Budapest - Budapest

Budapest
Capital
BudapestMontage.jpg
Budapest montage

Flag of Budapest (2011-).svg
flag
Coa Hungary Town Budapest big.svg

Other names : "Defy the storms", "East Gate", "Queen of the Danube"
Budapest located in Hungary
Budapest
Budapest
Location of Budapest in Hungary
Budapest located in Europe
Budapest
Budapest
Location of Budapest in Europe
Coordinates 47°29′54″N 19°02′27″E / 47.498333333333, 19.040833333333Coordenadas: 47°29′54″N 19°02′27″E / 47.498333333333, 19.040833333333
Entity Capital
Country Hungarian flag Hungary
County Pest
Mayor Gregory Christmas ( PM )
Surface
• Total 525,14 km² View and modify data on Wikidata
Altitude
• Media 151 m s. n. m.
Weather Continental wet Dfb
Water course Danube river
Population (2011)
• Total 1,741,041 hab.
Density 3301 hab / km²
Demonym aquincense
Time zone UTC+01:00 y UTC+02:00
• in summer CEST ( UTC + 2 )
Postal Code 1011–1239
Telephone prefix 1
ISO 3166 HUN-BU
Official Web site
Member of: Eurocities

Budapest ([ˈBudɒpɛʃt] ( listen ) ) is the capital and most populous city of Hungary , [ 1 ] as well as its main industrial, commercial and transport center. [ 2 ] It has 1.75 million inhabitants (2016) [ 3 ] a significant decrease compared to the almost 2.1 million it had in the mid-1980s, [ 4 ] which represent a fifth of the population Hungary total. It is the most populous city in Central-Eastern Europe and the seventh in the European Union . The city occupies an area of ​​525 km² [ 5 ] andits metropolitan area has a population of 2.38 million inhabitants. Budapest was established as such on November 17, 1873, when the cities of Buda and Óbuda , on the west bank of the Danube, and Pest , on the east bank , were unified . [ 5 ] [ 6 ]

The history of Budapest began with Aquincum , originally a settlement Celtic [ 7 ] [ 8 ] which became the Roman capital of Pannonia Inferior . [ 7 ] The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the 9th century . [ 9 ] Its first settlement was sacked by the Mongols in 1241-42. [ 10 ] The restored city became one of the centers of Humanist Renaissance culture in the 15th century.. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] After the battle of Mohács and after almost century and a half domain Ottoman , [ 13 ] the development of the region entered a new era of prosperity in the centuries XVIII and XIX , and Budapest became a global city after unification in 1873. [ 14 ] It also became the second capital of Austria-Hungary , a great power that dissolved in 1918. Budapest was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 , theHungarian Soviet Republic of 1919, Operation Panzerfaust in 1944, the Battle of Budapest in 1945 and the Revolution of 1956 .

Considered one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, [ 1 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] Budapest has several sites that are World Heritage Sites , among which include the banks of the Danube, the neighborhood of the Castle from Buda , Andrássy Avenue , Heroes Square and the Millennium Metropolitan , the second oldest in the world. [ 15 ] [ 17 ] Other highlights include a total of 80 geothermal springs , [18 ] the largest hot spring cave system in the world, [ 19 ] the secondlargest synagogue and the thirdlargest Parliament building in the world. The city attracts around 4.3 million tourists a year, making it the 25th most popular city in the world, according to Euromonitor. [ 20 ]

Budapest is also an important financial center in Central Europe. The city ranked third (out of a total of 65 cities) in the Emerging Markets Index prepared by Mastercard , [ 21 ] and ranked as the best livable city in Central and Eastern Europe by quality of life index according to Economist Intelligence Unit . [ 22 ] [ 23 ] It also ranked as the "seventh idyllic place in Europe to live" by the magazine Forbes , [ 24 ] and as the ninth most beautiful city in the world by UCityGuides. [ 25 ]Is also the best city in Central Europe and the East in the Innovation Cities Index 'Top 100. [ 26 ] [ 27 ]

Toponymy

The name "Budapest" is the composition of the names of the cities "Buda" and "Pest", since they were united (together with Óbuda ) to become a single city in 1873. [ 28 ] One of the first appearances The combined name "Buda-Pest" was in 1831 in the book Világ ("World"), written by Count István Széchenyi .

The origin of the words " Buddha " and " Pest " is uncertain. According to the chronicles of the Middle Ages, the name "Buddha" comes from the name of its founder, Bleda (Buddha) , the brother of the Hun Attila . The theory that "Buddha" was a person's name is also supported by modern scholars. [ 29 ] An alternative explanation suggests that it derives from the Slavic word "вода, voda " ("water"), a translation of the Latin name Aquincum , which was the main Roman settlement in the region. [ 30 ]

There are also several theories about the origin of the name "Pest". One of the theories holds that it comes from Roman times , [ 31 ] since there was a fortress, «Contra-Aquincum», which in this region is known as «Pession» (Πέσσιον, III.7. § 2) by Ptolemy . [ 32 ] According to another theory, it takes its origin from the Slavic word "пещера, peshtera " ("cave") or from the word "печь, pesht " ("oven") in reference to a local cave. [ 33 ]In the ancient Hungarian language there was a similar meaning for the word "oven / cave" and the original German old name for this region was "Ofen". Later "Ofen" in German refers to the part of Buddha.

History

The crown of Saint Stephen , the sword, the scepter and the orb of Hungary.

The first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celtic tribes [ 7 ] before 1 BC. C. and was later occupied by the Romans. The Roman settlement, Aquincum , became the main city of Lower Pannonia in 106 BC. C. [ 7 ] The Romans built roads, amphitheaters, baths and heated houses in this fortified military camp. [ 34 ]

The peace treaty of 829 added Pannonia to Bulgaria due to the victory of the Bulgarian army of Omurtag over the Holy Roman Empire of Ludovico Pio . Budapest arose from two Bulgarian borders, the military fortresses of Buda and Pest , situated on the two banks of the Danube . [ 35 ] The Hungarians led by Árpád , settled in the territory at the end of the IX , [ 9 ] [ 36 ] and a century later officially foundedKingdom of Hungary . [ 9 ] Investigations place the residence of the House of Árpad in a place close to what would become Budapest. [ 37 ] The Mongol invasion in the 13th century quickly proved defense difficult on a plain. [ 5 ] [ 9 ] King Béla IV of Hungary ordered the construction of walls of reinforced concrete around the cities [ 9 ] and established its own royal palace on top of the protective hills of Buda.[ 10 ] In 1361 it became the capital of Hungary. [ 10 ]

The Buda Castle in the Middle Ages (Illustration Chronicles of Nuremberg ).

The cultural role of Buddha was particularly important during the reign of King Matthias Corvinus . [ 5 ] The Italian Renaissance had a great influence on the city. [ 5 ] Its library, the Bibliotheca Corvinniana , was the largest collection of historical chronicles and philosophical and scientific works in Europe in the 15th century , and the second in size, second only to the Vatican Library . [ 5 ] After the foundation of the first Hungarian University of Pécs in 1367, [ 38 ]The second was established in Óbuda in 1395. [ 38 ] The first book printed in Hungarian was in Buda in 1473. [ 39 ] Buda had about 5,000 inhabitants around 1500, [ 40 ] although modern studies suggest that the sum of Buda and Pest it had between 15,000 and 25,000 inhabitants. [ 41 ]

The Ottomans sacked Buda in 1526, besieged it in 1529, and finally occupied it in 1541. The Turkish occupation lasted for more than 140 years. [ 5 ] The Turks built many bathing facilities in the city. [ 9 ] Under the Ottoman rule, many Christians converted to Islam. In 1547 the number of Christians dropped to about a thousand, and by 1647 it had dropped to only about seventy. [ 40 ] The western unoccupied part of the country became part of the Habsburg empire as royal Hungary.

In 1686, two years after the failed siege of Buda , a renewed campaign to conquer the Hungarian capital was organized. This time, the Holy League army was twice as large, with more than 74,000 soldiers. Among them were English, Germans, Dutch, Croats, Hungarians, Spanish, Czechs, Italians, French, Danes, and Swedes, along with other Europeans as volunteers, gunners, and officers. The Christian forces reconquered Buda and, in the following years, all previous Hungarian lands, except the areas near Timişoara ( Temesvár ), were taken from the Turks. In the Treaty of KarlowitzBy 1699 these territorial changes were officially recognized, and in 1718 the entire Kingdom of Hungary was liberated from Ottoman power. The city was destroyed during the battle. [ 5 ] and Hungary then joined the Habsburg Empire. [ 5 ]

The bank of the Danube in Budapest in a picture from 1873.

1867 was the year of reconciliation that brought with it the birth of Austria-Hungary . The 19th century was dominated by the struggle for Hungarian independence and modernization. [ 5 ] The national insurrection against the Habsburgs began in the Hungarian capital in 1848 and was defeated just over a year later. This made Budapest the twin capital of a dual monarchy. It was this commitment that opened the second phase of great development in Budapest's history, which lasted until the First World War . In 1849, the Chain Bridge linking Buda with Pest was inaugurated , the first permanent bridge over the Danube [ 42 ]And in 1873 Buda and Pest were merged with the third part, Óbuda (old Buda), thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest. The dynamic Pest became the political, administrative, economic, commercial and cultural center of the country. The ethnic Hungarian population outnumbered the German in the second half of the 19th century due to mass migration from the overcrowded and rural Transdanubia and the Great Hungarian Plain . Between 1851 and 1910 the proportion of Hungarians increased from 35.6% to 85.9% of the population, Hungarian became the dominant language and German was displaced. The proportion of Jews peaked in 1900 at 23.6%. [43 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] Because prosperity and large Jewish community present in the city of the early twentieth , Budapest was also known as the "Mecca Jewish". [ 46 ]

In 1918, Austria-Hungary, after losing the First World War, collapsed; and Hungary declared itself an independent republic. In 1920 the Treaty of Trianon finalized the partition of the country; as a result of which, Hungary lost two-thirds of its territory and about two-thirds of its inhabitants, including 3.3 million of the 10 million ethnic Hungarians. [ 47 ] [ 48 ]

The Chain Bridge in Budapest, blown up by Nazi forces .

In 1944, towards the end of World War II , Budapest was partially destroyed by British and American air raids. From December 24, 1944 to February 13, 1945, the city was besieged by Soviet troops during the Battle of Budapest . The capital suffered extensive damage from the attack by Soviet and Romanian forces and German and Hungarian defending troops. All the bridges were destroyed, in their flight, by the German army and more than 38,000 civilians lost their lives during the conflict.

Between 20% and 40% of the 250,000 Jewish inhabitants of Budapest died as a result of the genocide perpetrated by the Nazis and the Arrow Cross Party during 1944 and early 1945. [ 49 ] The Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg managed to save the city. lives of tens of thousands of Jews in Budapest, giving them Swedish passports and taking them under his consular protection. [ 50 ] .

Similarly, the Spanish diplomat Ángel Sanz Briz also saved 5,000 Jews by granting them Spanish passports from Franco's Spain at the time, passing them off as Sephardic Jews. It was declared Righteous Among the Nations by the Israeli state.

In 1949, Hungary was declared a Communist People's Republic . The new communist government considered buildings such as Buda Castle symbols of the previous regime and, during the 1950s, the palace was destroyed and the interiors were destroyed. [ citation needed ] In 1956, peaceful demonstrations in Budapest led to the outbreak of the Hungarian Revolution . The leadership collapsed after mass demonstrations that began on October 23, but Soviet tanks entered Budapest to crush the revolt. The fighting continued until early November, leaving more than 3,000 dead.

Downtown Budapest in 1979.

From the 1960s to the late 1980s, Hungary was sometimes referred to satirically as the " happy barrack " of the Eastern Bloc , [ 51 ] and much of the city's war damage was eventually repaired. Work on the Erzsébet Bridge , the last to be rebuilt, was completed in 1964. At the beginning of 1970, the M2 line of the Budapest metro was inaugurated in its east-west direction, followed by the M3 line in 1982.

In 1987, UNESCO included the Buda Castle and the banks of the Danube in the list of World Heritage Sites . In 2002, Andrássy Avenue (including the Millennium subway train, Hősök tere and Városliget ) was added to the Unesco list . In the 1980s, the city's population reached 2.1 million. In recent times there has been a significant decline in population, mainly due to a massive demographic movement to Pest County .

In the last decades of the 20th, the political changes and the fall of the communist system that began in 1989 produced important changes in civil society and in the streets of Budapest. Communist monuments were removed from public places and brought to Memento Park . In the first twenty years of the new democracy, the city government was chaired by Gábor Demszky .

Geography

View of the Danube in Budapest

The 525 km² area of ​​Budapest is located in central Hungary surrounded by settlements of the agglomeration in the county of Pest . The capital stretches 25 and 29 kilometers north-south and east-west, respectively. The Danube River enters the city from the north, and later surrounds two islands, Óbuda and the island of Margarita . [ 5 ] The third island, Csepel , is the largest of the Danube islands of Budapest, however only the northernmost tip is within the city limits. The river that separates the two parts of the city is 230 meters wide at its narrowest point in Budapest. PestIt lies on the plain of the Great Plain, while the terrain in Buda is very rugged. [ 5 ] The terrain of Pest rises slightly to the east, so that the easternmost parts of the city are at the same height as the small hills of Buda, in particular Gellért Hill and Castle Mount. The hills of Buda are mainly made of limestone and dolomite , the water created speleothems , the most famous of which can be found in the P Valvölgyi and Szemlőhegyi Caves. The hills were formed in the Triassic era. The highest point in the hills and in Budapest is János Hill, 527 meters above sea level. The lowest point is the Danube line, which is 96 meters above sea level. The forests of the Buda Hills are environmentally protected.

Districts

Originally, after the unification of the three cities in 1873, there were 10 districts in Budapest. On January 1, 1950, Budapest was united with several neighboring towns and the number of its districts rose to 22, forming Greater Budapest . At that time there were changes, both in the order of the districts and in their sizes. There are currently 23 districts, six in Buda , 16 in Pest and one on the island of Csepel on the Danube. Each district can be associated with one or more parts of the city named after previous Budapest cities. The city center, in a broad sense, comprises districts V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and XIII on the Pest side, and I, II, XI and XII on the Buda side. [ 52]

The 23 districts of Budapest

District IV

District IV is located north of Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube River. Before 1950, when several areas were annexed to Budapest, it was the town of Újpest . The name means "New Pest", because it was formed on the edge of the City of Pest in 1840. Újpest was a village or town for six decades before 1907, when it became a town. As mentioned, in 1950 the town was unified with Budapest, to form Greater Budapest, and become the IV District.

District XXI

District XXI is located to the north of the island of Csepel , the Danube flows to the east and on the other side are districts IX, XX and XXIII, to the west the border of the district is naturally marked by the contour of the Island with the Danube bank that on its opposite bank presents the districts XI and XXII, to the south the limit demarcated by the capital, that is, the limits of the town of Szigetszentmiklós .

In the second half of the twentieth century the most important industrialization of the district occurred, which turned it into a base for heavy industry. The workers settled in this area, who contributed to the formation of urban areas, parks and neighborhoods. The district thus became a bastion of the Hungarian working class. It was independent until January 1, 1950, when together with other areas it was annexed as an integral part of the capital Budapest.

The XXI district is considered one of the classic industrial districts of Budapest (for its metallurgical, steel and paper industries). In the first half of the twentieth century, the district's economy is linked to the name of Manfréd Weiss , who with his metallurgical company had the widest range of products that existed at the time in the entire region of central and eastern Europe. After World War II, the factory passed into the hands of the state. In the mid-50s even in Tibetthe factory's products were commercialized. At the end of the 1980s, due to low demand for products and high maintenance costs, the factory gradually came to a halt. Today the complex works as an industrial zone, housing hundreds of other companies, offices, and small factories. Only one protective zone is home to the District, on the Tamariska hill in the Királyerdő area, which since 1999 was declared by the capital city as a natural heritage site, since innumerable native and exclusive plant species are found on its sandy banks.

Most relevant neighborhoods
  • Ady Endre street neighborhood
  • Constellation
  • Barrio de Királymajori
  • Barrio de Waterworks
  • Barrio de la calle Árpád

Weather

Primavera en Budapest
Winter in Vörösmarty square .

The city has a humid continental climate , a transitional climate between the temperate, snow-covered climate of Transdanubia , the variable continental climate of the great flat open plain in the east and the almost sub-Mediterranean climate in the south. [ 53 ]

The spring is characterized by abundant sunshine and scattered showers. The temperature begins to rise notably in April, usually reaching maximums of 25 ° C at the end of the month, although there are short periods of cold with low temperatures in the area with 0-5 ° C and frosts can appear even in the middle of may.

In summers , long periods of heat, with temperatures between 32-35 ° C, are interchanged with brief periods of humid weather with cold fronts coming from the west, with temperatures between 18-25 ° C. The humidity is high, from time to time, in summer mainly secondary to the influence of the Mediterranean. However, in general, the heat is dry and the night temperatures are very pleasant, especially in the residential suburbs. In central Pest, however, it is not uncommon for temperatures to be above 25 ° C at midnight. The storms , some of them violent with strong gusts and torrential rains are also frequent. The highest temperature recorded was 40.7 ° C on July 20, 2007. [54]

High temperatures can stay above 20 ° C until the end of October. The coldest nights and frost arrive for the first time, usually in the second week of October. The short cold spells vary with the summer of San Miguel , which can last for weeks. In November there is abundant rain, sometimes snow, and a drastic drop in temperatures (to 10 ° C throughout the autumn of the month).

The winters are variable and unpredictable. The westerly winds bring temperate oceanic air, with temperatures between 5-10 ° C, almost without freezing and disperses rain or snow. The squalls moving from the Mediterranean Sea can bring snowstorms with 20-40 cm drop in one day, followed by cold air from Russia . South Atlantic storms and wind can bring unusually warm weather, with temperatures reaching 15 ° C even in January. The Siberian anticyclonebrings every two years a very sunny but cold period lasting a week or two with lows in the climate range of -15 to -20 ° C. The anticyclones with the upper centers of Western Europe produce cold fog with no changes in temperature between day and night and stay around or slightly below 0 ° C. The fog can last for weeks. Mediterranean storms moving above the fog layer can bring a day or two of freezing rain. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] [ 57 ]

Gnome-weather-few-clouds.svg Average climatic parameters of Budapest WPTC Meteo task force.svg
My One. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Ago. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annual
Temp. máx. abs. (°C) 18.1 19.7 25.4 30.2 34.0 39.5 40.7 39.4 35.2 30.8 22.6 19.3 40.7
Temp. max. media (° C) 2.9 5.5 10.6 16.4 21.9 24.6 26.7 26.6 21.6 15.4 7.7 4.0 15.3
Temp. media (°C) -0.4 2.3 6.1 12.0 16.6 19.7 21.5 21.2 16.9 11.8 5.4 1.8 11.2
Temp. min. media (° C) -1.7 0.0 3.5 7.6 12.1 15.1 16.8 16.5 12.8 7.85 2.9 -0.0 7.8
Temp. mín. abs. (°C) -25.6 -23.4 -15.1 -4.6 -1.6 3.0 5.9 5.0 -3.1 -9.5 -16.4 -20.8 -25.6
Total precipitation (mm) 37 29 30 42 62 63 45 49 40 39 53 43 532
Rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 7 6 6 6 8 8 7 6 5 5 7 7 78
Hours of sun 55 84 137 182 230 248 274 255 197 156 67 48 1933
Source: www.met.hu [ 58 ]


Economy

Aluminum Products Factory

Budapest became a global city due to industrialization . In 1910, 45.2% of the total population worked in factories. The Hungarian capital was one of the largest industrial cities in Europe with 600,000 factory workers in the 1960s. Between 1920 and 1970, more than half of all Hungary's industrial production was made in Budapest. The Metallurgy (FEG), the textile industry and the industry of automobile (Ikarus) were the main sectors receiving structural changes. [ 59 ]

Now almost every branch of industry is located in Budapest. The main products are engineering and computer communication apparatus , electrical machines, incandescent lamps ( General Electric ). The pharmaceutical industry is also important, Egis well known and the Gedeon Richter and Chinoin companies are Hungarian, while Teva also has a division here.

The industry is rather on the outskirts, as the center is the place for the main service of national and international financial companies, such as Telekom Hungary, General Electric , Vodafone , Telenor , Erste Bank , CIB Bank, K&H Bank & Insurance, UniCredit , Budapest Bank , Generali Providencia Insurance, ING , Aegon Insurance, Allianz . The regional bases of Volvo Co., Saab , Ford , GE, IBM, TATA Consultancy Services Limited are Budapest. The Hungarian Oil and Gas MOL group, which with its subsidiaries, is an integrated oil and gas leader in Central and Eastern Europe. HeOTP Bank , which is the largest bank in Hungary, with branches in eight other countries, is based in the capital.

Budapest is the center of services, financial advisory, currency transactions, commercial services and goods. Trade and logistics services are well developed. The tourism and hospitality industry also deserve mention as the capital there are thousands of local restaurants, bars, cafes and party places.

Places of interest

Parliament of Budapest with the Danube River in the foreground

In 1987 "Budapest, with the banks of the Danube , the Buda Castle district and Andrássy Avenue " was declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco.

The neo- Gothic Parliament houses, among other things, the Hungarian Crown Jewels. The St. Stephen 's Basilica , where the Right Hand of the founder Saint of Hungary, is exhibited king San Esteban . The Hungarian cuisine and culture coffee can taste, for example, in the Café Gerbeaud, and Szazeves, Biarritz, Fortuna, Alabárdos, Arany Szarvas, Kárpátia and the famous Mátyás Pince restaurants. There are Roman remains in the Aquincum Museum and historical furniture in the Nagytétény Museum , which are just two of the 223 museums in Budapest.

The castle hill and the castle district are home to three churches, six museums, and a number of interesting buildings, streets, and squares. The old Royal Palace is one of the symbols of Hungary and has been the scene of battles and wars since the 13th century . Today it houses two impressive museums and the Széchenyi National Library . The nearby Sándor Palace houses the offices and official residence of the President of Hungary . The seven centuries old Church of St. Matthias is one of the jewels of Budapest. Next to it is an equestrian statue of the first king of Hungary , King Saint Stephen , and behind this the Fisherman's Bastion, from where a panoramic view of the entire city opens. Statues of Turul , Hungary's mythical guardian bird, can be found in both the Castle Quarter and District XII.

In Pest , undoubtedly the most important show is Andrássy út , while Kodály Körönd and Oktogon streets are full of shops and large apartments built closely together. From there to the Plaza de los Héroes the houses are completely separated and are more spacious. Within the complex is the oldest metropolitan railway in continental Europe , most of whose stations retain their original appearance. Heroes' Square is dominated by the Millennium Monument, with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in front. On the sides are the Museum of Fine Arts and the Gallery of contemporary art in Budapest, and behind the City Park opens , with the castle of Vajdahunyad . One of Andrássy út's jewels is the Hungarian National Opera . Memento Park , a theme park with notable statues from the communist era, is located just outside the city center and is accessible by public transport.

The city is home to the largest synagogue in Europe (the Dohány Street Synagogue ) [ 60 ] and the second largest in the world. It is located in the Jewish quarter occupying several blocks in the center of Budapest bordered by Király utca, Wesselényi utca, the Grand Boulevard and the Bajcsy Zsilinszky highway. The city is also proud to have the largest medicinal water bath in Europe ( Széchenyi Baths ) and the third largest Parliament building in the world. The third largest church in Europe ( Esztergom Basilica ) and the second largest Baroque castle in the world ( Gödöllő ) are located in close proximity.

In the urban landscape of Budapest you can see the Statue of Liberty , which is 14 meters high and rests on a 26-meter pedestal on Gellert Hill . [ 61 ] The statue was built in bronze during the Soviet occupation of Hungary.

Culture

Performance at the Museum of Fine Arts .

The dance tradition of the Carpathian Basin is the unique area of ​​European dance culture, which is also a kind of transition between the Balkans and the Western European regions . There are several authentic Hungarian folk dance ensembles in Budapest, some of them professional. Budapest is one of the few cities in the world where there is a secondary school for learning folk dance.

In Budapest, there are currently 837 different monuments, representing most of the European art style. The classic and unique Hungarian Art Nouveau buildings are prominent.

The city's 223 museums and galleries present not only exhibitions and Hungarian art, but also art and science from universal and European culture. Among the most important ones in the city are the Hungarian National Museum , the Hungarian National Gallery , the Museum of Fine Arts , the Budapest Historical Museum , the Memento Park and the Museum of Applied Arts .

In Budapest there are forty theaters, seven concert halls and an opera house. Open-air festivals, concerts and conferences are also often held in historical buildings, enriching the cultural offer of the summer. The most prestigious institutions of theater are the Operetta and Musical Theater Budapest , the Theater József Attila , the Theater Katona József , the Madách Theater , the Hungarian State Opera House , the National Theater , the Vigadó, Theater Radnóti Miklós and Theater the comedy.

Sala de lectura en la Biblioteca Nacional Széchenyi

Many libraries have unique collections in Budapest, such as the Széchenyi National Library , which keeps historical relics from the time before the books were printed. The Ervin Szabó Metropolitan Library plays an important role in the general education of the population of the capital. Other important libraries are the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences , the Eötvös Loránd University Library, the Parliament Library and the National Library of Foreign Literature.

Among Hungary's cultural events, the biggest open-air festival is the Sziget Festival , which is very popular throughout Europe. Others that are also important and are celebrated in the city are the Festival Budapest Spring , the Autumn Festival Budapest , the Feast of the Wine Festival Budapest and Budapest Pálinka.

Tourists visiting Budapest are provided with free maps and information about the various "points of interest" by the municipal company BTDM at their information points. [ 62 ] The 24 and 72 hour Budapest card is available to visitors. For transportation, the validity of the card is free and there are discounts at various museums, restaurants and other places of interest. [ 63 ] The city is also known for its bars in ancient ruins. [ 64 ]

Thermal baths

Széchenyi thermal baths.

In 1934, Budapest received the title of "City of Spas" for being the capital with the most medicinal and thermal water wells in the world; [ 65 ] is known by some as "The world capital of medicinal waters".

Its network is unique: the yield of thermal waters, with temperatures of 21 to 78 degrees Celsius , which spring from 118 natural sources and artificial wells, exceeds 70 million liters per day. In Budapest are well - known thermal baths public: Gellért Baths ( Gellért fürdő ), Széchenyi ( Széchenyi fürdő ) the largest European spa, Balneario Lukacs ( Lukacs fürdő ), Rudas Baths ( Rudas fürdő ), Spa Kiraly ( Király fürdő ) and Spa Rác ( Rác fürdő ). The medicinal watersThey are used to treat diseases of the locomotor organs, blood circulation and gynecology .

In the surroundings of these thermal baths there are wells and rooms for drinking medicinal water with a high content of different mineral types. The best known of these eating rooms serves as the entrance to the Lukács thermal bath , which was inaugurated in 1937, its medicinal waters geared towards curing digestive problems. The building of the thermal bath was built in 1894. Its medicinal beneficial effects were soon known in the rest of Europe , becoming one of the most notable places of this healthy specialty.

Also famous are the thermal baths from the Turkish period that operate today, such as the Király , built in the late 1500s, and the Rác bath . The Rudas Bath - with its octagonal colonnaded room and cupola - is the oldest and best decorated Turkish bath .

Islas

Seven islands can be found in the Danube: Shipyard, Margaret Island, Csepel Island , Palotai-Sziget (now a peninsula), Népsziget, Haros-Sziget, and Sziget Molnár.

Aerial view of Margarita Island

The Margarita Island 2.5 km (1.6 miles) long and 0,965 square kilometers (238 acres) of surface. It consists mainly of a park and is a popular recreational area for tourists and locals alike. The island is located between the Margaret Bridge (south) and the Árpád bridge (north). On the island you can find nightclubs, swimming pools, a water park, running tracks, cycling tracks, athletics and gyms. During the day the island is occupied by people who do sports or simply relax. In the summer (usually on weekends) the youngest go to the island at night to party on its terraces, or to have fun with a bottle of alcohol on a bench or on the lawn (this form of entertainment is called sometimes as a bank-party).

The island of Csepel (Hungarian pronunciation:] tʃɛpɛlsiɡɛt [) is the largest island in the Danube River in Hungary. It is 48 km (30 miles) long, its width is 6.8 km (3.75-5 miles), and its area encompasses 257 km² (99 square miles), although only the extreme north is within the city limits. .

Hajógyári-Sziget ([hɒjo ː ː ɟa siɡɛt ri], or Sziget Óbudai-) is an artificial island, located in the third district. This island is home to numerous activities such as: wake boarding, jet skis during the day, and dance clubs at night. This is the island where the famous Sziget Festival takes place, receiving hundreds of performances per year and around 400,000 visitors in its latest edition. Many construction projects are underway to make this island one of the most important leisure centers in Europe, the plan is to build apartment buildings, hotels, casinos and a marina.

Luppa-Sziget is the smallest island in Budapest, located in the northern region.

Education

Main building of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics in 1909.

Budapest is the educational center of Hungary and home to the most prestigious universities in the country:

There are secondary schools:

  • Instituto Bilingüe Húngaro-Español Károlyi Mihály de Kispest
  • Instituto Bilingüe Karinthy Frigyes

Transport

aerial

The Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport is located about 25 km to the south-east of the city center. It is made up of three terminals: Ferihegy 1, Ferihegy 2 / A and Ferihegy 2 / B. From the airport it takes about 30 minutes to get to the city center; the price of the trip is around € 19 by taxi and € 6 by bus. Malév was the national airline.

The airport can also be reached by public transport, the bus number 200E connects the two terminals with the Kobanya-Kispest metro and railway station, and the number 93 connects Terminal 1 with the same station. The price is approximately 320 forints or 400, if the ticket is purchased from the bus driver (May 2010). The city center can also be reached by train from Terminal 1 to Nyugati Station.

Railway

Budapest suburban train units, part of the HÉV lines

The Hungarian national rail transport company is MÁV . The three main stations in Budapest are: Keleti to the east, Nyugati to the west and Déli to the south. All three have national and international connections. Budapest was one of the most important stops of the Orient Express until 2001, [ 66 ] year in which the route was reduced to between Paris and Vienna .

The Budapest metro network is the oldest on the continent, having been inaugurated on the occasion of the "Millennium" celebration in 1896. There is also a suburban train service in the surroundings of Budapest, which operates under the name HÉV .

Public transport

Budapest metro and suburban train lines. Meter: Line M1 Line M2 M3 line M4 line Suburban train: Line H5 Line H6 Line H7 Lines H8 and H9

Public transport in Budapest is managed by BKV - Budapesti Közlekedési Vállalat or Budapest Transport Company— , [ 67 ] a company that handles buses , trolleybuses , trams , commuter rail lines, metro, boat services, funicular and a chairlift called Libegő .

Budapest's tram network is extensive and reliable despite poor infrastructure and its aging fleet. Routes 4 and 6 combined form the busiest tram line in the world, with the longest passenger trams in the world (54 meters long Combino from Siemens) running 60 to 90 seconds at rush hour and 3-4 minutes off-peak and usually crowded.

There are four subway lines . The Yellow Line, built in 1896, is the second oldest underground line in the world, second only to the London Underground built in 1863. However, it is also the first electrified underground line in Europe. They are followed by red (1970), blue (1976) and green (2014).

A Budapest tram, built by Ganz around 1972.

Roads

Budapest is the most important Hungarian term for road, most of the main roads end near the city limits. The road system in the city is laid out in a similar way to that of Paris, with several ring roads, and avenues radiating from the center.

The M0 ring road around Budapest is almost complete, with only one section missing on the west side due to local disputes. Currently, the ring road is about 80 kilometers in length, and once completed, it will be about 100 kilometers in length.

River transport

The Danube River flows through Budapest on its way to the Black Sea . The river is easily navigable and thus Budapest has historically been an important commercial port (in Csepel ). In the summer months a scheduled airboat service runs from the Danube to Vienna .

Information offices

International relations

Town twinning

Budapest is twinned with: [ 68 ] [ 69 ] [ 70 ]

country City Region Date
Turkey flag Turkey Istanbul Istanbul Province 1985
Flag of austria Austria One One 1990
Spanish flag Spain Madrid Madrid 1992
Bosnia and Herzegovina flag Bosnia y Herzegovina Sarajevo Canton of Sarajevo 1995
Bolivian flag Bolivia Peace Department of La Paz 2009
Turkey flag Turkey Smyrna Izmir Province 1985
Bulgaria flag Bulgaria Sofia Sofia
Flag of People's Republic of China China Beijing Beijing 2005[71]
Flag of croatia Croatia Zagreb Zagreb 1994[72]
Flag of France France Paris Ile-de-France 1956
Flag of germany Germany Berlin Berlin 1992[73]
Flag of germany Germany Frankfurt am Main Hessen 1990
Indonesian flag Indonesia Jakarta Jakarta 2009[74]
Israel flag Israel Tel Aviv Tel Aviv District 1989[75]
Italian flag Italy Florence Tuscany 2008[76]
Poland flag Poland Warsaw Voivodeship of Mazovia 2005[77]
Lithuania flag Lithuania Wool Vilnius Province
Portugal's flag Portugal Lisboa Lisbon District 1992
Romania flag Romania Bucharest Bucharest 1991
Slovakia flag Slovakia Košice Košice Region 1997[78]
Flag of South Korea South Korea Daejeon Daejeon 1994[79]
Thailand flag Thailand Bangkok Bangkok 2007
Ukraine flag Ukraine Lviv Lviv Oblast 1993[80]
United States flag U.S Fort Worth Texas 1990[81]
Turkey flag Turkey Gaziantep Provincia at Gaziantep 2010
United States flag U.S NY NY 1992[82]

Collaboration


Predecessor:
Finland flag Helsinki
World Heritage Logo global.svg
Venue for the
2001 World Heritage Committee Sessions
Successor:
Flag of France Paris

See also

References

  1. ^ A b Bachmann, Helena (March 18, 2002). "Beauty and the Feast" . Time . Retrieved May 22, 2008 .
  2. ^ "Budapest" . Encyclopædia Britannica . Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2008 . Retrieved January 30, 2008 .
  3. «Population by type of settlement – annually». Hungarian Central Statistical Office. 12 de abril de 2016. Consultado el 12 de abril de 2016.
  4. ^ "Interactive population pyramids of Budapest (1980-2010)" . Hungary Central Statistical Office . Retrieved May 10, 2011 . ( broken link available on the Internet Archive ; see history , first version and latest ).
  5. a b c d e f g h i j k l Török, András. "Budapest" . Encarta . Archived from the original on March 28, 2008 . Retrieved April 6, 2008 .
  6. Molnar, A Concise History of Hungary, Chronology pp. 15.
  7. ^ A b c d "Aquincum" . Encyclopædia Britannica . Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2008 . Retrieved May 22, 2008 .
  8. Sugar, Peter F.; Péter Hanák, Tibor Frank (1990). «Hungary before the Hungarian Conquest». A History of Hungary. Indiana University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-253-20867-X. Consultado el 19 de mayo de 2008.
  9. ^ A b c d e f "Budapest" . Travel Channel . Archived from the original on October 9, 2008 . Retrieved May 22, 2008 .
  10. ^ A b c "Budapest" . 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition . Retrieved January 30, 2008 .
  11. Drake, Miriam A. (2003). «Eastern Europe, England and Spain». Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. CRC Press. p. 2498. ISBN 0-8247-2080-6. Consultado el 22 de mayo de 2008.
  12. Casmir, Fred L. (1995). «Hungarian culture in communication». Communication in Eastern Europe: The Role of History, Culture, and media in contemporary conflicts. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 122. ISBN 0-8058-1625-9. Consultado el 21 de mayo de 2008.
  13. Molnar, A Concise History of Hungary, Chronology pp. 15
  14. Beaverstock, J. V.; R. J. Smith, P. J. Taylor (1999). A Roster of World Cities. Loughborough University. Consultado el 22 de mayo de 2008.
  15. a b «Nomination of the banks of the Danube and the district of the Buda Castle». International Council on Monuments and Sites. Consultado el 31 de enero de 2008.
  16. ^ Lyman, Rick (October 3, 2006). "Budapest Is Stealing Some of Prague's Spotlight" . The New York Times . Retrieved January 29, 2008 .
  17. «World Heritage Committee Inscribes 9 New Sites on the World Heritage List». Unesco World Heritage Centre. Consultado el 31 de enero de 2008.
  18. «Hungary's, Budapest's and Balaton's Guide: Budapest's spas: Gellért, Király, Rác, Ru .. 'l'; ] l; lldas, Széchenyi, Lukács » . Guideviaggi.net. Archived in the original on 28 September 2008 . Consulted on 7 July 2009 .
  19. ^ "Big underground thermal lake unveiled in Budapest, Hungary" . Tvnz.co.nz. November 19, 2008. Archived from the original on November 27, 2009 . Retrieved July 7, 2009 .
  20. «Euromonitor International’s top city destinations ranking». Euromonitor.
  21. «New MasterCard Research Ranks 65 Cities in Emerging Markets Poised to Drive Long-Term Global Economic Growth». MasterCard. 22 de octubre de 2008. Consultado el 7 de julio de 2009.
  22. «Index - Abroad - Budapest is the most livable city in Europe» . Index.hu. 7 de julio but from 2008 . Consulted on 7 July 2009 .
  23. «Economy: EIU: on the list of the most livable cities between Budapest, London and New York» . HVG.hu. 1 of the 1970s . Consulted on 15 September 2011 .
  24. Beckett, Edward; Olson, Parmy. «In Pictures: Europe's Most Idyllic Places To Live». Forbes.
  25. ^ "The Top 10 MOST BEAUTIFUL CITIES in the World" (in English) . Retrieved January 23, 2016 .
  26. «Innovation Cities™ Top 100 Index » Innovation Cities Index & Program – City data training events from 2THINKNOW for USA Canada America Europe Asia Mid-East Australia». Innovation-cities.com. 1 de septiembre de 2010. Consultado el 15 de septiembre de 2011.
  27. «CEE City Ranking puts capitals under the spotlight | Local and regional publications » . Rolandberger.at. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011 . Retrieved September 15, 2011 .
  28. Peter Meusburger, Heike Jöns: Transformations in Hungary: Essays in Economy and Society, Springer Verlag, 2001 [1]
  29. Kiss Lajos: Etymological Dictionary of Geographical Names. Budapest: Akadémiai. 1978. 131–132.
  30. György Györffy, The Formation of Pest-Buda: The History of Budapest from the Conquest to the Capital City at the End of the Árpádian Age, Budapest, Akadémiai, 1997, 242.
  31. Gudmund Schütte, Ptolemy's Maps of Northern Europe (The Royal Danish Geographical Society: Copenhagen, 1917). p. 101
  32. William Smith (ed.), A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (London : I.B. Tauris, 2006) [Facsim. of ed. published: London : John Murray, 1872.]
  33. Adrian Room (2006). Placenames of the World. McFarland & Company. p. 70. ISBN 9780786422487.
  34. Sugar, Peter F. (1990). «Hungary before the Hungarian Conquest». A History of Hungary. Indiana University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-253-20867-5. Consultado el 3 de junio de 2008.
  35. B. Dimitrov, Bulgarians- Civilizers of the slavs, p.48
  36. Molnar, A Concise History of Hungary, Chronology pp. 12
  37. Molnar, A Concise History of Hungary, p. 14
  38. a b Sugar, Peter F. (1990). «The Angevine State». A History of Hungary. Indiana University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-253-20867-5. Consultado el 3 de junio de 2008.
  39. , Mona, Ilona (1974). "Hungarian Music Publication 1774-1867." Musicologica studies Academy of Sciences (Akadimiai Press) 16 (1/4): 261-275. JSTOR 901850 . doi : 10.2307 / 901850 .
  40. ^ A b Southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule, 1354-1804, Peter F. Sugar, p. 88
  41. Jaroslav Miller (2016). Urban Societies in East-Central Europe, 1500–1700. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 978-0-7546-5739-2.
  42. Hughes, Holly (13 de agosto de 2009). «7 Famous Briges». Frommer's 500 Places to Take Your Kids Before They Grow Up. Wiley Indianapolis Composition Services. ISBN 0470577606.
  43. Statistical Yearbook of Budapest 1943 (p. 1943), p. 33, Hungarian Central Statistical Office
  44. Budapest Capital Administration and Statistical Yearbook 1921-1924 (Statistical Yearbook of Budapest, 1921-1924), p. 38, Hungarian Central Statistical Office
  45. Statistical Yearbook of Budapest, 1944-1946, p. 12, Hungarian Central Statistical Office
  46. Encyclopædia Britannica 1911, Budapest article
  47. Macartney, C.A. (1937). Hungary and her successors - The Treaty of Trianon and Its Consequences 1919–1937. Oxford University Press.
  48. ^ Bernstein, Richard (August 9, 2003). "East on the Danube: Hungary's Tragic Century" . The New York Times . Retrieved March 15, 2008 .
  49. ^ "Budapest" . United States Holocaust Memorial Museum . Retrieved July 18, 2007 .
  50. "Raoul Wallenberg". Jewish Virtual Library.
  51. ^ Camber (ed.). "History of Hungary" . Archived from the original on September 18, 2013 . Retrieved March 17, 2013 .
  52. ^ "Downtown and Districts" . Budapest Corner . Archived from the original on December 15, 2010 . Retrieved December 14, 2010 .
  53. ^ "Budapest: When to go" . Lonely Planet . Retrieved April 6, 2008 .
  54. ^ "Magyarországi időjárási rekordok - Hungarian" . Archived from the original on June 21, 2008 . Retrieved September 25, 2008 .
  55. ^ "Az adatsorok éghajati elemzése - Hungarian" . Archived from the original on September 17, 2008 . Retrieved September 25, 2008 .
  56. Weather; HarperCollinsPublishers, 2001; ISBN 0-00-220138-0
  57. The Rough Guide to Weather; Penguin Group; 2002; ISBN 1-85828-827-4
  58. ^ "Monthly Averages for Budapest, Hungary (based on data from 1901–2010)" . Hungarian Meteorological Service . Archived from the original on November 12, 2008 . Retrieved June 4, 2010 .
  59. Gábor Preisich: The History of the City of Budapest, Technical Publishing House, Budapest, 1998, ISBN 963-16-1467-0 , p. 13, p. 77
  60. ^ Kulish, Nicholas (December 30, 2007). "Out of Darkness, New Life . " The New York Times . Retrieved March 12, 2008 .
  61. ^ Lonely Planet (ed.). "Liberty Monument in Budapest" (in English) . Retrieved March 16, 2013 .
  62. https://web.archive.org/web/20130306101740/http://www.budapestinfo.hu/home_en.html
  63. https://web.archive.org/web/20130116182238/http://budapest-card.com/index.php?id=home_en
  64. http://www.bbc.com/travel/feature/20110809-exploring-the-ruin-pubs-of-budapests-seventh-district
  65. «What to see in Budapest. Top 10 things you can't miss in the hot springs capital of the world - Travel Hunter » . hunterdeviajes.com . Retrieved December 13, 2018 .
  66. ^ "Orient Express Destinations" . Retrieved April 16, 2012 .
  67. ^ Rail, Evan (August 12, 2007). "36 Hours in Budapest" . The New York Times . Retrieved January 29, 2008 .
  68. ^ "Sister City - Budapest" . Official website of New York City . Archived from the original on April 21, 2008 . Retrieved May 14, 2008 .
  69. ^ "Sister cities of Budapest" (in Hungarian ) . Official Website of Budapest . Archived from the original on March 9, 2005 . Retrieved January 31, 2008 .
  70. «Who knows less about Budapest? A maybe with higher candidates » (in Hungarian) . Index . Retrieved January 31, 2008 .
  71. ^ "Sister Cities" . Beijing Municipal Government . Retrieved June 23, 2009 .
  72. «Intercity and International Cooperation of the City of Zagreb». 2006–2009 City of Zagreb. Consultado el 23 de junio de 2009.
  73. ^ "Berlin's international city relations" . Berlin Mayor's Office. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008 . Retrieved July 1, 2009 .
  74. «The Jakarta Post - Hungarian envoy builds new links with RI». The Jakarta Post.
  75. ^ "Tel Aviv sister cities" (in Hebrew) . Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009 . Retrieved July 1, 2009 .
  76. «Flattering to the Hungarian capital: welcome to the sister city of Florence» . Népszabadság (en hungarian) . Ringier . May 17, 2008 . Consulted on 30 May 2008 .
  77. ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy" . um.warszawa.pl . Biuro Promocji Miasta. May 4, 2005. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008 . Retrieved August 29, 2008 .
  78. ^ "Partnership towns of the City of Košice" (in Slovak) . copyright 2007-2009 City of Košice Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. SNP 48 / A, 040 11 Košice. Archived from the original on August 17, 2009 . Retrieved July 12, 2009 .
  79. Daejeon.kr
  80. «Archived copy» . Archived from the original on August 18, 2010 . Retrieved January 4, 2013 .
  81. ^ "Fort Worth Sister Cities" . fwsistercities.org . Retrieved February 17, 2010 .
  82. ^ "NYC's Sister Cities" . Sister City Program of the City of New York. 2006. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008 . Retrieved September 1, 2008 .
  83. ^ «Krakow open to the world» . www.krakow.pl . Consultado el 19 de julio de 2009 .

external links