Brazil - Brasil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ] (en Portuguese : Federative Republic of Brazil, pron. IPA ['e'publikɐ fedeɾaˈt͡ʃivɐ 'dʊ braˈziw] ( listen ) ), is a sovereign country in South America comprising the eastern half of the subcontinent and some groups of small islands in the Atlantic Ocean . It is the largest country in Latin America .
With an estimated area of more than 8.5 million km² , [ 3 ] it is the fifth largest country in the world in total area (equivalent to 47% of the South American territory). [ 12 ] Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7491 km. [ 3 ] To the north it limits with the French overseas department of French Guiana , Suriname , Guyana and Venezuela ; to the northwest with Colombia ; to the west with Peru and Bolivia; to the southwest with Paraguay and Argentina , and to the south with Uruguay . In this way, it borders all the countries of South America, except Ecuador and Chile . [ 13 ] Most of the country is included between the terrestrial tropics , so the climatic seasons are not felt in a radical way in much of its territory. The Amazon rainforest covers 3.6 million km² of the territory. Thanks to its vegetation and climate, it is one of the countries with the most species of animals in the world.
Brazil, until then inhabited by indigenous people , had its first contact with Europeans in 1500 AD through a Portuguese expedition led by Pedro Álvares Cabral . After the Treaty of Tordesillas , the Brazilian territory was the segment of the American continent that corresponded to the kingdom of Portugal , from which it obtained its independence on September 7, 1822. Thus, the country went from being a central part of the kingdom of Portugal to an empire to finally become a republic . Its first capital was Salvador de Bahia, which was replaced by Rio de Janeiro until a new capital, Brasilia , was built . Its current constitution , formulated in 1988, defines Brazil as a presidential federative republic . [ 11 ] The federation is formed by the union of the Federal District , the 26 states and the 5570 municipalities . [ 11 ] [ 15 ] [ Note 1 ]
Despite the fact that its more than 210 million inhabitants [ 17 ] make Brazil the fifth most populous country in the world, it has a low population density index . This is because most of the population is concentrated along the coast , while the interior of the territory is still marked by huge demographic gaps. The official language and the most widely spoken is Portuguese , which makes it the largest Portuguese - speaking country in the world. [ 13 ] For its part, the religion with the most followers is Catholicism, being the country with the largest number of nominal Catholics in the world. Brazilian society is considered a multi-ethnic society as it is made up of European , indigenous , African and Asian descendants .
The Brazilian economy is the largest in Latin America and the southern hemisphere , the sixth largest in the world by nominal GDP and the seventh largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). [ 18 ] [ 19 ] It is considered an economy of upper-middle income by the World Bank and newly industrialized country , which has the largest share of global wealth in Latin America due to the abundant oil and various minerals easily found in the country .[ 20 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ] However, abundant wealth is highly concentrated, making the country one of the most unequal in the world, [ 23 ] the richest 10% of the population received 54% of national income in 2018. [ 24 ] Asa regionaland medium power, the nation has international recognition and influence, being also classified as anemergingglobal powerand as a potentialsuperpowerby several analysts. [ 25 ] [ 26]
The country is a founding member of the United Nations (UN), G20 , Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), Latin Union , Organization of American States (OAS), Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), Mercado Common of the South (Mercosur) and of the Union of South American Nations (Unasur), in addition to being one of the BRIC countries .
Originally, the word "Brazil" means baldness. A theory spread by the philologist Adelino José da Silva Azevedo, postulates that it is a word of Celtic origin , barkino - which was translated into Spanish as "barcino" - although in it he accepted that the most remote mention of the term could be found in the language of the ancient Phoenicians . This word was used to name a red dye used by this civilization. The oldest written mention of the word is found in an Italian document from 1193, which includes grana de brasil in a list of merchandise. [ 27 ] In the 15th and 16th centuries it was used to refer to thepalo brasil , name given to an arboreal species from which a reddish-colored wood is obtained , used in cabinetmaking and for dyeing textiles. [ 28 ]
After the discovery of America by the Spanish, the region in which there was a tree ( Caesalpinia echinata ) used by the Amerindians of the jungles of the Brazilian coast ( Mata Atlântica ) began to be called Brazil , called by the Portuguese such a pau tree. -brazil . This tree gave off a reddish color when boiled in water, reminiscent of the flames of a fire, or the embers of burning coal. Hence the name to the terra do pau-brasil .
During the colonization of Brazil by the Portuguese crown, the Portuguese exported this new dye to dye their clothes in old Europe . Its desire for economic benefits led to the extinction of Pau-Brazil in almost the entire Brazilian territory. Currently, there are government programs for the recovery of the tree that has given its name to the third largest country in America .
As for the existence of the " Great Island of Brazil ", the Portuguese maintained for a long time (practically until the middle of the 18th century ) that it really did exist and that it was separated from the American continent by the Orinoco , Paraguay , Paraná and Río de la Plata , thus claiming all the territories framed between such rivers.
Beginning in 1500, the Portuguese quickly announced the discovery of present-day Brazil, but initially called it "Land of the Holy Cross." The chroniclers of the colonial era, such as João de Barros , Vicente do Salvador and Pero de Magalhães Gândavo , agreed that the name change to "Brazil" took place when Brazilwood wood from the newly discovered territory began to arrive in Portugal . [ 29 ]
Before taking its definitive name, the current territory of Brazil was designated in different ways: Monte Pascual (when the Portuguese first sighted the terrain), Isla de Vera Cruz, Tierra de Santa Cruz, Nueva Lusitania, Cabralia, etc. During the time of the empire, the official name of the country was " Empire of Brazil " and later, when the republic was proclaimed, it was called " United States of Brazil ." [ 30 ] In 1967, with the first Constitution of the military government that began in 1964 , Brazil was officially renamed the "Federative Republic of Brazil", a name that the 1988 Constitution retained after the return of democracy.
Pre-colonial period, Portuguese colonization and territorial expansion
Vicente Yáñez Pinzón was the first European navigator to arrive in Brazil. He discovered the coasts of the extreme north of Brazil in January 1500, three months before the arrival of the fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral .  Yáñez's expedition reaches Cabo de Consolación and, following the northeast coast, reaches the Amazon River named Santa María de la Mar Dulce .
Shortly before the Europeans arrived, it is estimated that the eastern coast of South America that lies in the present territory of Brazil was inhabited [ 31 ] by about two million indigenous people. [ 32 ] The Amerindian population was divided into large indigenous nations, in turn made up of various ethnic groups, among which the Tupi- Guarani , the Macro-jê and the Aruacos stood out . The former were subdivided into guaraníes , tupiniquines and tupinambás , among others. The tupisthey extended between the present territories of the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Rio Grande do Norte . [ 33 ] The Portuguese found the natives still in the Stone Age and divided into various tribes , most of which belonged to the Tupi-Guarani linguistic family , and who constantly fought each other. [ 34 ] According to Luís da Câmara Cascudo , the Tupis were "the first indigenous race that had contact with the colonizers and (...) led to their greater presence, such as the influence on the Mamluk, in the mestizo and in the Portuguese-Brazilian who was born and in the European who remained. " [ 35 ]
The settlement was officially started in 1534, when John III divided the territory into twelve hereditary captaincies , [ 36 ] [ 37 ] but due to several problems with this system, in 1549 King John III appointed a governor general for manage the entire colony. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes, [ 39 ]While others were enslaved or exterminated by prolonged wars or by epidemics caused by diseases brought by Europeans, to which the natives had no immunity. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] In the middle of the sixteenth century, sugar became the most important export product of Brazil, [ 34 ] [ 42 ] and the African slave trade by the Portuguese began to increase [ 43 ] [ 44 ] in response to increasing global demand.
Through various wars against the French , the Portuguese slowly expanded their territory to the southeast , seizing Rio de Janeiro in 1567, and to the northwest, taking São Luís in 1615. [ 46 ] In this way, they sent several military expeditions in 1669 towards Amazonia and conquered the English and Dutch fortresses , founding villages and new fortresses. [ 47 ] In 1680 they extended the controlled territory in the extreme south of the country by founding the Colonia del Sacramentoon the left bank of the Río de la Plata , in present-day Uruguay . [ 48 ] However, the Brazilian territorial expansion towards the south caused multiple conflicts, among them the war with the Jesuit missions , which had a semi-autonomous organization, and the subsequent Guaranitic War . [ 49 ]
At the end of the seventeenth century, sugar exports began to decline, [ 50 ] but around 1693, the discovery of gold deposits in the region that would later be called Minas Gerais , as well as the exploitation of other mines in Mato Grosso and Goiás in the following decades, saved the colony from imminent economic collapse. [ 51 ] Thousands of immigrants from the coast of Brazil and Portugal moved to the mines. [ 52 ] The SpanishThey tried to prevent the expansion of the Portuguese within the territory that belonged to them in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494, and managed to reconquer the Banda Oriental in 1777. However, the treaty of San Ildefonso signed that same year confirmed sovereignty Portuguese over almost all the lands occupied during its territorial expansion, except the Eastern Band, [ 53 ] configuring most of the current Brazilian borders . [ 54 ]
In 1808, the Portuguese royal family - and the Portuguese nobility - fled from the troops of the French emperor , Napoleon Bonaparte , who was invading Portugal and most of Central Europe , and settled in the city of Rio de Janeiro, which of thus it became the capital de facto of the Portuguese Empire . [ 55 ] In 1815, John VI , then the Prince Regent of Portugal on behalf of his mother Maria I , elevated the State of Brazil , a Portuguese colony, to a sovereign Kingdom in union with Portugal. [ 55 ] In 1809, the Portuguese invaded French Guiana , which was finally returned to France in 1817, [ 56 ] and in 1816, the Banda Oriental, which was later renamed the Cisplatina Province . [ 57 ] In 1825, the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata began a war to recover it , which ended in 1828 by means of an agreement in which the independence of the province was provided. [ 58 ]
Independence and empire
Juan VI returned to Europe on April 26, 1821, leaving his first-born, Pedro de Alcántara , as Prince Regent. [ 59 ] The Portuguese government tried to transform Brazil into a colony once more, depriving it of the rights it had had since 1808. [ 60 ] The Brazilians refused to give in, and Pedro joined their cause, declaring the independence of the country on September 7, 1822. [ 61 ] On October 12, Pedro was declared the first emperor of Brazil and crowned Pedro I on December 1. [ 62 ]
Although the first attempts to free the country from Portuguese rule adopted republican ideals - as was the case with the Mining Conspiracy , led by Tiradentes - [ 63 ] in the 19th century almost all Brazilians were in favor of the monarchy , and the republicanism had little support. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] The War of Independence of Brazil spread across almost the entire territory, while the major battles were fought in the North, Northeast and South. [ 66 ]The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on March 8, 1824, [ 67 ] and independence was recognized by Portugal on August 29, 1825, in the treaty of Rio de Janeiro . [ 68 ]
After being approved by municipal councils across the country, on March 25, 1824, the first constitution was promulgated. [ 69 ] [ 70 ] [ 71 ] [ 72 ] On April 7, 1831, Pedro I abdicated when he returned to Europe to regain the throne of his family , leaving his five year old son as successor, Pedro II . [ 73 ] As the new emperor could not exercise his functions, a regency was created . [ 74 ]
Disputes between different political factions led to rebellions and an unstable and almost anarchic regency . [ 75 ] However, rebel groups were not against the monarchy , [ 76 ] [ 77 ] though some declared the secession of the provinces as independent republics, but only so long as Pedro II incapable of governing was. [ 78 ] The most notorious case was that of Río Grande del Sur and Santa Catarina , which, through the War of the Farrapos, they proclaimed themselves independent from the Brazilian Empire. [ 79 ] Because of this, Pedro II was prematurely declared emperor and "Brazil enjoyed nearly half a century of internal peace and rapid economic progress." [ 80 ]
During the 59 years of the reign of Pedro II, Brazil was victorious in three international wars - the Great War , the War against Aguirre and the War of the Triple Alliance -, [ 81 ] in addition to witnessing the consolidation of representative democracy , mainly due to successive elections and freedom of the press . [ 82 ]
The slavery was extinguished in a slower but steady process that began in 1850 with the purpose of the international slave trade, [ 83 ] and ended with the complete abolition of slavery in 1888. [ 84 ] However, since the independence, the slave population was experiencing a decline: in 1823, 29% of the population was made up of slaves, but by 1887 this percentage had dropped to 5%. [ 85 ]
When the Empire was overthrown on November 15, 1889, [ 86 ] there was little interest on the part of the Brazilian people to change the form of government from a monarchy to a republic , [ 87 ] as Pedro II was on the rise. of his popularity with his subjects. [ 88 ] [ 89 ] The military coup Republican was supported by former slave owners who refused to accept the abolition of slavery in 1888 agreed by the monarchical government. [ 90 ] [ 91 ]
The First Republic and the Vargas era
As originally the republican government was little more than a military dictatorship , the new Constitution promulgated in 1891 called direct elections for the year 1894. [ 30 ] This document also abolished the restrictions on the right to vote that existed in the monarchical period, when it was only granted to those who had a certain level of earnings, although it kept the open - and not secret - nature of the vote and, among other measures, only allowed the participation of literate men, at a time when the Most of the Brazilian population was illiterate. [ 93 ]
During the first period of republican government, Brazil maintained a peaceful and neutral foreign policy , which was only interrupted by the Acre War , [ 94 ] and the First World War . [ 95 ] [ 96 ] [ 97 ] Internally, after the crisis of the ensillamiento, [ Note 2 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ] [ 100 ] and Shaken of the Navy in 1891 [ 101] Began a prolonged cycle of financial, political and social instability that would extend until the 1920s, keeping the country ravaged by various rebellions that little by little undermined the regime. These include thePaulista Revolution, theCopacabana Fort Revolution, theManaus Communeand thePrestes Column. [ 102 ] [ 103 ] [ 104 ] [ 105 ] [ 106 ] [ 107 ] Finally, in 1930Getúlio Vargas , who had been a presidential candidate in that year's elections, led a coup and assumed the presidency of the republic with the support of the military. [ 108 ]
Vargas and the military, who said they assumed the presidency temporarily in order to implement democratic reforms, dissolved Congress and continued their mandate under a state of emergency , replacing the state governors with their allies. [ 109 ] [ 110 ] In 1932, under the pretext of implementing the promises of democratic reforms, the paulista oligarchy tried to regain power by a revolt, [ 111 ] and in 1935 the Communists rebelled, [ 112 ]But both movements were defeated. However, the communist threat served as a pretext to prevent the previously stipulated elections, and also for Vargas and the military to carry out another coup in 1937, establishing a dictatorship . [ 113 ] In May 1938 there was another failed attempt to seize power, this time by the Brazilian fascists . [ 114 ]
Brazil remained neutral during the first years of World War II , but various events and international pressures, where a possible invasion of the country was even analyzed, [ 115 ] led the country to align itself in favor of the United States during the Conference of Rio of 1942, breaking diplomatic relations with the Axis powers . [ 116 ] [ 117 ] In retaliation, armed of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italyextended their submarine warfare campaign to Brazil, and after months of continuous sinking of Brazilian merchant ships and intense public pressure, the government declared war in August of that year, [ 118 ] [ 119 ] but only in 1944 an expeditionary force was sent to fight in Europe. [ 120 ] [ 121 ] With the victory allied to the following year and the end of the two totalitarian regimes Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and was quickly deposed by another military coup. [ 122 ] In 1946, theDemocracy was restored and General Eurico Gaspar Dutra was elected president. [ 123 ] Vargas returned to power in the late 1950s when he was democratically elected, but committed suicide in August 1954, in the midst of a political crisis. [ 124 ] [ 125 ]
Military regime and contemporary era
Several short-lived provisional governments succeeded the late President Vargas. [ 126 ] Juscelino Kubitschek became the new president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory stance with the political opposition that allowed him to govern without major crises. [ 127 ] The economy and the industrial sector grew considerably, [ 128 ] but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital, Brasilia , inaugurated in 1960. [ 129 ] His successor, Jânio Quadros , resigned in 1961, less one year after taking office. [130 ] Its vice president, João Goulart , took the presidency, but aroused strong political opposition, [ 131 ] and was deposed by the 1964 Coup that resulted in a military regime . [ 132 ]
The new regime was intended to be transitory, [ 133 ] but it became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of Institutional Law Number Five of 1968. [ 134 ] The repression of opponents of the dictatorship, including the urban guerrillas, [ 135 ] it was harsh, but not as brutal as in other Latin American countries . [ 136 ] The military regime promoted the colonization of indigenous peoples' territories, squandered natural resources, set up concentration camps for indigenous peoples, and murdered at least 8,000 indigenous people. [ 137 ]Due to extraordinary economic growth, known as " the Brazilian miracle ", the regime reached its highest level of popularity in the years of greatest repression . [ 138 ]
General Ernesto Geisel assumed the presidency of the country in 1974 and began his redemocratization project through a process that, according to him, would be "slow, gradual, and safe." [ 139 ] [ 140 ] Geisel ended the military indiscipline that had plagued the country since 1889, [ 141 ] as well as the torture of political prisoners, censorship of the media and [ 142 ] in 1978, then to annul Institutional Law Number Five, with the dictatorship itself. [ 134 ] However, the military regime continued with his successor, General João Figueiredo, to complete the full transition to democracy. [ 143 ] The Truth Commission established in 2011 by the Brazilian government counted 434 fatalities and disappearances due to the dictatorship; [ 144 ] It also collected testimonies from those tortured - among whom was the future president Rousseff - while confirming the cooperation of some multinationals with interests in Brazil in political and union repression. [ 144 ]
Civilians completely returned to power in 1985 when, after the illness and death of President-elect Tancredo Neves , [ 145 ] unable to take office , [ 145 ] his vice-president, José Sarney, took his place . [ 146 ] Towards the end of his term, Sarney became extremely unpopular due to the economic crisis and uncontrolled inflation , [ 147 ] and in 1989, his mismanagement allowed the election of the almost unknown Fernando Collor , who resigned for three years. later after a corruption scandal. Collor was succeeded by his vice president, Itamar FrancoWho appointed as Minister of Finance to Fernando Henrique Cardoso , [ 148 ] who created the successful Real Plan , [ note 3 ] which brought stability to the Brazilian economy . [ 149 ]
Fernando Henrique Cardoso was elected as president in 1994 and again in 1998. [ 150 ] The peaceful transition of power for Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva , who was elected in 2002 and reelected in 2006, showed that Brazil finally managed to achieve political stability. [ 151 ] In 2010, Dilma Rousseff became the first woman elected president, the second person to reach the presidency without ever having contested an election before, and the first to reach the presidency with democratic fullness, after another democratic government that He served his full term. [ 152 ]During her second government, the economic and social situation deteriorated, which led to the breakdown of the alliance that had brought her to power; after a defeat in parliamentary elections, Roussef was suspended and subjected to impeachment [ 153 ] and subsequently removed from office. Vice President Michel Temer was left in charge of the government. [ 154 ] After three decades of leftist governments in political power in Brazil, in 2018 the disputed nationalist Jair Bolsonaro won the presidential elections and became the country's first conservative president since the end of the military dictatorship. 
Starting in 2013, there is a total change in Brazilian politics, with the overthrow of the left and the emergence of conservatism on the right . With the discovery that the PT governments have practically bankrupted Petrobras [ 157 ] , Correios [ 158 ] and many other state companies, through a great diversion of public funds and the use of their funds to bribe the National Congress , the Federal Senate and the Judiciary , in addition to the indiscriminate use of BNDESto finance socialist dictatorships in Cuba, Venezuela, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East [ 159 ] (with Lula and Dilma openly supporting controversial figures such as Hugo Chávez [ 160 ] , Nicolás Maduro [ 161 ] , Cristina Kirchner , José Mujica , Mahmoud Ahmadinejad [ 162 ] , Evo Morales [ 163 ] , Vladimir Putin [ 164 ] , Kim Jong-un and the Chinese Communist Party [165 ] , among others), also counting on Dilma Roussef's attempts to install "Popular Councils" to replace the power of federal deputies [ 166 ] , Jair Bolsonaro, a former soldier and candidate from the right, is freely elected. [ 167 ] Through the Operação Lava Jato , the Polícia Federal do Brasil has since acted on the deviations and corruption of the PT and the allied parties at that time.
government and politics
The Brazilian Federation is formed by the indissoluble union of three different political entities: the states , the municipalities , and the Federal District . [ 168 ] The Union is made up of the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities; they are the "spheres of government." The Federation is set on five fundamental principles: [ 11 ] sovereignty , citizenship , dignity of the person, the social values of work and free enterprise, and political pluralism . The classic division of power into three - executive ,legislative , and judicial - is officially established by the constitution. [ 11 ] The executive and the legislative are organized independently in the three spheres of government, while the judicial is only organized at the federal level and at the state and Federal District spheres. [ 169 ]
All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected. [ 170 ] [ 171 ] [ 172 ] Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing an entrance examination. [ 170 ] Voting is compulsory for literate citizens between the ages of 18 and 70, and is optional for illiterates and those 16 to 18 years of age or over 70 years of age. [ 11 ]
Brazil is a democratic republic with a presidential system . [ 11 ] The president is the Union's head of state and head of government , and is elected for a four-year term, [ 11 ] with the possibility of being re-elected for a second consecutive term. He is also responsible for the appointment of ministers of state , who help him in government. [ 11 ] The current president of the country is the president Jair Bolsonaro from 1 January 2019. [ 173 ]
The legislative headquarters of each political entity are the main sources of law in Brazil. The National Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federation, made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate . The judicial authorities only exercise jurisdictional functions, almost exclusively. [ 169 ]
Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress, this is because it is common for politicians to change parties and, thus, the proportion of parliamentary seats held by parties changes regularly. [ 174 ] Along with several smaller parties, four political parties stand out in the elections: the Workers' Party (PT) , the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) , the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB) and the Democrats (DEM) . Almost all governmental and administrative functions are carried out by authorities and agencies of the executive branch. [ 175 ]
The country has more than 40 active political parties, and only one of them is defined as a right-wing party ( PSL ), with a clear political imbalance. The country has several far-left parties such as PSOL , PCO , PSTU , PCB , PC do B , left-wing parties such as PT , PSB , PDT , PV , Rede and Solidariedade, and center-left such as PSDB , DEM , PMN and Cidadania . Ten parties declare the center: MDB ,PL , PSD , PTC , DC , PROS , Avante , Patriota , Podemos and PMB . Five parties declare themselves center-right: PTB , Progressistas , PSC , PRTB and Republicanos . The only political party that claims to be purely liberal, without further consideration, is Novo . When asked about their ideological spectrum, Brazilian parties tend to give obtuse and inconclusive answers on the subject. [ 176 ]
Brazilian law is based on the legal tradition of continental law . [ 177 ] Thus, the concepts of civil law prevail over the practices of Anglo-Saxon law . Most of the Brazilian legislation is codified , despite the fact that non-codified laws are a significant part of the system, playing a complementary role. The works of doctrine , by jurists or academics, have a strong influence on the creation of laws and judicial processes . The legal system has as its primary norm the Federal Constitution , which was promulgated on October 5, 1988 and is theBasic Law of the country. All other legal norms and court decisions must correspond to its principles. [ 178 ] The states have their own constitutions, which should not be in contradiction with the Federal Constitution. [ 179 ] For their part, the municipalities and the Federal District do not have their own constitutions, but organic laws . [ 180 ] Legislative entities are the main source of laws , although, on certain issues, agencies of the judiciary and executive can issue legal norms .
The administration of justice corresponds to the entities of the judicial power , although the Federal Constitution allows the Federal Senate to intervene in legal decisions on very special occasions. There are also specialized jurisdictions such as the military court , the labor court and the electoral court . The highest court is the Supreme Federal Court . During the last decades, this system has been criticized due to the slowness with which decisions are issued : judicial processesthey can take several years to resolve and, in some cases, it takes more than a decade before final judgments are rendered . [ 181 ]
Although some social and economic problems prevent Brazil from exercising effective global power, [ 182 ] the country is a political and economic leader in Latin America . [ 183 ] [ 184 ] However, this statement is partially rejected by other countries such as Argentina and Mexico , who oppose the Brazilian goal of obtaining a permanent place as a representative of the region in the United Nations Security Council . [ 185 ] Between World War IIand in the 1990s, democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world, following an industrial and independent foreign policy. Currently the country aims to strengthen its ties with other South American countries and exercise multilateral diplomacy, through organizations such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States . [ 186 ]
Brazil's current foreign policy is based on the country's position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and one of the emerging superpowers . [ 187 ] Brazil has also become a major donor of development aid at the international level. Its activity has been especially concentrated in Africa , where it allocates more than 60% of its aid. [ 188 ] Its relationship is remarkably strong with the Portuguese-speaking African countries, which receive more than 80% of Brazilian aid in Africa. [ 189 ]In general, Brazilian foreign policy has been reflected in multilateralism, the peaceful resolution of disputes and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries. [ 190 ] The Constitution also determines that the country must seek economic, political, social and cultural integration with the Latin American nations. [ 11 ] [ 182 ] [ 183 ] [ 184 ]
The Brazilian Armed Forces comprise the Brazilian Army , the Brazilian Navy, and the Brazilian Air Force . [ 11 ] The Brazilian Armed Forces are the largest military force in Latin America, the second largest in all of America, and also one of the best-prepared armed forces in the world. [ 191 ] State military police and military fire brigades are described by the Constitution as auxiliary forces and reserves of the army, [ 11 ] although they are under the control of state governments.[ 11 ] The Brazilian Air Force is theair warfaredivision ofthe Brazilian Armed Forces, the largest air force in Latin America, and has about 700mannedaircraftin service and a staff of about 67,000 military personnel. [ 192 ]
The Brazilian Navy is responsible for naval operations and the security of Brazilian territorial waters . It is the oldest component of the Armed Forces and has the largest number of naval riflemen in Latin America, estimated at 15,000 men, [ 193 ] who make up the Naval Rifle Special Operations Battalion. [ 194 ] The Brazilian Navy also has an elite group specialized in recovering ships and naval facilities, the Combat Divers Group, a unit specially trained to protect Brazilian oil rigs along its coast. [ 195 ]It is the last navy in Latin America in which an aircraft carrier operated , the NAe São Paulo (A-12) , [ 196 ] at a time when only ten navies in the world operated such a type of vessel. [ 197 ]
The Brazilian Army is in charge of military operations by land and has the largest number of troops in Latin America, about 290,000 soldiers . It also has the largest number of armored vehicles in South America, including armored personnel carriers and main battle tanks . [ 197 ] The army has a large elite unit specializing in unconventional missions, the Special Operations Brigade, unique in Latin America, [ 198 ] [ 199 ]plus a Rapid Action Force Strategic formed by highly mobilizable units and prepared (Brigade Special Operations Brigade parachute infantry, [ 200 ] [ 201 ] 1. er infantry battalion Selva [ 202 ] And the 12th Light Infantry Brigade [ 203 ] ) to act quickly in any part of the national territory, in case of external aggression. [ 204 ] In addition to the above, there are also specialist combat units in each of the biomescharacteristic of the Brazilian territory. [ 205 ] [ 206 ] [ 207 ] The units of the jungle are internationally renowned, recognized as the best combat units in that environment in the world. [ 207 ] They are made up of indigenous people from the Amazon region and military personnel from other regions, professionals who specialize in warfare in the jungle. [ 208 ] Finally, as compulsory military service was adopted in Brazil , its military force is one of the largest in the world, with a force estimated at more than 1,600,000 men of age.reserve per year. [ 13 ]
|CESCR||CCPR [ 211 ]||CERD [ 212 ]||CED||CEDAW [ 214 ]||CAT||CRC||MWC||EARL [ 218 ]|
|Signed and ratified, signed, but not ratified, neither signed nor ratified, No information, has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.|
Brazil is a federation constituted by the indissoluble union of 26 member states, a Federal District and the municipalities. [ 219 ] The states and municipalities have the nature of a legal person of public law , therefore any person in the country (national or foreign), have rights and obligations established by the Constitution of 1988 . States and municipalities are characterized by having self-management , self-government and self-organizationIn other words, they elect their leaders and political representatives and administer their public affairs without interference from other municipalities, states, or the Union. To allow self-management, the Federal Constitution defines what taxes each unit of the federation collects, as well as the way in which they can be distributed among them. [ 11 ] The states and municipalities, according to the desire of their population expressed through the vote, can divide or unite; however, the Constitution does not grant them the right to become independent from the Union. [ 11 ]
The states of the federation are grouped into five geographic regions : Center-West , Northeast , North , Southeast, and South . This division has a legal character and was first proposed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 1969. In addition to territorial proximity, IBGE took into account other natural aspects for the division of the country, such as the climate , relief , vegetation and hydrography ; for that reason, the regions are also known as the “natural regions of Brazil”. [ 220] The regions, as defined by law, do not havetheirownlegal personalityand neither do citizens elect representatives from each region. Consequently, there is no type of political autonomy for Brazilian regions like that existing in other countries. [ 11 ]
The federative units are autonomous sub-national entities (self-government, self-legislation and self-collection) endowed with their own government and constitutions that together make up the Federative Republic of Brazil. [ 11 ] Currently the country is divided politically and administratively into 27 federative units: 26 states and a Federal District . [ 11 ] The executive power is exercised by a governor elected every four years. The judicial power is exercised by the state courts of first and second instance that oversee the administration of justice. [ 11 ]The Federal District has characteristics common to the states and municipalities, although unlike the member states, it cannot be divided into municipalities. On the other hand, you can collect taxes both at the state level and at the municipal level. [ 11 ]
The municipalities are a territorial district endowed with legal personality and with a certain administrative autonomy. They are the smallest autonomous units of the Federation and each one of them has its own Organic Law that defines its political organization, although it is limited by the Federal Constitution. [ 11 ] There are about 5,565 municipalities throughout the national territory, some with a population greater than that of several countries in the world ( São Paulo has about 11 million inhabitants) and others with less than a thousand inhabitants; while some cover an area larger than several countries ( Altamira , in Pará, is almost twice as large as Portugal ), others have less than 4 km² ).
The exclusive economic zone of Brazil, also called the «Blue Amazon», is the Brazilian territorial waters that occupy an area of approximately 3.5 million km², although it could be expanded to 4.4 million km² in response to the Brazilian claim on the United Nations Limits Commission , which proposes to extend the continental shelf by 900,000 km² of marine soil and subsoil that the country will be able to exploit. [ 221 ] [ 222 ]
The Brazilian territory is crossed by two imaginary geographical lines: the equator , which passes through the mouth of the Amazon , and the Tropic of Capricorn , which crosses through the city of São Paulo . [ 223 ] The country occupies a vast area along the east coast of South America and encompasses much of the interior of the continent, [ 14 ] sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombiato the northwest and Venezuela , Suriname , Guyana and French Guiana to the north. In this way, it has a common border with all the countries of South America, with the exception of Ecuador and Chile . The Brazilian territory also includes a series of archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha , the Atolón de las Rocas , San Pedro and San Pablo and Trinidad and Martín Vaz . [ 13 ] The size, relief, climate and natural resources make Brazil a geographically diverse country. [ 14 ]
Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world , after Russia , Canada , China and the United States , as well as being the third largest in the Americas , with a total area of 8,515,770 km², [ 3 ] including 157,630 km² of Water. [ 3 ] Its territory covers four time zones , from UTC-5 in the western states, to UTC-3 for the eastern states (and the official time of Brazil) and UTC-2 for the Atlantic islands. [ 224 ]
The Brazilian topography is also very diverse, and includes several hills , mountains , plains , plateaus, and hills . Much of the terrain is located at an altitude of between 200 to 800 meters above sea level . [ 14 ] Most of the highlands are located mainly in the southern part of the country. [ 14 ] The Brazilian northwest is a plateau composed of a wide terrain interrupted by some hills. [ 14 ] The southeast region is more rugged, with a complex mass of mountain ranges and mountain ranges that reach altitudes of more than 1200 meters above sea level. [14 ] These accidents include the Mantiqueira Mountains , the mountains of the Spine and saw the sea . [ 14 ] In the north, the Guiana shield constitutes a main drainage pit, separating the rivers that run south of the Amazon basin from the rivers that flow into the Orinoco river system, in Venezuela , to the north. The highest point in Brazil is the Pico da Neblina , on the border with Venezuela, at 2,994 meters above sea level. [ 13 ]
The country is bathed exclusively by the Atlantic Ocean , a stretch of the South American coastline that is generally little cut from Cape Orange , in the north, to the Chuy stream , in the south, with a length of 7491 km [ 3 ] - which increases to 9198 km if the coastal inlets and outbreaks are considered—; this makes it the 15th longest coastline in the world . [ 225 ] [ note 4 ] Of the 26 Brazilian statesnine have no coastline, as well as the Federal District. Most of the 17 coastal states have their capitals located near the coast, except Porto Alegre ( Rio Grande do Sul ), Curitiba ( Paraná ), São Paulo ( São Paulo ), Teresina ( Piauí ), Belém ( Pará ) and Macapá ( Amapá ). Porto Alegre, Belém and Macapá are located near large navigable rivers, accessible from the coast.
Brazil has a dense and complex river system, one of the most extensive in the world, with eight large river basins that drain into the Atlantic. [ 14 ] The most important rivers are the Amazon - the largest river in the world both in length (6937.08 km) and in terms of volume of water (12 500 million liters per minute) - the Paraná - its largest tributary - Iguazú - which gives rise to the Iguazú Falls -, Negro , San Francisco , Xingú , Madeira and Tapajós . [ 14 ]
The climate of Brazil has a wide variety of climatic conditions in a large region and with a varied topography, although it can be considered that most of the country has a tropical climate . [ 13 ] According to the Köppen system , Brazil has six main climatic subtypes: equatorial , tropical , semi-arid , high-altitude tropical , temperate and subtropical . Different climatic conditions produce environments that vary from the tropical forest in the northand the semi-arid regions of the northeast , to the temperate coniferous forest in the south and the tropical savannas of the center. [ 226 ] Many other regions have totally different microclimates . [ 14 ] [ 227 ]
The equatorial climate is the one that predominates in much of northern Brazil. There is no dry season as such, although there are some variations in the amount of rainfall between each period of the year. [ 226 ] The average temperature is 25 ° C, [ 227 ] which has a greater variation between day and night than between seasons. [ 14 ] The rains in central Brazil are scarcer, characteristic of a savanna climate . [ 14 ] This region is as extensive as the Amazon basin but with a very different climate, since it is located further south and at a lower altitude.[ 226 ] In the northeast, the difference in rainfall between the seasons is even more extreme, since this region witha semi-arid climategenerally receives less than 800 mm of rain, [ 228 ] most of which falls in a period spanning three to five months each year [ 229 ] and, when there is less rainfall, long periods of drought occur. [ 14 ] The "Great Drought" of 1877-1878 was the most serious in the country [ 230 ] and caused the death of nearly half a million people. [ 231 ]
South of Bahia , starting from São Paulo , the distribution of rainfall changes, as there is rainfall throughout the year. [ 226 ] The south and the southeast region have temperate climate conditions , with cool winters and an average annual temperature that does not exceed 18 ° C; [ 227 ] the icy winter are quite common and the occasional fall of snow in the higher areas. [ 14 ] [ 226 ]
The greenhouse effect of excess carbon dioxide and methane makes the Amazon rainforest hotter and drier, resulting in more forest fires in Brazil. Parts of the rainforest are at risk of becoming savanna .In the Paris Agreement , Brazil promised to cut its emissions, but the current Bolsonaro government has been criticized for doing too little to limit climate change or adapt to climate change . [ 232 ]
Flora, fauna and environment
The great territorial extension of Brazil includes different ecosystems , such as the Amazon , recognized for hosting the greatest biological diversity in the world, [ 235 ] the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado , which also support great biodiversity , [ 14 ] for which Brazil is classified as a megadiverse country . [ 14 ]
Brazil's rich wildlife reflects the variety of natural habitats. Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil is approximately four million. [ 14 ] Among the large mammals Brazilians including pumas , jaguars , ocelots , vinegar fox , foxes , coyameles , tapirs , anteaters , sloths , opossums and armadillos . the deerthey are abundant in the south and many species of platyrrhini can be found in the northern rain forest. [ 14 ] [ 236 ] According 1993 Brazil then housed 69 of the 244 known primate species on the planet. [ 237 ] Concern for the environment grew in response to global interest in environmental issues. [ 14 ]
The heritage native of Brazil is severely threatened by livestock , the agriculture , the forestry, mining , resettlement, extraction of oil and natural gas , the overfishing , the wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, pollution of the water , climate change , fire and invasive species . [ 235 ] In many areas of the country, the natural environment is threatened by urban development. [ 238 ]The construction of highways in the middle of the vegetation, such as BR-230 and BR-163 , opened previously isolated areas to agriculture and commerce; dams flooded valleys and wild habitats and mines created scars in the land that altered the landscape . [ 14 ] [ 239 ]
According to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank , Brazil is the largest economy in Latin America and the second on the continent, behind the United States - the ninth largest economy in the world according to its nominal GDP and the eighth largest in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). [ 13 ] [ 243 ] The country has several major economic and developed sectors such as agriculture , mining , manufacturing and the servicesas well as a large job market . [ 13 ] In recent years, Brazilian exports have been growing, creating a new generation of business magnates . [ 244 ] The main export products include aircraft , electronic equipment, automobiles , alcohol , textiles , footwear , iron , steel , coffee , orange juice , soybeans, and corned beef . [245 ] The country has been expanding its presence in international financial marketsand commodity marketsand is part of a group of four emerging economies called BRIC . [ 246 ]
In 1994, a fixed exchange rate against the US dollar was set for Brazil's currency, the Brazilian real . However, after the Asian financial crisis of 1997, the Russian crisis of 1998 [ 247 ] and a series of adverse events that followed, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily altered its monetary policy towards a regime of managed fluctuation, while it was going through the currency crisis, until the modification of the fluctuating free exchange regime was defined in January 1999. [ 248 ]In mid-2002, the country received a bailout payment of US $ 30.4 billion from the International Monetary Fund. [ 249 ] The Central Bank of Brazil paid the loan to the IMF in 2005, although the term to repay the debt did not expire until 2006. [ 250 ] One of the issues that the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital flows, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the dollar against the real during this period. [ 251 ] However, foreign direct investmentLong-term (FDI), less speculative investment in production, was estimated at US $ 193.8 billion for 2007. [ 252 ] The monitoring and control of inflation currently plays an important role in the functions of the Central Bank to set short-term interest rates as a measure of your monetary policy. [ 253 ]
Among the most important Brazilian companies are: Brasil Foods , Perdigão , Sadia and JBS (food sector); Embraer (airline sector); Havaianas and Calçados Azaleia (footwear); Petrobras (oil sector); Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (mining); Marcopolo and Busscar (automobiles); Gerdau (steelmaker) and Organizações Globo (communications). Brazil is seen by many economists as a country with great development potential, like Russia , Indiaand China - the BRIC countries -. Some economics specialists, such as the analyst Peter Gutmann , affirm that in 2050 Brazil will be able to reach the standard of living statistically obtained in 2005 in the countries of the Euro Zone . [ 254 ] According to data from Goldman Sachs , in that same year Brazil will have a GDP of US $ 11,366,000 and a per capita income of US $ 49,759, making it the fourth most important economy on the planet. [ 255 ]
The Brazilian economy - recently classified as " investment grade " - is diverse, [ 256 ] encompassing agriculture , industry, and a varied number of services. [ 257 ] [ 258 ] At present the country has succeeded in imposing its global leadership through the development of its economy. [ 259 ] The economic strength it has shown is due, in part, to the global boom in commodity prices and markets for their export, such as beef and soybeans . [258 ] [ 259 ] The outlook for the Brazilian economy also improved thanks to the discovery of huge reserves of oil and natural gas in the Santos Basin . [ 260 ] By becoming a world power in agriculture and natural resources , Brazil reached its greatest economic boom in the last three decades. [ 261 ]
In 2007, agriculture and associated sectors, such as forestry , logging and fishing , accounted for 6.1% of gross domestic product , [ 13 ] a performance that places agribusiness in a prominent position in the trade balance , to despite trade barriers and subsidy policies adopted by developed countries . [ 262 ] According to a document published in 2010 by the WHO , Brazil is the third most important exporter of agricultural products in the world, only behindUnited States and the European Union . [ 263 ]
The automobile , steel , petrochemical , computer , aeronautical and durable consumer goods industries account for 30.8% of GDP. [ 13 ] Industrial activity is geographically concentrated in the metropolitan areas of São Paulo , Rio de Janeiro , Curitiba , Campinas , Porto Alegre , Belo Horizonte , Manaus , Salvador de Bahía , Recife andFortaleza . [ 264 ] The country is responsible for three-fifths of the industrial production of the South American economy and participates in various economic blocs, such as Mercosur , the G-20, and the Cairns Group .
Brazil regularly trades with more than a hundred countries and 74% of the exported goods are manufactures or semi-manufactures. Its largest trading partners are: the European Union (26%), Mercosur and Latin America (25%), Asia (17%) and the United States (15%). It has a certain degree of technological sophistication , since machines ranging from submarines to aircraft are developed in the country , in addition to being present in the space race with a Light Vehicle Launch Center and being the only country in the southern hemisphere to integrate a team construction to the International Space Station(ISS). It is also a pioneer in the search for oil in deep waters, where 73% of its reserves are found. In addition, it was the first capitalist economy to bring together the ten largest automobile assembly companies in its territory. [ 265 ]
In 2019, Brazil was the world's largest producer of sugarcane [ 266 ] , soybeans [ 267 ] , coffee [ 268 ] and orange [ 269 ] , the 2nd producer of papaya [ 270 ] , the 3rd producer of corn [ 271 ] , snuff [ 272 ] · [ 273 ] and pineapple [ 274 ] [ 275 ]The 4th producer cotton [ 276 ] [ 277 ] and cassava [ 278 ] , the producer fifth coco [ 279 ] and lemon [ 280 ] , the sixth producer cacao [ 281 ] and avocado , 9th rice producer [ 282 ] , 10th tomato producer [ 283 ] and 11th grape producer [ 284 ] andapple [ 285 ] · [ 286 ] . The country is also a major producer of bananas [ 287 ] · [ 288 ] but most of the production is for domestic consumption. Finally, Brazil also produces large quantities of beans [ 289 ] · [ 290 ] , peanut [ 291 ] , potato [ 292 ] · [ 293 ] ,carrot [ 294 ] , cashew [ 295 ] , mandarin [ 296 ] , persimmon [ 297 ] , strawberry [ 298 ] , guarana [ 299 ] , guava , açaí [ 300 ] , Brazil nut [ 301 ] · [ 302 ] , yerba mate [ 303 ], Among others. Sugarcane is used for the manufacture of sugar but also for ethanol, which is intended to operate a fleet of vehicles (the ethanol sector is a biofuel).
In the production of animal proteins, Brazil is today one of the largest countries in the world. In 2019, the country was the world 's largest exporter of beef and chicken [ 304 ] [ 305 ] . It was also the second largest producer of beef [ 306 ] , the third largest producer of milk [ 307 ] , the fourth largest producer of pork [ 308 ] and the seventh largest producer of eggs in the world. [ 309 ]
In the mining sector, Brazil stands out in the extraction of iron ore (where it is the second largest exporter in the world), copper , gold , bauxite (one of the 5 largest producers in the world), manganese (one of the 5 largest producers in the world). world), tin (one of the world's largest producers), niobium (concentrates 98% of the world's known niobium reserves) and nickel . Regarding precious stones, Brazil is the world's largest producer of amethyst , topaz , agate and one of the main producers of tourmaline ,emerald , aquamarine and garnet . [ 310 ] [ 311 ] [ 312 ] [ 313 ] [ 314 ] [ 315 ]
The secondary sector is based on industries. Brazil is the industrial leader in Latin America. In the food industry , in 2019, Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world. [ 316 ] [ 317 ] [ 318 ] In 2016, the country was the 2nd largest producer of pulp in the world and the 8th producer of paper . [ 319 ] [ 320 ] [ 321 ] In the industry footwear in 2019, Brazil occupied the 4th position among world producers.[ 322 ] [ 323 ] [ 324 ] [ 325 ] [ 326 ] In 2019, the country was the 8th producer ofvehiclesand 9th producingsteelin the world. [ 327 ] [ 328 ] [ 329 ] In 2018, thechemical industryin Brazil was the 8th of the world. [ 330 ] [ 331 ] [ 332 ]In the textile industry , Brazil, although it was among the 5 largest world producers in 2013, is very little integrated in world trade. [ 333 ]
One of the most important cases of corruption in Brazil is that of the Odebrecht company. Since the 1980s, Odebrecht has spent several billion dollars in the form of bribes to bribe parliamentarians to vote for the group. At the municipal level, Odebrecht's corruption was aimed at "stimulating privatizations," particularly in water and sewerage management. [ 334 ]
The tourism in Brazil is an important activity in several regions of the country. With 6,306,000 foreign visitors in 2015, [ 335 ] Brazil is the first destination in the international tourism market in South America and ranks second in Latin America in terms of international tourists, after Mexico . [ 335 ]
Expenses of foreign tourists visiting Brazil reached 4.9 billion dollars in the first half of 2011, 15.5% more than in the same period in 2010. [ 336 ]
The country accounted for 3.4% of the international tourist flow in the American continent in 2010. [ 337 ] In 2005, tourism contributed 3.2% of the national income derived from goods and services, and was responsible for the creation of 7% of direct and indirect jobs. [ 338 ] In 2006, an estimated 1.87 million people were employed in the sector: 768,000 formal jobs (41%) and 1.1 million informal jobs (59%). [ 339 ] The domestic tourism represents a vital part of the sector, accounting for 51 million trips in 2005. [ 340 ]
With a road network of about 1.8 million km, of which 215,000 km are paved [ 341 ] , highways are the main means of communication for the transport of cargo and passengers. [ 13 ] [ 342 ] The first investments for road construction occurred in the 1920s, the government of Washington Luís , although Vargas and Gaspar Dutra gave continuity to the project. [ 343 ] President Juscelino Kubitschek (1956–1961), who conceived and built the capital Brasilia, was another promoter of road construction. Kubitschek was also responsible for the installation of the large car manufacturers in the country - Volkswagen , Ford and General Motors came to Brazil during his government - so that one of the points used to attract them was, obviously, the support for construction. of roads. Over the years, other large car manufacturers were installed in the country, such as Fiat , Renault , Peugeot , Citroën , Chrysler , Mercedes-Benz , Hyundai and Toyota.. This allows Brazil to be the seventh most important country in the automobile industry . [ 344 ]
The country has around 14,000 km of highways , 5,000 km in the State of São Paulo alone . It is currently possible to travel from Rio Grande , in the extreme south of the country, to Brasilia (2,580 km) or Casimiro de Abreu , in the State of Rio de Janeiro (2,045 km), only on divided highways.
There are about four thousand airports and airfields in Brazil, 721 of these are paved runways, including landing areas. [ 13 ] It is the second country with the largest number of airports in the world, only behind the United States. [ 13 ] [ 345 ] The Guarulhos International Airport , located in the Greater São Paulo, is the largest and most important airport at the national level, a large part of this movement is due to the country's freight and passenger traffic and the fact that the airport connects São Paulo to practically all the major cities in the world. Brazil has 34 international airports and 2,464 regional airports. [ 346 ]
Brazil has an extensive railway network of 28,857 km in length, the tenth largest in the world. [ 13 ] Currently the Brazilian government tries to encourage this means of transport; An example of these actions is the Rio-São Paulo High-Speed Train project , a bullet train that will link the two main metropolises of the country. There are 37 major ports in Brazil, of which the largest is the Port of Santos . [ 347 ] The Brazilian river network is one of the largest in the world, with an area of 50,000 km of navigable rivers. [ 13 ]
Brazil is the tenth largest energy consumer on the planet and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere , behind the United States and Canada . [ 13 ] Power generation is based on renewable sources , especially hydroelectric power and ethanol , as well as non-renewable sources of energy, such as oil and natural gas . [ 349 ]
Over the past three decades, Brazil has worked to create a viable alternative to gasoline . The Pro-Alcool program originated in the 1970s in response to unstable oil prices, taking advantage of intermittent profits. In any case, the majority of Brazilians use so-called " flexible fuel vehicles ", which run on ethanol or gasoline, allowing the consumer to stock up with the cheapest option at the moment, often ethanol. [ 350 ]At the beginning of 2020, in the production of oil and natural gas, the country for the first time exceeded 4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. In January of this year, 3,168 million barrels of oil per day and 138,753 million cubic meters of natural gas were extracted. [ 351 ]
Countries with a high fuel consumption index such as India and China are following Brazil's progress in this area. [ 352 ] In addition to the above, countries such as Japan and Sweden are importing Brazilian ethanol to help meet their environmental obligations stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol . [ 353 ]
Brazil has the second largest crude oil reserve in South America and is one of the oil producers that increased its production the most in recent years. [ 354 ] The country is also one of the world's largest hydropower producers . Of its total electricity generation capacity , which corresponds to more than 170,000 MW , more than 75% are from renewable sources (the majority from hydroelectric plants). [ 354 ] [ 355 ] Meanwhile, the nuclear energy represents about 3% of energy production. [ 356 ]As the large reserves discovered in the Santos Basin demonstrate , Brazil can become a world power in oil production. [ 357 ] [ 358 ] [ 359 ] In 2019, the wind energy represented 9% of the energy generated in the country. [ 360 ] In 2019, the country was estimated to have an estimated wind power generation potential of around 522 GW (this, onshore only), enough power to meet three times the country's current demand. [ 361 ] [ 362] [ 363 ] Brazil is one of the 5 largest producers of hydroelectric power in the world (second in 2017) and is one of the 10 largest producers of wind power in the world (eighth in 2019, with 2.4 % of world production). [ 364 ] [ 365 ]
The Brazilian printed media have their origin in 1808, with the arrival of the Portuguese royal family to the national territory, since previously any publishing activity was prohibited —both for the publication of newspapers and books . [ 366 ] The Brazilian printing press was officially born in Rio de Janeiro on May 13, 1808, with the creation of "Impressão Régia", today " Imprensa Nacional ", by Prince Regent Juan VI of Portugal . [ 367 ]
The Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro , the first newspaper published in what is now Brazil, began to circulate on September 10, 1808. [ 368 ] Currently the print media have consolidated as a mass communication medium with the foundation of several newspapers that today are among the best-selling in the country and in the world, such as Folha de S. Paulo , O Globo and Estado de S. Paulo , as well as the publications of the April and Globo publishing houses . [ 369 ]
The Radio emerged in Brazil on September 7, 1922, [ 370 ] being a speech by the then President Epitacio Pessoa the first transmission made in the country; However, the true beginning of radio occurred on April 20, 1923 with the creation of the "Radio Society of Rio de Janeiro." In the 1930s, the commercial era of radio began, with the authorization to include advertising in the programming, initiating the hiring of artists and technical development for the sector. In the next decade, with the rise of radio soap operasand from the popularization of programming, the so-called "golden age" of Brazilian radio began, which caused an impact on that society similar to the one that television produces today. With the introduction of television, radio underwent several transformations, so that comedy shows, artists, novels, and live shows were replaced by music and public services. [ 371 ]
Television officially began in Brazil on September 18, 1950, [ 372 ] introduced by Assis Chateaubriand , who founded the first television channel in the country, TV Tupi . Since then the television industry has been growing, at the same time that several networks of stations such as Globo , Record , SBT , Bandeirantes and RedeTV were created . Television still represents an important factor in the modern popular culture of Brazilian society. The digital televisionstarted on December 2, 2007, initially in the city of São Paulo . [ 373 ]
The population of Brazil , as recorded in the 2010 population census, is more than 190 million inhabitants [ 374 ] —22.31 inhabitants per square kilometer -, with a ratio of men and women of 0.95 : 1 [ 374 ] and 84.36% of the population defined as urban . [ 374 ] The population is strongly concentrated in the Southeast (80.3 million inhabitants) and Northeast (53.0 million inhabitants) regions, while the two largest regions, the Central-Westand the North, which make up 64.12% of the Brazilian territory, have just 29.8 million inhabitants. [ 375 ]
Brazil's population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, due to a decline in the death rate , while the birth rate also decreased slightly in the same period. In the 1940s, the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in 1950 and remaining at 2.9% in 1960; the life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 years [ 376 ] and up to 72.6 years in the 2010s [ 13 ] [ 377 ]The population growth rate tended to decline since 1960, from 3.04% between 1950-1960 to 1.13% in 2011, and will probably fall to a negative value of −0.29% in 2050, [ 13 ] [ 378 ] thus completing the demographic transition . [ 376 ]
The largest metropolitan areas are São Paulo , Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte —all in the Southeast region— with 20.8, 12.1 and 5.7 million inhabitants, respectively. [ 379 ] Almost all state capitals are the largest cities in their respective states , with the exception of Vitória , the capital of Espírito Santo , and Florianópolis , the capital of Santa Catarina . There are also several important metropolitan areas that do not belong to the capital of any state, such as Campinas , Santos ,Vale do Paraíba (in São Paulo ), Vale do Aço (in Minas Gerais ) and Vale do Itajaí (in Santa Catarina). [ 14 ]
The native of Brazil is called Brazilian or Brazilian, although in the current speech of several Hispanic countries bordering Brazil, it is also used as a synonym for both Brazilian and Brazilian, as well as these two terms are also used in other different contexts, when using them for example as an adjective or as a noun. [ 380 ] Note that in the formation of gentilices in the Spanish language, both endings -eño, -ero are used.
According to the 2010 census, 47.1% of the population (about 90.6 million) defined themselves as white, 43.4% (about 82.8 million) as brown , 7.5% (about 14.4 million) as black, 1.1% (about 2.1 million) as Asian, and 0.3% (about 572,000) as indigenous , while 0.07% (about 133,000) are not. they declared their race. [ 382 ] [ 383 ] [ 384 ] In 2007, the Fundação Nacional do Índio revealed the existence of 67 different uncontacted tribes, compared with the 40 it had in 2005, making Brazil the largest number of isolated peoples in the world. 
Most Brazilians are descended from the country's indigenous peoples, Portuguese settlers, European immigrants, and African slaves. [ 386 ] Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, a considerable number of unions took place between these three groups. The brown population [ 387 ] [ 388 ] is a broad category that includes Caboclos (descendants of white and Indian), mulatto (descendants of black and white) and baboons (descendants of Blacks and Indians). [ 386 ] [ 387 ][ 388 ] [ 389 ] [ 390 ] [ 391 ] The brown and mulattos makethe majority of the population of the North, Northeast and Midwest regions.