and made them the way to go. In addition, these bands notably increased the ideology of black metal ; The Inner Circle was an organization dedicated to eradicating Christianity in Norway and restoring pagan beliefs and values. Its members burned several churches of great importance and antiquity in Norwegian territory among other acts. The Inner Circle was dissolved in 1993 following the murder of Aarseth , and the incarceration ofVikernes , although violent events continued to occur in Norway.

At that time, bands like Beherit and Impaled Nazarene were also founded in Finland, a scene of little consequence in those years. In Norway, Immortal , Ulver , Carpathian Forest , Thorns and Gorgoroth are formed , bands that continue with the war message proposed by Mayhem. The Swedish scene also stands out, with a much cleaner sound than Norwegian productions and which also gave a lot to talk about, its most notable exponents were Marduk , Dark Funeral , Abruptum , The Black, Arckanum, among other. These bands stood out for sounds full of ferocity and very anti-Christian sentiments. And finally (from Sweden itself) Dissection , that although it did not have much rawness in its composition, like its Swedish colleagues previously named, its sound is remembered as one of the best that have been created, darkness, aggressiveness and a lot of melody . In Poland, extremist anti-Judeo-Christian movements continue to flourish, gangs such as Graveland , Infernum, Thors Hammer, Thunderbolt, Behemoth , Veles, Legion, among others, which formed the Temple of the Fullmoon, also a criminal association whose mission was to exterminate Christianity in Poland [ citation required ] .

Second generation bands began to introduce new elements. It was the Norwegian Emperor who added keyboards to their musical style (without falling precisely into melodic black metal , a variation that is very popular today, and which has been followed by groups such as Limbonic Art , Graveworm , Mystic Circle , Satyricon , Dimmu Borgir , Dark Funeral , Old Man's Child , Arcturus and Borknagar among others. Later groups like Aborym would use synthesizers and keyboards in greater quantity as a basis to create theIndustrial black metal.

Other third generation bands emerge such as Gehenna , Lucifugum , Armagedda , Dødheimsgard , God Seed and Keep of Kalessin that, contrary to commercial black metal , continue with the underground trend and with a heavier musical style than other previous bands.

Meanwhile, Bathory changed her style by substituting certain elements of her music, which became more melodic and with a much more careful production, with choirs and a theme other than satanic, singing to the fathers of her land. It is the origin of Viking metal , followed by bands like Enslaved .

Esthetic

Infernus , guitarist of Gorgoroth .

It was the band Mercyful Fate that first introduced body painting to a heavy metal band , [ 15 ] more specifically on the face of their leader King Diamond . It should be noted that this kind of makeup known as corpse paint (in Spanish, «cadaveric paint»), warpaint or facepaint had already been used by rock bands such as Arthur Brown , Alice Cooper , Kiss , Misfits and Death SS, using this stage resource to attract more attention to his music. This caused disputes between the group Kiss and King Diamond, after which the latter was forced to modify its design so as not to resemble that of Gene Simmons , bassist and vocalist of Kiss. [ 16 ]

Later, in the early 1990s, after Euronymous (Øystein Aarseth) and Dead (Per Yngve Ohlin), members of the Norwegian band Mayhem , used "corpsepaint" on a regular basis for several years , this type of body paint was adapted in a general way by the pioneering Norwegian black metal bands of the movement and from there it hatched into a rather unitary aesthetic that has survived until today, although its prevalence diminishes.

To this must be added a black dress; with few exceptions. T-shirts are also used that allude to other bands, the frequent use of leather wristbands, bracelets and belts, with nails of different sizes (some up to 20 cm) or ammunition , to which accessories such as pendants, rings, are added. inverted crosses and other types of silver jewelry, generally with allusions to those elements typical of the idolatry of the groups or their ideology.

Subgenres

The metal black , although a subgenre of the metal , transformed itself into a genre that today includes numerous subgenres. Many of them only differ in the subject of the lyrics of the songs, while others, instead, differ in the structure or instrumentation. Sometimes it is difficult to classify a band within a subgenre and it is usually cataloged in several. This is why the categorization of black metal (its division into sub-genres) is rejected by many, and over-expanded by others (with the introduction of extravagant sub-genres). Either way, the main subgenres of black metal would be:

Depressive black metal

Depressive and Suicidal Black Metal (DSBM) or also known as Depressive suicidal black metal , is a subgenre of black metal, hardly subsumed or delimited, due to how lax or scarcely unified and common are the characteristics of the groups that actively practice it, like the original Bethlehem . It comes from black metal that takes elements from doom metal (the sound), it is very inconsistent in terms of defined musical characteristics, being the lyrics, which deals with themes about death, depression, suicide, tragedy, sorrows, melancholy and the down tempo rhythm, which gives the characteristic essence of all these bands.

Bandas destacadas: Anti, Xasthur, Shining, Silencer, Dolorian, Hypothermia, Forgotten Tomb, Nortt, Trist, o Happy Days.

Ambient black metal

Also called Atmospheric black metal in English , it is an instrumental musical subgenre , characterized by a progressive abandonment of the forcefulness and basic rawness of black metal , to evolve the scarce melody of the genre towards a specific ambient sound and with it, develop an atmosphere that, Despite moving away from the foundations of black metal , it maintains its own correlation in the scales used in its composition to maintain the idea and feeling of the genre. Main Bands of the Genre: Burzum with his masterpiece Filosofem ; Nortt , Algaion, Xasthur or Ildjarn .

Black metal melódico

Black Metal melódico
Musical origins Black metal, heavy metal.
Cultural origins Late 80's in California .
Common Instruments Guitar - Bass - Drums .
Popularity Low-medium

It is a musical subgenre with melodics in which the bands that make it up, make a black metal of which they increase its melody considerably. Among the outstanding bands are: Dissection , Catamenia , Borknagar , Dimmu Borgir , Arthemesia or Chthonic .

Symphonic black metal

It is a musical subgenre of black metal , poorly defined. It is mainly based on the incorporation of keyboards, orchestrations and a more melodic approach, Outstanding bands of the genre: Dimmu Borgir (some of their albums), Dragonlord (which also add thrash metal to their style), Emperor , Diabolical Masquerade , Anorexia Nervosa , Graveworm , Opera IX , Old Man's Child or Limbonic Art .

Mergers

The very evolution of extreme metal genres , as well as the large number of bands with their own style that is difficult to subsume under a single label, has resulted in the appearance of musical subgenres resulting from the fusion of various styles, with various results, reaching , as we will see, the creation of full-fledged genres as a result of this union:

Blackened death metal

Fusion between the death metal and black metal genres , usually based on a combination of aesthetics and lyrics, with riffs, blast beats and guttural voices more typical of death metal . Featured Bands: Ignem Interius , Angelcorpse , Anaal Nathrakh , Behemoth , Belphegor , Infernal War , Gehenna , Dissection , Inferi , God Dethroned , Hyban Draco , Watain , The Legion, Panzerchrist , Zyklon ,Impaled Nazarene (who also incorporate industrial elements to their sound).

Folk black/viking metal

Unification of folk music with black metal , leaving the lyrics and a certain instrumentality to the first styles, and the general sound aspect, usually, to the second. It includes the metal pagan black and metal black folk because they are poor consolidation styles and easy confusion caused by the similarity in all aspects of their bands. It should not be confused however, with its variants, such as Viking metal or Celtic metal , which have their own characteristics, just like folk metal itself . Viking Black Featured Bands: Windir , Menhir , Enslaved, Kampfar, Mithotyn, Hordak, Berserk, Thrudvangar. Bandas destacadas de Folk Black: Finntroll, Skyforger, Runic, Moonsorrow, Primordial, Satarial.

Industrial black metal

The fusion of industrial music and black metal , which mixes guttural voices , guitars and riffs typical of black metal , with elements of industrial music, such as effects and tempos characteristic of electronic music, and especially of the so-called industrial metal . This style emerged in the 1990s, with groups such as Samael , who ventured into the genre, which would later be joined by prominent black metal exponents such as Dan Swanö . The bands that stand out in this subgenre are Samael , Thorns , Aborym ,The Kovenant, ...And Oceans (actualmente Havoc Unit), Dødheimsgard, Zyklon y Anaal Nathrakh.

Ideologies

Black metal nacionalsocialista

The metal black Nazi, also called NSBM, is a musical subgenre of the metal black , characterized mainly by its subject and its lettristic more specifically, being in direct, or indirect, with the movement political aesthetic National . [ 17 ] On a musical level, on the sound level there is no consistent differentiation with black metal , and it is common for groups, despite being part of the National Socialist black metal scene , to have a sound belonging to some subgenre of the BM. Most of the prominent bands are generally from Europe or North America. For specific countries, in Germany bands such as Absurd (precursors of the NSBM movement), Totenburg or Aryan Blood stand out; Ukraine has given groups like Hate Forest or Aryan Terrorism (whose members are also from Nokturnal Mortum ); in Russia groups such as Forest, Temnozor, Branikald or M8L8TH stand out ; bands like Der Stürmer, Darkthule or Legion of Doom come from Greece; from Bulgaria, Paganblut or Aryan Art; From North America, the Canadians Geimhre or the Americans Tyranath are notable. In South America there are also NSBM bands, as in Brazil; Evil, Seges Findere, White Diamond Head. In Argentina: Ulfhethnar, Campo de Mayo, Uriburu.

In Spain the NSBM is a very minority, since, in general, the neo-Nazi ideology is more associated with the skinhead movement than with the world of metal ; The Spanish NSBM scene is usually closely linked to the world of RAC and is reduced to a few bands, mostly one member, and on many occasions, their music is more of a mix of RAC and black metal than black metal itself. Some examples are Orcus Tyrannus, Winterfrost, Hallstatt, or Einsatz Kommando.

Unblack metal

The metal unblack is an alternative style of the metal black letters on Christianity . Although the beginnings of Unblack metal are not clear, the bands Antestor and Horde are often cited as precursors of this genre , when in 1994, Horde, in his album Hellig Usvart, extracted the concept of holy unblack metal in allusion to the motto " unholy black metal "of Darkthrone , in addition Antestor released his album Martyrium in the same year.

To the militants of black metal [ who? ] They do not like the idea of ​​the existence of unblack metal very much, even provoking attacks and issuing death threats, this because for them it is a strong philosophical and cultural contradiction. [ citation required ]

Anarchist / communist black metal

The AMFN ( red & black metal anarchist , " metal black red and anarchist ") is a subgenre of the metal black with anarchist or communist themes.

Certain founders of black metal had far-left views. Euronymous of Mayhem was declared Stalinist , and he even obtained permission to touch his band in East Germany . [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] Members of Sarcophagus were unchristian and Fenriz Communists Darkthrone claimed to have been a socialist in the late 80s and have passed a political end to the other (even being arrested for protesting the Apartheid [ 21] ). For his part, this was countered by Varg Vikernes and his far-right views. Yet none of these musicians openly propagated their ideology in their music.

The RABM appeared in response to the National Socialist black metal , by the Argentine group Profecium in 1993 (who were anarchists at that time) and massed by the Canadian group Iskra in the mid-2000s. It was born from the hand of bands rooted in the crust punk . [ 22 ]

This style is ideological by nature, the lyrics of the bands focus on violent themes, anarchism, communism, hatred of today's society, class struggle, anti-fascism, pro-environmentalism, Satanism and anti-Christianity. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ]

The sound of the RABM bands apparently also differs from common black metal , in many cases the bands mix the sound of crust punk (mostly anarchist) or ambient black metal with elements of post-rock [ 26 ] (Panopticon, Wheels Within Wheels, All the Cold, Skagos, Adamennon), there are also elements of pagan and viking metal [ 23 ] [ 24 ] (Sorgsvart, Lake of Blood, Borgazur). There are also other groups dedicated to black metal (The Dead Musician, Jarost Marksa, Mrakobesie, Wolves in the Throne Room, Cold Blank Stare).

Within the communist bands, there is a more politicized current with bands such as Jarost Marksa, Larva ov Cum and Profecium, and others that focus on more common black metal themes , apologizing for the actions committed by different communist regimes, the red terror and the persecution of Christianity during the Stalinist Soviet Union , such as Mrakobesie (from Russia) and Agony (from the United States), who make direct bridges between Stalinism and Satanism. Black metal bands have also appeared taking inspiration from communist militarism such as Katyusha, Voland or Sibat.

Documentaries

See also

References

  1. a b Shash Media – Rock world TV. «Murder Music: A History of Black Metal» (en inglés). rockworld.tv. Consultado el 23 de marzo de 2010. «Murder Music: Black Metal presenta: Cradle of Filth, Dimmu Borgir, Black Widow, Satyricon, Immortal, Mayhem, Astarte, Sabbat, Mantas, Spacebrain, Frosthardr, Jens Ryman, Anti-Christian, Reign of Erebus, Didrik Soderlind, Asbjorn Slettemark.»
  2. ^ A b Jon Henning Orten (1991-1998?). Satan Rir Media (VHS or NTSC). Subfilm. Scene in 52 minutes. Archived from the original on January 5, 2010 . Retrieved January 29, 2010 .
  3. ^ "Inner Circle - church burning" . azheavymetal.com. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010 . Retrieved May 13, 2010 .
  4. Page dedicated to the recapitulation of the history of the TNBM
  5. First part of five of the documentary True Norweigan Black metal
  6. Historical summary of the Venom gang
  7. a b Brief reference to the history of Mercyful Fate
  8. a b Historia del grupo Hellhammer
  9. a b History of the Swedish group Bathory
  10. Review, lyrics, cover and general information of Destruction's Sentence of Death
  11. History of the band Destruction with reference to the selection of the subject by Fenriz ( broken link available in Internet Archive ; see history , first and last versions ).
  12. ^ A b "Dette er Varg Vikernes" (in Norwegian) . Dagbladet . Retrieved November 1, 2010 .
  13. Summary of the documentary "Satans Rides the Media, about these events. In English
  14. Summary article in Spanish of the history of the Innner Circle
  15. Compilation article on aesthetics in heavy metal subgenres , including black metal
  16. ^ Higueruela, Gustavo (July 22, 2010). "Makeup and Rock and Roll, sure success" . Messenger . Archived from the original on July 5, 2010 . Retrieved August 3, 2010 .
  17. Web in English dedicated to the defense and publicity of the National Socialist black metal
  18. http://surrealdocuments.blogspot.com/2008/04/euronymous-as-kafka.html
  19. http://www.spirit-of-metal.com/membre_groupe/membre_groupe-nom-Euronymous_-id-12398-l-en.html
  20. http://billybob666.tripod.com/murder.html
  21. «Archived copy» . Archived from the original on April 1, 2010 . Retrieved June 28, 2010 .
  22. RABM: Red and Anarchist Black Metal (music genre) en el sitio web Acronyms and abbreviations by the Free Online Dictionary.
  23. a b «SorgSvart - The Official Site - Biography». Consultado el 9 de noviembre de 2009. «I declare now that SorgSvart goes under the parole: True Norwegian AnArchistic Black Metal (Norsk AnArkistisk Svart Metall) Let it be no doubt that SorgSvart is fronting humanity in their struggle against authority and slavery!»
  24. a b Justin Davisson "Extreme Politics and Extreme Metal: Strange Bedfellows or Fellow Travelers? Archivado el 19 de octubre de 2013 en la Wayback Machine.", p.17.
  25. «BELLVM GERITE - Interview with Antoine of Jarost Marksa». Archivado desde el original el 10 de abril de 2009. Consultado el 9 de noviembre de 2009. «I've been playing the guitar since I was 15 or so and what started out with some jamming sessions eventually turned into Jarost Marksa, our communist black metal project.»
  26. Interview with the band Panopticon in the zine Boca Suja! . Archived 2009-02-07 at the Wayback Machine .
  27. ^ Torstein Grude (2007). Norwegian Black Metal scene ( TV show ). Norway: Satan rir media. Scene in 52 min . Retrieved March 23, 2010 .
  28. "Evil Dread - Satan Rides the Media" (in English) . evildread.com. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008 . Retrieved March 23, 2010 .
  29. Black Metal: A Documentary (DVD). Bill Zebub. 2007. Scene in 90 min. ASIN : B000O76TRM . Retrieved March 23, 2010 .
  30. Once Upon a Time in Norway (DVD). Plastic Head. 2008. Scene in 60 min. ASIN : B001GLHS6G . Archived from the original on July 21, 2011 . Retrieved March 23, 2010 .
  31. ^ Audrey Ewell and Aaron Aites (2009). Until The Light Takes Us (DVD). United States: Variance Films. Scene in 93 min. Archived from the original on March 24, 2010 . Retrieved March 23, 2010 .
  32. ^ " Until The Light Takes Us " (PDF ) . Variance Films. 2009. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011 . Retrieved March 23, 2010 .