Bolivia ( Aymara : Wuliwya ; Quechua : Buliwya; Guarani : Boliviaygua), officially Plurinational State of Bolivia , [ 12 ] [ 13 ] is a sovereign country located in the midwestern region of America of the South , politically constituted as a state plurinational , decentralized with autonomies. It is organized into nine departments and its constitutional capital is Sucre , [ 14 ] seat of thejudicial body , while the city of La Paz is the seat of the executive , legislative and electoral bodies .
It limits to the north and east with Brazil , to the south with Paraguay and Argentina , and to the west with Chile and Peru . It is a landlocked state and constitutionally maintains a territorial claim to Chile for a sovereign outlet to the Pacific Ocean . Its area is the sixth largest in Latin America and includes different geographical areas such as the Andes mountain range , the Altiplano , the Amazon , the Llanos de Moxos and the Chaco , being one of the countries withgreatest biodiversity in the world. [ 15 ]
Pre-Hispanic civilizations such as Tiwanaku , the Hydraulic Culture of Las Lomas , the Moxeña culture and others that survive to the present day, such as the Aymaras , Urus , Chiquitanos , Guaraníes and others , developed in its territory . The Incas conquered the western part of current Bolivian territory and named it Collasuyo . Later the Spanish Empire dominated the territory, which was called Audiencia de Charcasuntil in 1825 it became independent with the name of República Bolívar, which was later renamed Bolivia. In its current political constitution, Bolivia declared itself a plurinational country by recognizing that several nations coexist in its territory whose origins predate the Spanish colonization .
It has a population of about 10.1 million inhabitants according to the last 2012 census. [ 16 ] Bolivia is a multi-ethnic state , whose population includes people of indigenous, mestizo , European, Asian and African origins .
Bolivia is a middle-income developing country that for more than a decade has led the economic growth of the South American region. [ 17 ] He is a founding member of the United Nations , the IMF , the OAS , and Unasur . It is in the process of joining Mercosur .
The name Bolivia is a derivation of the paternal surname of the liberator Simón Bolívar . [ 18 ] During the viceregal period, the geographical area was called Upper Peru . After the proclamation of the independence of the Spanish Empire on August 6, 1825, the Deliberative Assembly approved on the 11th of the same month the Law of Awards and Honors to Liberators, the first article of this law indicated that the new State would receive the name of " Republic of Bolívar ". [ 19 ]Months later, the name was modified, without a resolution from the Deliberative Assembly, upon accepting the argument proposed by the deputy from Potosí , Presbítero Manuel Martín Cruz, who said the following: " Yes from Rómulo, Roma; from Bolívar, Bolivia " . [ 20 ] The New Republic officially adopted the name of Bolivia on October 3, 1825. [ 20 ]
Bolívar, upon accepting the honor that the new country bears his name, and after being appointed first president by the Deliberative Assembly, baptized Bolivia as his "Favorite Daughter" and made the following proclamation:
My despair is increased when I contemplate the immensity of your prize, because after having exhausted the talents, the virtues, the very genius of the greatest of heroes, I would still be unworthy of deserving the name that you have wanted to give yourselves, mine! I will speak of gratitude, when she will never manage to express even weakly what I experience because of your goodness that, like that of God, goes beyond all limits! Yes: only God had the power to call that land Bolivia ...
What does Bolivia mean ? An unbridled love of freedom, that when your rapture received it, it did not see anything that was equal to its value. Your drunkenness not finding an adequate demonstration of the vehemence of his sentiments, he tore your name away, and gave mine to all your generations. This, which is unheard of in the history of the centuries, is even more so in that of sublime detachments. Such a feature will show the times that are in the mind of the Eternal, what you longed for the possession of your rights, which is the possession of exercising political virtues, acquiring luminous talents, and the enjoyment of being men. This feature, I repeat, will prove that you were eligible to obtain the great blessing of Heaven - the Sovereignty of the People - the only legitimate authority of the Nations "
Simon Bolivar [ 20 ]
In 2009, a new constitution changed the official name of the country to " Plurinational State of Bolivia " in recognition of the multi-ethnic nature of the country and the improved position of the indigenous peoples of Bolivia under the new constitution. [ 21 ]
In the current Bolivian territory, ancient pre-Columbian cultures such as Tiahuanaco , the Hydraulic Culture of Las Lomas and the Inca Empire developed throughout history . Later, the Spanish Empire dominated the territory until the country became independent in 1825, the year from which it adopted the name of Bolivia. Having inherited the traditions of colonial miscegenation and pre-Columbian cultures , it is a multi-ethnic and multicultural country , rich in the mixture of traditions and folklore of mestizo , indigenous ,White descendants of Creoles , Afro-Bolivians , and to a lesser extent, of European and Asian migrants .
Evidence of human occupation has been found in Bolivia since 12,000 BC. C. - 10 000 a. C. in the Viscachani deposit . [ 22 ] Until 1200 BC. C. sedentary cultures develop in the highlands . As of this date, the Chiripa and Wankarani cultures are the two most important of the formative period.
The Tiwanaku culture , near Lake Titicaca , marks a moment of cultural flourishing in the highlands. For the historian and archaeologist Carlos Ponce Sanginés , around 1100 AD. C. the continuous drought of Lake Titicaca leads to a drop in agricultural production that would lead to a bloody civil war that would bring the dissolution of Tiwanaku and the formation of small regional states that this researcher identifies with the Aymara manors . [ 23 ] [ 24 ]
Evidence of settlement patterns in the tiahuanaco valley , found by the Bolivian archaeologist Jordán Albarracín, would reveal the continuity "tiwanaku and post-tiwanaku", later the American Janusek JW, would reveal ceramic evidence corresponding to the time of the Aymara manors, with a Obviously Tiahuanacota ceramic technique , implying the dissolution of the Tiahuanacota state in Aymara kingdoms, these "Aymara kingdoms" would have inherited the Aymara cultural base of Tiahuanaco, later this ceramic would go through a process of transition to an "Aymara-señoríos" ceramic. [ 25 ]
The Aymara lordships would establish a regional domain that encompasses parts of southeastern Peru and western Bolivia, within the stately organization the kingdoms stand out: pacajes, collas and lupaqas.
During later periods, the Incas tried unsuccessfully to conquer eastern Bolivia (in general, they did not venture much into the jungle with which it limited their vast empire), which was inhabited by ethnic groups of Amazonid and Pampean lineages that were mainly hunter-gatherers, standing out the chanés and guaraníes called disparagingly " chiriguanos " by the Incas . In the Huayna Cápac incan , fortresses were erected to stop the advance of the Chiriguanos.
Spanish conquest and viceregal period
The first European to enter the current territory of Bolivia was Alejo García in 1520, who came to Mizque in the service of the Portuguese crown, which is when we begin to have news that barbarian beings and dressed in armor prowled the Empire. The first Spaniard who arrived to colonize these lands was Diego de Almagro , after leaving Cuzco in order to conquer Chile . With the death of Almagro, Francisco Pizarro sent his brother Gonzalo to conquer and colonize the Collasuyo region . Pedro Anzúrez founded La Plata(current Sucre) in 1538, Potosí emerged in 1545, La Paz in 1548, Santa Cruz de la Sierra in 1561 and Cochabamba in 1571 .
The Spanish colonization was characterized by presenting a mining-agricultural base. The city of Potosi , the most populous of America in 1574 ( 120 000 inhabitants), became a major mining center for the exploitation of mines silver in the Cerro Rico de Potosi and in 1611 was the largest silver producer in the world. The King Charles I had given this city the title of imperial villa after its founding. The eastern region of Moxos was annexed to the Spanish empire in the 16th century.
For just over 200 years the territory of present-day Bolivia constituted the Real Audiencia de Charcas , one of the most prosperous and densely populated centers of the Spanish viceroyalties in America.
Potosí began its decline in the last decades of the 18th century when silver mining remained in a state of stagnation, as a consequence of the depletion of the richest veins, antiquated extraction techniques and the diversion of trade to other countries. With the arrival of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish crown in 1700, the institution of the Encomienda was deepened to reverse the fall of the mining economy, imposing greater rigor on the work of the mita and the indigenous tribute .
Independence and consolidation of the republic
Between 1779 and 1781 there were indigenous uprisings at the head of Tomás Katari , Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari who opposed the excessive collection of taxes, the abuses of the mita and the ignorance of other rights. These uprisings were controlled by the Spanish.
The uprisings in the cities of Chuquisaca on May 25, 1809 and La Paz on July 16, 1809 were the starting point of the Spanish-American wars of independence . From 1811, starting with the May Revolution that occurred in the city of Buenos Aires in 1810, three Argentine auxiliary expeditions, including Ignacio Warnes in Santa Cruz de la Sierra , followed each other until 1820 , despite this and the efforts of the republiquetas , ( being the most successful in this sense the Republiqueta de Ayopaya ), the royaliststhey tenaciously disputed control until the death of Pedro de Olañeta (named last viceroy).
The country was declared independent on August 6, 1825, through the General Assembly of Deputies of the Provinces of Upper Peru with the name of the Republic of Bolívar, which was changed to the Republic of Bolivia, becoming independent from Spain.
In 1826, the liberator Simón Bolívar granted the country the first Constitution , which was approved by the Chuquisaca Congress. Later, Antonio José de Sucre , Grand Marshal of Ayacucho , was elected President of the Republic of Bolivia .
General Sucre is the Father of Ayacucho: he is the redeemer of the children of the Sun;
He is the one who has broken the chains with which Pizarro wrapped the empire of the Incas.
Posterity will represent Sucre with one foot in Pichincha and the other in Potosí,
carrying the cradle of Manco-Capac in his hands
and contemplating the chains of Peru broken by his sword.Simon Bolivar
Since its emancipation, Bolivia has plunged into a chronic state of revolutions and civil wars. The first fifty years of the Republic were characterized by political instability and by constant external threats that put its independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity at risk. In 1825, the Empire of Brazil invaded the east of the country, occupying the province of Chiquitos . At that time, Marshal Antonio José de Sucre sent an ultimatum, threatening to send the liberating army to expel the invaders. The province was evacuated by the Brazilians. Subsequently, there was the invasion of Peruvian troops in 1828, led by Agustín Gamarraand whose main objective was to force the departure of the troops from Gran Colombia . The conflict ended with the Treaty of Piquiza and the Peruvian withdrawal from Bolivian soil after achieving the resignation of President Sucre and the establishment of a government without Bolivarian influence.
Santa Cruz and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation
In 1829, after the end of Colombian influence in Bolivia, and faced with the threat of anarchy, Congress brought to power the first indigenous president of Bolivia, Andrés de Santa Cruz , born in La Paz , and Marshal of Zepita (title granted by the Peruvian government, of whose country he was president of the Governing Council between 1826 and 1827).
Santa Cruz was sworn in as the provisional Presidency of Bolivia on May 24, 1829; that same day he promulgated an amnesty law and repealed the Lifetime Constitution of 1826. Santa Cruz was the main forger and organizer of the Bolivian State, promoted a series of reformist measures, pacified the country, reorganized the Bolivian Army , restructured the battered finances and made improvements in the economic and educational field.
Under the Bolivian bonanza, in 1837, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation was formed , which reunited Peru and Bolivia, having Marshal Santa Cruz as its protector (according to a letter from him in 1829, he was already clear about the dream of converting Bolivia in the Macedonia of South America, seeking to reunify the Andean world; in 1829 he had married the Cuzco lady Francisca Cernadas ). [ 27 ]
The Peru-Bolivian Confederation fails to consolidate itself because mainly Chile , in addition to the Argentine Confederation and non-majority groups of both Peruvians (in exile and opposed to the project) and Bolivians backed by economic groups from Chuquisaca (a city that posed a rivalry commercial to La Paz ) who interpose, unleashing the War against the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation . In the first phase of the war, the Confederation is victorious forcing the Chilean army to capitulate (see Treaty of Paucarpata ), but in the second phase, the Confederate army is defeated in the Battle of Yungay, situation that defines the dissolution of the Confederation and the overthrow of Santa Cruz in 1839 . On the southern front, the Bolivian army , under the command of General Otto Philipp Braun, defeats the Argentine Confederation in the Battle of Montenegro , achieving its withdrawal.
After the disappearance of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation , Bolivia experienced a period of anarchy and political confrontations between supporters and opponents of the union with Peru . The Peruvian president Agustín Gamarra , ideologue of the annexation of Bolivia to Peru, taking advantage of the situation decided to invade Bolivian territory, occupying several areas of the department of La Paz . Given this circumstance, Bolivians decide to unite in the face of a common enemy and the powers of the State are left to José Ballivián . On November 18, 1841, the battle of Ingavi occurred , in which the Bolivian Armydefeat the Peruvian troops of Gamarra (killed in battle). After the victory, Bolivia invades Peru , then various fronts of struggle are opened in southern Peru. The Bolivian Army did not have enough troops to maintain the occupation. In the battle of Tarapacá , Peruvian montoneros formed by Major Juan Buendía , defeated on January 7, 1842 the detachment led by Colonel José María García, who died in the confrontation. Thus, the Bolivian troops vacated Tacna , Arica and Tarapacá in February 1842, retreating towards Moquegua and Puno .
The fighting in Motoni and Orurillo expelled and subsequently began the withdrawal of the Bolivian forces that occupied Peruvian territory, again threatening Bolivia with an invasion. After that, the Treaty of Puno is signed.
Territorial Litigation, War of the Pacific and War of the Acre
As with most of the countries that became independent from Spain , since its foundation, Bolivia has maintained territorial disputes with all its neighbors, which implied the persistence of conflicts that in the case of Chile and Brazil were resolved through armed conflicts.
In the case of Chile, diplomatic attempts to resolve territorial disputes resulted in the signing of the 1866 and 1874 treaties , in relation to the Atacama desert , rich in deposits of sodium and copper nitrates . In them, the 24th parallel of south latitude was adopted as the boundary line between the two countries. In addition, various tariff rights and mining concessions were granted to Chilean businessmen in the area. These last provisions originated a subsequent conflict when the Bolivian authorities decided to apply a higher tariff tax for the extraction of nitrate to the nitrate companies of Chilean-British capital. February 14, 1879, Chileinvaded Antofagasta , starting the so-called War of the Pacific in which Bolivia and Peru confronted Chile and the outcome of which was the total loss by Bolivia of its coastline, leaving since then without sovereign access to the sea. The Bolivian coastline covered around 158,000 km² and included Antofagasta , Mejillones , Cobija and Tocopilla as the main towns . With the 1904 treaty , Bolivia lost all right to the sea as it was imposed by Chile for the control of the territory in dispute .
With Brazil, a diplomatic solution was initially reached with the 1867 treaty . But in 1899 the Acre War took place, the final result of which implied the cession of 191,000 km² to Brazil through the 1903 treaty .
In the cases of Argentina and Peru , solutions were reached through diplomatic means. Treaties were signed with Argentina in 1898 and 1925 , while a definitive boundary treaty was reached with Peru in 1909 . According to Bolivian historiography, these treaties implied giving Argentina the territories of Puna de Atacama and Formosa and giving Peru 250,000 km² between the Madre de Dios and Purus rivers in the Amazon .
Conservatives, Liberals and Republicans
Between 1880 and 1900 the Conservative Party governed whose main leaders are Aniceto Arce and Mariano Baptista . During this period, the Bolivian economy was sustained mainly by the silver mining industry, which had reached international levels of capitalization, technological development, and efficiency, and whose main exporter was Compañía Minera de Huanchaca . Conservative governments confront the socio economic consequences of defeat in the War of the Pacific , the War of the Acre and War Federal in losing political power against the Liberals.
The Liberal Party governs during the so-called era of tin (1900-1920), a metal that replaces silver as the main source of foreign currency and whose export is the engine of Bolivian economic development for much of the 20th century. Elected governments are those that administer the State and modernize sectors such as railways and finance; urbanize the cities of La Paz , Cochabamba and Oruro and lay the foundations for the conformation of the Bolivian educational system with, for example, the foundation of the first Normal of Teachers in Sucre in 1909. The liberals must face the War of Acre and the signing ofTreaty of 1904 that ends up sealing the Mediterranean of Bolivia . During this period the so-called "tin barons" exerted great influence, whose leading figure was the mining businessman Simón I. Patiño , who became one of the richest men in the world.
In the 1920 elections, the Republicans defeated the Liberals and Bolivia transitions from bipartisanship to multipartism. Since 1920, the country experiences periods of strong social and internal political tensions. This year the first socialist parties were established and soon the first upheavals caused by European Marxist thought followed. At the same time, the first modern labor and social legislation in the history of Bolivia was developed. The political tension, the economic crisis resulting from the oscillations in the tin market and the government's over-indebtedness, plus the arrival of the Great Depression in 1929, led to the deterioration of the political class and the beginning of the Chaco War .
The Bolivian-Paraguayan border problem centered on the Chaco Boreal , an area of lowlands located north of the Pilcomayo River and west of the Paraguay River , which extends to the Aguaragüé mountain ranges. Both countries claimed that territory partially or totally.
On September 9, 1932, the Chaco War broke out , officially declared by Paraguay on May 10, 1933, which lasted three years and in which around 65,000 Bolivians and 30,000 Paraguayans died, thus becoming the warlike conflict. between two nations with the highest casualties in America , second only to the American Civil War . On July 21, 1938, the Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Limits was signed , according to which 75% of the Boreal Chaco region was attributed to Paraguay. The outcome of the war deeply questioned the relevance of national structures and institutions and marked the end of the political party system in force until then. [ 28 ]
National Revolution of 1952
Between 1935 and 1946, Bolivia is ruled by nationalist soldiers who had been protagonists of the Chaco War . Ideas for change are being developed to include the indigenous sector, promote the integration of the eastern part of the country, and reverse the profits from mining and hydrocarbons in favor of the State. Unions of miners and workers emerge that unite around the Central Obrera Boliviana (COB).
In the 1951 presidential elections, the exiled leader of the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (MNR), Víctor Paz Estenssoro , achieved almost half of the votes cast. However, the political-mining elite tries to prevent the election of Víctor Paz Estenssoro and President Mamerto Urriolagoitia hands over the government to a military junta headed by General Hugo Ballivián . In April 1952, multiple popular uprisings occurred that gave rise to the National Revolution , a process of transformations in citizen participation, the distribution of land, the control of the State over natural resources and the Bolivian economy.
Paz Estenssoro returns from exile to assume the presidency. Under his leadership, the government undertakes a broad program of economic reforms: it decrees the nationalization of the mines and the monopoly in the export of tin , the agrarian reform ( land parceling to distribute among the indigenous people), the exploration of oil wells by foreign companies. , the institution of the universal vote (it did not exist until that moment), the educational reform and the road link with the east (Cochabamba-Santa Cruz highway).
At the end of the 1950s, the Bolivian economy suffered from the continuous decline in tin prices on world markets and high rates of inflation . Tin mines are unprofitable and government efforts to reduce the number of state employees and restrict wages are met with resistance from the unions. In 1956, another protagonist of the National Revolution, Hernán Siles Zuazo wins the presidential elections.
Siles continues with the policy initiated by the Paz Estenssoro government, who was elected president again in 1960. In his second term, Paz Estenssoro requested the drafting of a new Constitution to increase the government's economic authority and allow his re-election. In 1964 he was reelected, appointing as vice president the chief of the Air Force , René Barrientos Ortuño . This fact ends up disintegrating the MNR and Paz Estenssoro is overthrown a month after his re-election as a result of an uprising that is carried out by miners and students. A military junta headed by its vice president, General René Barrientos, took over power .
The military government of René Barrientos carries out policies of economic development that allow the return of foreign investment to the tin mining industry . In 1966, Barrientos is put to the vote as a civil person, obtaining his election as president. During his tenure, he maintains an alliance with the military and peasants, but confronts the miners and workers. In 1967 a new Constitution is promulgated. That same year the Ñancahuazú Guerrilla broke out, commanded by Ernesto Che Guevara and defeated by the Bolivian Army .
After Barrientos' death by helicopter accident in 1969, a series of short-lived governments followed, most of them military, standing out the government of Juan José Torrez, on the left, who resumed relations with Cuba and Chile (then with the leftist president Salvador Allende). He tried to create a co-government with the Central Obrera Boliviana. He expelled some United States organizations from Bolivia. On August 21, 1971, Colonel Hugo Banzer Suárez led a coup that overthrew Juan José Torres .
Banzer's dissenting regime aligns itself with the anti-leftist current of the military governments of Argentina , Brazil , Chile , Paraguay and Uruguay, forming part of the Condor Plan . The labor movement is suppressed and the civil rights of the population are suspended. The de facto government is supported economically by the high prices of tin and hydrocarbons , as well as by a high external debt. In 1978 , Bánzer resigned after a long hunger strike started by women miners who led and participated in social organizations.
On July 17, 1980, General Luis García Meza carried out a coup with the support of paramilitaries recruited by the Nazi criminal Klaus Barbie and the Italian terrorist Stefano Delle Chiaie , [ 29 ] overthrowing the interim constitutional president Lidia Gueiler Tejada , and thus preventing the winner of the elections Hernán Siles Zuazo from assuming the presidency. [ 30 ]
The government of García Meza was characterized by the brutal repression of its opponents, registering arrests, murders and forced disappearances led by the Ministry of the Interior with Luis Arce Gómez at the head. The scant support of the population and the international community, as well as the evidence of ties to drug trafficking led the de facto government to its end in 1981. In 1982, the last military junta left power .
The 1980s are characterized by the return of democracy and a deep economic crisis caused by the fall in international tin prices , internal adjustments aimed at paying the immense external debt contracted by the military governments, and hyperinflation . The difficult economic situation allows the rise of drug trafficking due to the illegal production of cocaine whose main destination is the United States .
The leftist government of Hernán Siles Zuazo of the UDP (1982-1985) is characterized by a weak economic management incapable of reversing hyperinflation and by a political crisis whose solution is the advancement of the elections. In 1985, Víctor Paz Estenssoro of the MNR was elected president for the fourth time. His government (1985-1989) manages to stabilize the macroeconomy after promoting neoliberal policies that replace the statist model .
During the 1990s, successive governments continued the policies of stabilizing the macroeconomy, deepening the free market, and fighting drug trafficking . The governments of Jaime Paz Zamora of the MIR (1989-1993), Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada of the MNR (1993-1997), Hugo Bánzer Suárez of ADN (1997-2001) and Jorge Quiroga Ramírez(2001-2002) focus on diversifying the Bolivian economy highly dependent on tin exports. For this purpose , and taking into account the bankruptcy quasi of the economy after the hyperinflation of the 1980s, it is substantially increased external financing with international organizations like the IMF and the World Bank and privatized state enterprises of hydrocarbons , railways , telecommunications , electricity , air transport , among others. At the end of the 1990s, the export of gas to Brazil was completed , as well as the construction of theexport gas pipeline to that country and the economy begins to diversify through exports of natural gas , soybeans and zinc . Likewise, state management is decentralized through the Popular Participation Law, which grants autonomy and resources to the municipalities. Factors such as high levels of corruption , insufficient social inclusion measures and the economic deterioration due to contagion from the Asian crisis end up weakening the political system .
The first decade of the 21st century is characterized by a deep economic crisis and political instability. This allows the emergence of social movements , mainly indigenous peasants, miners, informal traders and coca growers that make the country ungovernable. The second term of Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada of the MNR (2002-2003) ends prematurely after the so-called gas war . Its vice president, Carlos Mesa Gisbert (2003-2005) assumed the presidency without support in Congress and with political pressure from the unions and the emerging autonomist movement, for which he resigned from office.Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé (2005-2006) assumes an interim position in which he calls general elections that give Evo Morales Ayma of the MAS as the winner .
Morales' first term (2006-2010) is characterized by the implementation of leftist nationalist and indigenist policies aligned with the policies of Presidents Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and Fidel Castro of Cuba . Is estatizan companies hydrocarbons , electricity and telecommunications in the past decade had been privatized . In 2006, a Constituent Assembly is installed to draft a new constitution. After a deep political crisisthat polarizes the country between supporters of the Government (mainly in the West) and followers of the demands of departmental autonomy and capital for Sucre (in the Bolivian East ), the Plurinational Constitution is approved by 164 of the 255 assembly members and later modified by Congress and endorsed by the population in a referendum .
At the end of 2009, Evo Morales is reelected president with more than two-thirds of the legislative majority. His second term is characterized by solid growth in the Bolivian economy driven by the so-called commodity super cycle , the deepening of statist policies and subsidy programs, and the first ruptures with political allies as a result of social conflicts such as the one related to the construction of the road through the TIPNIS national park .
In 2014, Evo Morales is reelected for a third term with 61% of the vote. This new presidential term is characterized by the continuity of public investment policies and the incentive of domestic demand, the slowdown in the economy due to the drop in commodity export prices and the drastic reduction in the volumes of natural gas exported to Brazil and Argentina .
The general elections of October 20, 2019 give rise to a strong social conflict [ 31 ] as a result of the disagreement with the electoral results as well as the allegation of fraud by the opposition candidate Carlos Mesa and various civic organizations such as the Santa Cruz Civic Committee . The conflict worsens after Evo Morales was declared the winner of the elections by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal [ 32 ] so that the government agrees to carry out an audit by the OAS , [ 33 ]It concludes that the electoral process was at odds with good practices and that the irregularities observed made it impossible to give certainty of the results. [ 34 ] Subsequently, the University of Michigan , CELAG , researchers at the MIT [ 35 ] [ 36 ] and various international organizations spoke belying the OAS report and assuming the election results valid. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] Because of the unrest, Morales announced the renewal of all the vowelsSupreme Electoral Tribunal and the call for new national elections, [ 39 ] but the Armed Forces [ 40 ] suggest that he resign from the presidency. [ 41 ] Evo Morales , his vice president Alvaro Garcia Linera and the president of the Senate Adriana Salvatierra forced to resign their positions and accept the offer of political asylum in Mexico after considering the life and physical integrity of Evo Morales he was in risk. [ 42 ]
On November 12, 2019, in the absence of the assembly members of the Movement for Socialism and the consequent lack of a parliamentary quorum, [ 43 ] and within the framework of the recognition of the Plurinational Constitutional Court on the basis of a 2001 ruling that endorses the assumption Presidency ipso facto to the vacancy of the same, [ 44 ] the second vice president of the Senate Jeanine Áñez is acting president proclaims in Bolivia with the aim of calling new elections . Due to the extraordinary condition in which Áñez took power, [ 45] The country was still immersed in protests at the national level that did not end with theresignation of Evo Morales. In the city ofSacaba, on November 15, five coca growers were killed during clashes with riot police. [ 46 ] Various sectors of the city ofEl Altoalso declared themselves against the Áñez government. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] From 22 of November of 252019a team of theCommissioninvestigated and found 36 deaths and more than 500 injuries in the towns of Senkata and Sacaba, caused by the alleged military repression endorsed by Decree 4078 promulgated by Jeanine Añez, which the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights describes as massacres . [ 49 ]
The general elections in Bolivia in 2020 were finally convened on 18 October to elect the president , vice president , senators and deputies . As president of Bolivia, Luis Arce , of the Movement for Socialism (MAS), was elected in the first round by an absolute majority.
Government and division of powers
|Sedes de los Órganos del Estado Boliviano|
Palacio de Gobierno, La Paz. Sede del Órgano Ejecutivo.
Palacio Legislativo, La Paz. Sede del Órgano Legislativo.
Palacio de Justicia, Sucre. Sede del Órgano Judicial.
Bolivia is constituted as a Social Unitary State of democratic law under a presidential regime . Although since the promulgation of the 2009 Constitution he has refused to call himself a " Republic ", his state institution, founded around democracy and the separation of powers , de facto implies a republican form of government. [ 4 ]
Bolivia is constituted in a Social Unitary State of Plurinational Community Law, free, independent, sovereign, democratic, intercultural, decentralized and with autonomies. Bolivia is founded on plurality and political, economic, legal, cultural and linguistic pluralism, within the integration process of the country.Political Constitution of the State (Article 1)
He calls himself plurinational in consideration of about forty indigenous ethnic groups living on its territory, including counted the Aymara , Quechua , Yuracares , Ayoreo , Canichanas , [ 51 ] guarayos , Guarani , Mosetenes , Tacana , morés , moxeños , Urus , reyesanos , esse ejjas , Tapiete , araonas , chiquitanos , Afrobolivians, [ 52 ] nahuas , [ 53 ] Pacahuaras , yaminahuas , Chacobos , Yuquis , Toromona , Baures , Itonamas , cayubabas , Weenhayek , machineris , Leco , Movimas , chimanes , guarasugues or pausernas , cavimeños , joaquinianos , Mojeños , Siriono between other
The Constitution establishes the division of powers into four governing bodies:
- Executive Body
- Composed of the president ( Head of State ), the vice president and the ministers of state . The President and Vice President are elected by universal suffrage and serve a five-year term. Both can be re-elected only once.
- Legislative Body
- The Plurinational Legislative Assembly is chaired by the Vice President of State. It is made up of two chambers: the Chamber of Senators with 36 members (four representatives from each department ) and the Chamber of Deputies with 130 members (half elected by direct vote and the other half indirectly elected from the list headed by the candidate. to president). Its faculty is to approve and sanction laws. The Constitution provides for special councils for indigenous peoples .
- Judicial authority
- Formed by the Supreme Court of Justice (highest instance of ordinary jurisdiction), Courts, Courts and the Council of the Magistracy . Justice is imparted in two types of jurisdictions: ordinary and native indigenous peasant. Constitutional justice is exercised by the Constitutional Court .
- Electoral Body
- Composed of the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (highest instance formed by seven members elected by the Plurinational Legislative Assembly), Departmental Courts, Electoral Courts, Table Courts and Electoral Notaries.
The Law of August 11, 1825, provides that the capital of Bolivía is the city of Sucre, not establishing the location of said city (the current city of Sucre was called Chuquisaca). The Law of July 1, 1826, establishes the city of Chuquisaca as the provisional capital of the country, until the place where it will be the true definitive capital is designated.
The Constituent Congress empowers the father of the country and founder of Bolivia, Simón Bolívar, to designate the site where the new city of Sucre is to be built; and while the necessary buildings for the government and legislative body are erected, Chuquisaca is declared the provisional capital of the Republic.Law of July 1, 1826
On July 12, 1839, the city of Chuquisaca (today Sucre) was established as the official capital of Bolivia, and from then on it was renamed from " city of Chuquisaca " to " city of Sucre ":
"The city of Chuquisaca is the Capital of the Republic and the natural seat of the three powers of the state: Executive, Legislative and Judicial, and according to the law of August 11, 1825 it will be called the city of Sucre from now on."Declaration Act, of July 12, 1839
After the triumph of La Paz over Sucre in the federal war of 1898-1899 , La Paz officially became the seat of the Executive and Legislative powers. The contest faced liberals from the north, who tried to establish a federative model ; Against conservatives from the south, who held the power of the Bolivian State with the support of the armed forces , who defended a model of unitary order , this dispute also arose over the question of defining the " Capital City " between La Paz and Sucre. This situation was established on October 25, 1899, the date on which General José Manuel Pando assumed the presidency of the Republic as a result of the triumph of the Federal Revolution. [ 54 ]
The 22 of July of 2007 took place called the Great Cabildo , where about two million people in the city of La Paz and El Alto endorsed the permanence of the government headquarters in this city. [ 55 ]
Since 2009, the Powers have become Bodies , the city of La Paz is established as the headquarters of the Executive, Legislative and Electoral Bodies; recognizing the city of Sucre, as the "historical capital of Bolivia", establishing itself as the seat of the Judicial Branch.
The political system is divided into three groups: left , center and right , with different tendencies within these groups, such as radicals , extremists , moderates , indigenists , among others. As in many Latin American countries , caudillismo , populism and the emergence of social movements of workers and peasants have been factors that gave rise to political organizations. The body in charge of regulating electoral political participation is the Plurinational Electoral Body(OEP). [ 56 ]
Participatory and representative democracy
- Through the referendum , the citizen legislative initiative , the revocation of the mandate , the assembly , the council and prior consultation .
- Through the election of representatives by universal, direct and secret vote. Bolivians have the right to vote from the age of 18.
- By means of the election, designation or nomination of authorities and representatives by norms and procedures of the nations and native indigenous peasant peoples .
The Constitution can be completely reformed through the Constituent Assembly called by referendum either by citizen initiative with the signature of at least 20% of the electorate, by an absolute majority of the Plurinational Legislative Assembly, or by the Presidency of the State. The partial reform can be carried out by citizen initiative (signatures of at least 20% of the electorate) or by means of a reform law approved by two thirds of the Legislature. The reforms must be endorsed through an approving referendum.
The Bolivian Armed Forces comprises three branches: Bolivian Army (land), Bolivian Navy (naval) and Bolivian Air Force (air). The legal age for voluntary admissions is 18 and the period of service is mandatory and generally 12 months. [ 57 ] The Bolivian government spends less than 2% of its GDP on defense. [ 57 ]
Bolivia's foreign policy reflects a marked trend towards meeting the millennium goals such as social development and the fight against poverty. The search for external cooperation , attracting foreign direct investment to modernize institutions and improve infrastructure.
The Bolivian Constitution of 2009 establishes that Bolivia is a pacifist State that promotes the culture of peace, cooperation between peoples and the rejection of war as an instrument of conflict resolution. The installation of foreign military bases in its territory is prohibited .
In the field of regional integration, Bolivia is a full member of the OAS , the Andean Community of Nations (CAN), Unasur and an associate state of Mercosur . In terms of energy and physical integration, the country aspires to become one of the main energy centers in South America . The country is a member of other regional cooperation bodies such as ALADI , the Treaty of Rio , the Rio Group , the Amazon Treaty , the IDB and CAF .
|CESCR||CCPR [ 61 ]||CERD [ 62 ]||CED||CEDAW [ 64 ]||CAT||CRC||MWC||EARL [ 68 ]|
|Signed and ratified, signed, but not ratified, neither signed nor ratified, No information, has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.|
In accordance with the provisions of the Political Constitution of the State, the Framework Law of Autonomies and Decentralization regulates the procedure for the elaboration of Autonomous Statutes and Organic Charts, the transfer and distribution of direct and shared competences between the central level and decentralized territorial entities and autonomous . [ 70 ] There are four levels of decentralization:
- Departmental Government
- Constituted by a Departmental Assembly , with deliberative, supervisory and legislative powers at the departmental level. The Departmental Executive Body is directed by the Governor who is elected by universal suffrage.
- Municipal government
- Constituted by a Municipal Council , with deliberative, supervisory and legislative powers at the municipal level. Its executive body is chaired by the Mayor who is elected by universal suffrage.
- Regional government
- Made up of several provinces or municipalities with geographic continuity and without transcending departmental boundaries. It is constituted by a Regional Assembly with deliberative, normative-administrative and supervisory powers at the regional level.
- Peasant Native Indigenous Government
- Self-government of indigenous peoples in ancestral territories that they currently inhabit.
|Territorial organization of Bolivia|
|Department|| Abbreviation |
( ISO )
|Population||Surface (km²)||Density||Capital (Hab.)||Map|
|Total Bolivia||BO||10 027 254||1 098 581||9,13|| Sucre (Constitutional) |
Our Lady of La Paz (Government Headquarters)
|Me||BO-B / BNI||421 196||213 564||1,97||Trinidad (106.422)|
|Chuquisaca||BO-H / CHQ||576 153||51 524||11,18||Sugar (259,388)|
|Cochabamba||BO-C / CBA||1 758 143||55 631||31,6||Cochabamba City (630,587)|
|Peace||BO-L / LPZ||2 706 351||133 985||20,2||Our Lady of La Paz (764.617)|
|Oruro||BO-O / ORU||494 178||53 558||9,22||City of Oruro (264,683)|
|Pando||BO-N / PND||110 436||63 827||1,73||Cobija (46 267)|
|Potosi||BO-P / PSI||823 517||118 218||6,97||Imperial Villa of Potosí (189.652)|
|Santa Cruz||BO-S / SCZ||2 655 084||370 621||7,16||Santa Cruz de la Sierra (1 453 549)|
|Tarija||BO-T / TJA||482 196||37 623||12,82||City of Tarija (205,346)|
|Source: National Population and Housing Census 2012, INE . [ 16 ]|
Bolivia limits to the north and east with the Federative Republic of Brazil . To the east and southeast with the Republic of Paraguay , to the south with the Argentine Republic , to the southwest with the Republic of Chile , to the west with the Republic of Peru . The total perimeter of the borders reaches 7252 kilometers. [ 6 ]
- Boundaries with Argentina
- This international border begins at Cerro Zapaleri and ends at Esmeralda (tripartite border point between Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia). The main border points are Cerro Panizo , Cerro Malpaso , Villazón , Bermejo , Fortín Campero , Yacuiba and Fortín D'Orbigny on the Pilcomayo River .
- Boundaries with Brazil
- The current boundary between Bolivia and Brazil was achieved after the signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis in 1903, which in addition to formalizing the final peace between the two countries, stipulated the territorial cession to Brazil by Bolivia of 191,000 km² , which they add to the 164,242 km² of territory ceded after the signing of the Treaty of Ayacucho in 1867. It begins in Bolpebra and ends in Bahía Negra (tripartite boundary between Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia). The main border points are still Brasiléia located in front of Cobija , Fortín Manoa near the Madera River , Villa Bellaat the confluence of the Beni and Mamoré rivers , Cerro Cuatro Hermanos , San Matías , the La Gaiba , Mandioré , Cáceres and Puerto Gutiérrez Guerra lagoons on the Paraguay river .
- Limits with Chile
- The current boundary between Bolivia and Chile was delimited by the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1904 . The document stipulated the transfer of sovereignty of the Bolivian littoral to Chile, leaving the country without marine coasts. The boundary drawn begins in Visviri (tripartite milestone between Chile, Peru and Bolivia) and ends in Zapaleri (tripartite milestone between Argentina, Chile and Bolivia). The main points of the border are the volcanoes Licancabur , Ollagüe and the hills of Payachata ). The border cuts off some natural water currents such as the Lauca River , which has generated conflicts over the use of its waters.
- Boundaries with Paraguay
- It begins in Esmeralda and ends in Bahía Negra (a tripartite landmark between Paraguay, Brazil and Bolivia) on the Negro River that flows into the Paraguay River . The main border points are Cerro Ustares , Palmar de las Islas , Hito Chovoreca and Cerrito Jara .
- Limits with Peru
- It begins in Bolpebra (tripartite milestone between Peru, Brazil and Bolivia) and ends in Choquecota (tripartite border between Peru, Chile and Bolivia). The most important border points are Puerto Heath on the Madre de Dios River , Nudo de Apolobamba , Puerto Acosta from where the border line begins to be drawn on Lake Titicaca , Copacabana peninsula and Desaguadero .
By losing its extension of maritime coast known as the Littoral Department after the War of the Pacific , Bolivia has historically maintained as a state policy the territorial claim to Chile of a sovereign exit to the Pacific Ocean and its maritime space. The 2009 Political Constitution establishes that the Bolivian State declares its inalienable right to access the sea and that its objective is to settle the maritime dispute peacefully. [ citation required ]
Since the founding of the UN in 1945, Bolivia has asked the General Assembly to consider its request to regain a free and sovereign exit to the Pacific Ocean . It has also presented the matter before the OAS , obtaining in 1979 Resolution 426 [ 71 ] that defines the Bolivian maritime lockdown as a hemispheric problem.
- Access to the Pacific Ocean through Chile
- On April 4, 1884, a truce treaty is signed with Chile , by which Chile provides access facilities for Bolivian products through the Port of Antofagasta, freeing Bolivian products exported in Arica from the payment of export duties. [ citation needed ] On October 20, 1904, the definitive Peace Treaty was signed , in which Chile undertook to build a railway from Arica to La Paz to facilitate Bolivian trade, the granting of credits, and free transit rights to ports. in the Pacific and the payment of 300 thousand pounds sterling. [ citation required ]
- Access to the Pacific Ocean - Boliviamar (Ilo, Peru)
- The Special Economic Zone for Bolivia in Ilo (ZEEBI) consists of the transfer of 5 km of coastline and a territorial extension of 358 ha (3.58 km²) called Mar Bolivia in which Bolivia can use a free zone of the port of Ilo for its administration and performance. [ 72 ] for a period of 99 years renewable from 1992, after which all construction and territory passes back to Peru. [ citation required ]
- Access to the Atlantic Ocean - Paraná River (Rosario, Argentina)
- Since 1964, Bolivia has port facilities in the Bolivian Free Zone in Rosario . Given the urban need and its little use, its transfer to Villa Constitución , within the province of Santa Fe , or another port of Buenos Aires is promoted .
For decades Bolivia has maintained its demand for a solution to its Mediterranean situation before various forums . Chile has historically maintained a position, on the one hand, to pose this problem only as a bilateral matter (without recognizing the participation of mediating bodies) and, on the other, the idea of granting maritime access facilities, but without giving up territorial sovereignty. [ citation required ]
In 2013, Bolivia sues Chile in the International Criminal Court in The Hague, to force Chile to negotiate a sovereign exit to the sea, the ruling was in favor of Chile, discarding all points of the Bolivian state.
Order of the Condor of the Andes
The Order of the Condor of the Andes is the highest distinction granted by Bolivia.
Bolivia is located in the central zone of South America , between the meridians 57º 26´ and 69º 38´ of western longitude of the Greenwich meridian and the parallels 9º 38´ and 22º 53´ of south latitude therefore it covers more than 13º geographic . Its 1,098,581 km² of surface [ 6 ] extend from the Central Andes , passing through part of the Chaco to the Amazon . The geographical center of the country is located in the area of Puerto Estrella on the Rio Grande in the province of Ñuflo de Chaves , located in the department of Santa Cruz ,
The geographical location of the country allows you to understand a wide variety of landforms and climates. Bolivia has one of the most important forest areas in the world, with more than 36 million hectares of primary forest , according to data from 2015. [ 73 ] There is a wide biodiversity (considered among the largest in the world), as well as different ecoregions and ecological subunits such as the Altiplano , the Amazon plain , the dry valleys , the Yungas and the Chiquitanas mountains that are framed in diverse altitudinal variations ranging from 6542m asl from Nevado Sajama to 70 m asl near the Paraguay River . Despite the variety of geographical contrasts, Bolivia has no coastline on the ocean (a condition acquired after the War of the Pacific ).
Bolivia can be divided into three physiographic regions:
- Andean region in the southwest
- it covers 28% of the national territory with an area of 307 603 km² . This area is more than 3000 m above sea level , located between the two major Andean branches: the Occidental and Oriental or Real mountain ranges , which have some of the highest peaks in America such as Nevado Sajama with 6542 m asl and Illimani with 6462 m asl. Here is Lake Titicaca , the highest navigable lake in the world located at 3810 m above sea level, with an area of 8100 km² and shared with Peru . Also located in the altiplano the Salar de Uyuni , which is the depositsalt and the world's largest lithium reservoir .
- Sub-Andean region in the center-south
- intermediate region between the altiplano and the eastern plains that covers 13% of the territory (142,815 km²), and includes the valleys and the Yungas (2,500 meters above sea level). It is characterized by its agricultural activity and its temperate to warm climate (15 to 25 ° C). This region includes the Bolivian valleys and Los Yungas .
- Llanos region in the northeast
- it covers 59% of the national surface with an area of 648,163 km² and is located north of the Eastern or Real mountain range , which extends from the foot of the Andes to the Paraguay River . It is a land of plains and low plateaus, covered by extensive forests rich in flora and fauna. The region is characterized by being at an altitude of less than 400 m above sea level, having extensive rivers and the greatest biodiversity in the country. It registers an annual average temperature of 22 to 25 ° C.
Bolivia has three basins that collect the waters that flow into the slopes of the Atlantic (exorheic) , the Altiplano (endorheic) and, to a lesser extent, in the Pacific as is the case of the Silala River , whose waters are in dispute with Chile . [ 74 ]
- Amazon Basin or North
- 724,000 km² / 66% of the territory. The rivers in this basin usually have abundant and meandering flows , which is why multiple lakes and lagoons tend to form, such as the Murillo lagoon , located in the department of Pando . The main Bolivian tributary is the Mamoré river with a length of 2000 km, which runs north to the confluence with the 1113 km long Beni river , the second most important river in the country, with which the Madera or Madeira river forms the main one. tributary of the Amazon River . From east to west it is made up of other important rivers such as Madre de Dios, Orthon , Abuná , Yata and Iténez or Guaporé . For their part, the most important lakes and lagoons are the Rogaguado and the Rogagua . The average annual rainfall in this part of the territory is 1814 mm / year. [ 75 ]
- River Plate or South Basin
- 229,500 km² / 21% of the territory. The tributaries are generally less mighty than the Amazonian ones. Composed mainly by the Paraguay , Pilcomayo and Bermejo rivers . The most important lagoons are: Uberaba and Mandioré located in the Bolivian Pantanal region . The average annual rainfall in this part of the territory is 854 mm / year. [ 75 ]
- Lacustrine or Central Basin
- 145 081 km² / 13% of the territory. The Altiplano has a large number of rivers, lakes, lagoons and springs that do not flow into any ocean because they are enclosed by the Andes mountain range that delimits the region. The most important river is the Desaguadero, which with its 436 km in length is the longest of the highland rivers, it is born in Lake Titicaca , the highest in the world (3,810 m asl), and runs in a southeastern direction in Lake Poopó ( 3686 m asl). Formed by the Titicaca and Poopó lakes, and the Desaguadero river and large salt flats such as Coipasa and Uyuni. Due to its tourist attraction, the Verde , Blanca lagoons are importantand Colorada located south of Potosí . In this basin there are large salt lakes like the Salar de Uyuni ( 12,000 km² ) is the desert of salt and deposition of lithium largest the world, or the Salar de Coipasa (2218 km²). The average annual rainfall in this part of the territory is 421 mm / year. [ 75 ]
|Main Elevations, Rivers and Lakes of Bolivia|
|N°||Name|| Elevation |
|N°||Name|| Length |
|N°||Name|| Surface |
| Notes: |
1 = Lake Titicaca has a total area of 8562 km² of which 3790 km² belong to Bolivia.
|Source: National Geographic Institute (IGN)|
Bolivia's climate varies greatly between ecoregions , from tropical conditions in the eastern plains to a polar climate in the western Andes . Summers are hot, humid in the East and dry in the West with rains that modify the temperature, humidity, wind, atmospheric pressure , and evaporation, giving rise to different climates. When the climatological and erratically cyclical phenomenon occurs called El Nino [ 76 ] [ 77 ]Generates great alterations in the climate. Winters in the West are quite cold with snow near the mountains, while the lowlands tend to have windy days. Autumn is dry in non-tropical regions. The climatic variations by regions occur as follows:
- Humid tropical climate with an average temperature of 30 ° C. The winds coming from the Amazon rainforest cause significant rainfall. Starting in May, dry winds produce minimal precipitation so the days are clear. In winter, strong winds from the south, called surazos , intrude , which can bring cool temperatures for several days.
- Arid - polar climate that is swept away by strong and cold winds. The average temperature is between 15 to 20 ° C. At night, temperatures drop drastically and are just above 0 ° C, while at noon the climate is dry and the intensity of solar radiation is greater. Frosts occur almost every month and snow is frequent.
- Valleys and Yungas
- The climate is temperate . The humid northeast winds are pushed towards the mountains, making this area humid and rainy. Temperatures drop with increasing height, however snowfall is possible at elevations that oscillate 2550 m asl.
- Semi-tropical, semi-arid climate. It presents rain and humidity during January and the other months are dry with hot days and cool nights. The maximum temperature recorded in Bolivia was 47 ° C and it occurred in this area. Surazos also affect this region.
Bolivia is considered a megadiverse country , [ 78 ] as it is among the countries in the world with the greatest variety of living beings , ecosystems, and genetic differences within each species that allow the combination of multiple life forms.
Its altitude gradient, which ranges between 90 and 6542 m asl , allows for this wide biological diversity. Its territory includes 4 types of biomes , 32 ecological regions and 199 ecosystems . The ecosystems of the Amazon , the Yungas ), the Chiquitanía , the Chaco and the inter-Andean forests stand out. In this megadiverse geographic space, different natural reserves coexist such as national parks : Noel Kempff Mercado , Madidi , Tunari , Eduardo Abaroa, Kaa-Iya , among others.
The biodiversity of species is divided into:
By having more than 20,000 species with seeds , of which more than 1,200 species of ferns are estimated , more than 1,500 species of liverworts or mosses , and at least eight hundred species of fungi . In addition, more than 3000 species of medicinal plants, so that Bolivia is considered the place of origin of species known as locotos , chilies , peppers , peanuts , bean or Phaseolus vulgaris , cassava or manioc and several varieties of palms. On the other hand, more than 4000 varieties of potatoes are produced on their lands in a wide range of colors, shapes and sizes.
Among the ten most diverse countries with more than 2900 species, distributed in: 398 of mammals , more than 1400 birds (70% of known birds in the world, 6th country with the highest number of species [ 79 ] ), 204 of amphibians , 277 reptiles and 635 fish in freshwater , since the country does not have access to the drink . In addition, more than 3,000 species of butterflies have been identified , making the country fourth in the world. There are also more than 50 species of domestic animals .
Despite the fact that the Bolivian territory is only home to around 3.5% of the world's forests , the country's biological diversity represents between 30 and 40% of the world total. A high percentage of the flora and fauna species are endemic since they only inhabit the delimited area. The highest concentration of endemic plants are found in the Andes . More specifically in the Yungas and the inter-Andean dry valleys.
In the last fifty years the Bolivian population has tripled, reaching an annual growth rate of 2.25%. The population increase in the intercensal periods 1950 - 1976 and 1976 - 1992 . The annual growth rate for the first intercensal period was 2.05% between 1976-1992, while the growth at the last census of 2001 reached 2.74% per year.
64% of Bolivians live in urban areas and the remaining 36% in rural areas. Most of the country's population is concentrated in the departments of Santa Cruz , Cochabamba , and La Paz, which comprise more than 70% of the Bolivian population. In the altiplano region , the departments of the Department of La Paz and Potosí concentrate the largest proportion of the population. In the valleys the departments of Cochabamba and Chuquisaca have the highest proportion of population and in the plains this occurs with the departments of Santa Cruz and Beni. The population density is 8.49 inhabitants per square km, with variations between 0.8 in the department of Pando and 26.2 in the department of Cochabamba . With population growth, the density has also been increasing in each intercensal period.
The highest concentration of population occurs in the so-called "central axis" of the country and in the area of the plains. Bolivia is characterized by having a young population. According to the 2001 census, 54% of the inhabitants are between 15 and 59 years old, 39% are under 15 years old and of them a third are under 5 years old. Almost 60% of the population is under 25 years of age, adolescents (10-20 years) represent 23% and women of childbearing age (15-49 years) are almost half of all women in the country.
According to the International Organization for Migration, there are approximately 1.6 million Bolivians who have emigrated abroad in search of better living conditions. [ 80 ] The traditional migration countries have been Argentina , Chile and the United States . However, in the 1990s most of Bolivian migration went to Spain , where an estimated 230,000 Bolivians reside . [ 81 ]
|Santa Cruz de la Sierra||Peace||Cochabamba||Sugar|
|Ten Most Populous Cities|
|1||Santa Cruz de la Sierra||Santa Cruz||1 473 457||6||Sugar||Chuquisaca||259 388|
|2||The tall||Peace||848 840||7||Potosi||Potosi||205 346|
|3||Peace||Peace||764 617||8||Tarija||Tarija||189 652|
|4||Cochabamba||Cochabamba||630 587||9||Took out||Cochabamba||169 494|
|5||Oruro||Oruro||264 683||10||Quillacollo||Cochabamba||137 029|
|Source: National Population and Housing Census 2012, INE . [ 82 ]|
|Levels of the Bolivian Educational System|
|Initial level||Preschool education|
|Level 1||Primary education|
|Level 2||Secondary education|
|Upper level||Higher education|
The school population at the initial level is approximately 200,000 students in the period 2005. In the primary sector, there is a school population of approximately 1,600,000 for the same period, while young people enrolled in secondary school reach 400,000 students. .
The coverage of the Educational System reaches about 85% of the population and the majority are found in public establishments 2,100,000 inhabitants, showing that the demand for public services in the educational field is very great.
The permanence of the school population (6 to 19) shows that 92% of the population that declared having basic level continues to study and represents 65% of the attendees. When analyzing the reasons for non-attendance of the school population by sex, it is concluded that women are those who attend the school system the least in relation to the male population. The main reason for the absence of both boys and girls is the need to work. In rural areas, the lack of relevant educational offer is a reason for non-attendance. For example, the shortage of schools with more than the third grade of primary school. The absence of secondary school in rural areas is particularly notorious and therefore the reason why those who cannot migrate to urban areas to attend secondary school, drop out of the school system.
96% of the population is literate . Being one of the Latin American countries with the least illiterate. [ 83 ] The Bolivian government's literacy programs in recent years have improved this indicator.
On December 12, 2009, the national government announced the completion of a literacy program through which, since 2006, 820,000 people across the country have become literate , most of them peasants and indigenous people. [ 84 ]
The educational organization is made up of levels and modalities according to the bases, aims and objectives of education. This organization is based on the biopsychosocial development of the students and the characteristics of each region of the country.
The levels of the Educational System are gradual, according to the educational process itself, with its own objectives and depending on the different stages of development of the students. There is still a pending task, which is the change in the educational structure regarding a new master plan that addresses this task. There is a debate about the so-called Avelino Siñani law, which would greatly reform the national educational system and which faces various opposition groups, including the same teachers who complain that they were not consulted for the development of this educational standard.
The following list shows the complete Web Ranking of Universities, Webometrics 2021 [ 86 ] of the 56 Universities that offer Higher Education in Bolivian territory . Prepared by the Spanish Higher Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), this ranking takes into consideration 3 axes for scoring the different Universities. Academic excellence that accounts for 40% of the score (percentage of most cited academic and scientific articles in 27 disciplines from the scimago lab database) [ 87 ] 50% score for the visibility of the impact of the content and 10% scoring by top academic-scientific researchers.
|Webometrics Ranking of World Universities 2021 Bolivianas [ 88 ]|
|Belonging to indigenous-native peoples ¹|
|Belongs ( indigenous )||37 %|
|Does not belong ( mestizo , white or black )||63 %|
|Ethnic Self-Identification (according to The World Factbook ) ²|
|Do not know not answer||3 %|
|Ethnic self-identification (according to the 2012 census). [ 89 ]|