Buenos Aires - Buenos Aires
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires |
City of Trinidad and Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires
|Federal capital of Argentina|
|Other names : Queen of the Plata [ 4 ] - the great capital of the south [ 5 ] - Paris of America [ 6 ] [ 7 ] - Baires [ 8 ] [ 9 ]|
Location of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires in Argentina
Location of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
|Entity||Federal capital of Argentina|
| Head of Government |
Deputy Head of Government
| Horacio Rodríguez Larreta ( PRO - JxC ) |
Diego Santilli ( PRO - JxC ) City
Martín Lousteau ( UCR - JxC ))
Guadalupe Tagliaferri ( PRO - JxC )
Mariano Recalde ( PJ - FdT )
15 communes |
February 2 or 3, 1536 (by Pedro de Mendoza ) |
June 11, 1580 (by Juan de Garay )
|• Total||203 km²|
|• Media||25 m s. n. m.|
|Weather||humid subtropical Cfa|
|Population ( 2010 )||Position 1 (as city), 4 (as self-governing state or jurisdiction, and electoral district) .º|
|• Total||3,075,646 hab. [ 1 ]|
|• Density||15,069.99 hab / km²|
|• Metropolitan||17,541,141 hab.|
|IDH (2018)||0.867 [ 2 ] ( 1st ) - Very high|
|Patron (a)||San Martin de Tours|
ARS 110.020.000.000 (26,7 %)
2016 [ 3 ]
|Metropolitan area||Greater Buenos Aires|
|Official Web site|
|Member of: Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities , Mercociudades|
Buenos Aires , officially the City of Buenos Aires or the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires ( CABA ) [ 10 ] or, colloquially, the Federal Capital [ 11 ] , is the capital and most populated city of the Argentine Republic . This metropolis is an autonomous city that constitutes one of the 24 districts , or "first-order jurisdictions" [ 12 ] , that make up the country. It has its own executive , legislative and judicial powers. It is located in the central-eastern region of the country, on the south bank of the Río de la Plata , in the Pampean region . The City of Buenos Aires was ceded in 1880 by the Province of Buenos Aires to be the federal capital of the country. By virtue of the constitutional reform of 1994, it enjoys a regime of autonomy .
Its urban fabric resembles a fan that limits to the south, west and north with the neighboring Province of Buenos Aires and to the east with the Río de la Plata . Officially the city is divided into 15 communes that group 48 neighborhoods . From 1880 to the present is also called Capital Federal , [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] although since 1996 not officially figure with that name or in its own Constitution [ 16 ] nor the Constitution . 
The estimated population of the city is 3 075 646 inhabitants [ 18 ] and that of the Greater Buenos Aires Agglomerate (made up of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires itself together with certain parties-municipalities of the bordering Province of Buenos Aires ) is 17 541 141 inhabitants, [ 1 ] being the latter the second agglomerate in Latin America , the second in South America and one of the 20 largest cities in the world. [ 19 ] [ 20 ]
Buenos Aires is a cosmopolitan city and an important tourist destination. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] Its complex infrastructure makes it one of the most important metropolis in America and is a global city of alpha category, [ 23 ] given its influences in commerce, finance, fashion, art, gastronomy , education, entertainment and mainly in its marked culture. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] According to a study of quality of life(2016) by Mercer Human Resource Consulting, the city is in position 93 worldwide and second in Latin America after Montevideo. [ 26 ] Its per capita income is one of the highest in the region. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] It is considered one of the 25 most influential cities in the world. [ 29 ]
Its urban profile is markedly eclectic . Spanish colonial , art deco , art nouveau , neo-Gothic , Italianate , Bourbon French and French academic styles are mixed . For the latter, added to its building development and marked European influence on its architecture in certain areas, it is known throughout the world by the nickname "The Paris of America ." [ 30 ]
In the so-called first foundation , Pedro de Mendoza called the place Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre, to fulfill the promise he made to the Patron Saint of Navigators, who was in the Confraternity of the Mareantes de Triana and from which he was a member. Indeed, "Buen Ayre", the Castilianization of the name of the Virgin of Bonaria , that is, of the Virgin of Candelaria , to whom the Mercedarian fathers had built a sanctuary for sailors in Cagliari , Sardinia , and who was also venerated by the navigators of Cádiz, Spain. Mendoza. However, he did not found a city, but a settlement (real in the terminology of the time), close to a Querandí village , which was not considered as such by Europeans, who supplied them with food for two weeks. Subsequent hostilities prevented the foundation of a population from taking place according to Castilian laws , therefore the founding of the city of Buenos Aires dates back to Juan de Garay in 1580 , who named it Ciudad de la Trinidad , [ 31 ] official name, but almost never used in the city until 1996. [ 32 ]
The reason for the name does not appear in any documentation; It has been speculated that the Trinity is the closest religious festival or because of the day on which the colonizers arrived at the site, the port, for its part, retained the name by which it was already known at the time, with the shape of Puerto of Santa María de los Buenos Ayres . [ 33 ] [ 34 ] Until 1996 there was no official provision to change his name; However, the ignorance of the facts and the memory of the tragic expedition of Pedro de Mendoza led to the general use of the name of Buenos Aires for the city. [ 35 ]
For many years the name was attributed to Sancho del Campo, from whom Ruy Díaz de Guzmán in his work La Argentina manuscript collected the phrase: "What good airs are those of this soil!", Which he pronounced when he came down. However, in 1892, Eduardo Madero , after conducting exhaustive investigations in the Spanish archives, ended up concluding that the name was closely related to the devotion of the Sevillian sailors to Our Lady of Buenos Aires. The author Pastor S. Obligado attributed the tribute to the Virgen del Buen Aire to Leonardo Gribeo , squire from Mendoza. [ 36 ]
In Argentina they usually refer to it by different names. The name of Capital Federal was one of the most used — especially to differentiate it from the homonymous province — in allusion to the status of an independent district that it acquired with the federalization law promulgated by Julio Argentino Roca . Many times the expression "City of Buenos Aires" is also used, or simply "Buenos Aires", although the latter is confused with the neighboring province, of which it was its capital until 1880, the year in which it was federalized.
"City of Buenos Aires" and "Autonomous City of Buenos Aires" are the two names that were officially given by the Constitution of the city sanctioned in 1996. This is why the abbreviation 'CABA' is also often used to mention it. Informally it is usually called Baires , short for the original form, common within the city but little used in the interior of the country.
In a figurative way it has numerous names, such as the Paris of the south, for its architectural beauty and its cultural character; or the Head of Goliath , according to an essay by Ezequiel Martínez Estrada , alluding to its size and disproportionate influence on the rest of the country; or the Reina del Plata, as Manuel Jovés and Manuel Romero call her in a famous tango , taking a metaphor that Esteban Echeverría had already used in his poem Avellaneda ; [ 37 ]
The Río de la Plata (to the east and north) and the Río Matanza-Riachuelo (to the south) are the natural limits of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires . The rest of the perimeter is surrounded by the external collector of Avenida General Paz , [ 39 ] which is a 24 km long highway that bypasses the city from north to west until it meets the Matanza-Riachuelo River to the south. . It should be remembered that to the east the limit is the waters of the mentioned river, except for a line that is found by: Avenida Presidente Ramón S. Castillo, Corbeta Uruguay and Avenida Antártida Argentina and Avenida Lanchas up to the Río de la Plata; then returning to the limit on the line formed by Avenida España, Avenida Rawson de Dellepiane and the Autopista Dr. Arturo Balbín, reaching the Riachuelo . This described line demarcates a boundary to the East, between the jurisdiction belonging to the CABA and a space under the jurisdiction of the National State , which is the Port of Buenos Aires (not to be confused with Puerto Madero ). [ 40 ]
There is a small section of no more than 2 km, between the Avenida Intendente Cantilo and the Río de la Plata, where the limit with the Province of Buenos Aires is in part the imaginary line of the extension of Av. General Paz [ 41 ] And another section of the Raggio stream ; this sector corresponds to the limit between the Children's Park and the Paseo de la Costa. This is due to the fact that the highway called Avenida General Paz does not end on the coast of the river but at Av. Intendente Cantilo. This avenue quickly links the city with the rest of Greater Buenos Aires, a strip of high concentration of inhabitants and strong commercial and industrial activity.
Additionally, in Commune 4 there is a meander of the Riachuelo , called Meandro de Brian , where the limit with the Province of Buenos Aires becomes the projection of the pending rectification of the channel, so that in the area where the river borders the meander, both banks (including the meander itself) are part of the City of Buenos Aires. [ 42 ] [ 43 ]
|Northwest: San Martín||North: Vicente López and Río de la Plata||Northeast: Río de la Plata|
|West: February 3rd||East: Río de la Plata|
|Southwest: La Matanza||South: Lomas de Zamora||Southeast: Lanús and Avellaneda|
The region was formerly dotted with lagoons and crossed by streams , some of which were filled in and others piped. Among the important streams are the Terceros (from the South or from Granados, from the Middle or from Matorras and from the North or from Manso), Maldonado , Vega , Medrano , Cildáñez and White. In 1908 many streams were channeled and rectified, since with the floods they caused damage to the infrastructure of the city. They were channeled but were kept in the open sky, building several bridges for their crossing. Finally in 1919 the closed pipeline was available, but work began only in 1927, finishing some in 1938 and others, like Maldonado, in 1954. [ 45 ]
The city is almost totally located in the geologically Pampas region, only the eastern areas - where Puerto Madero , the Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve , the Aeroparque , the Boca Juniors Sports City , among other areas are located - are of emerged terrain. artificially by filling the coasts of the Río de La Plata . [ 46 ]
The original limit of the coast with the river was given by a series of ravines (among them the Barrancas de Belgrano ) arisen by the variations of the sea level (and the estuary of the Plata) thousands of years ago. [ 47 ] Such old limit corresponds approximately to the following avenues: Paseo Colón , Leandro N. Alem , and del Libertador . [ 48 ] The marginal forest that remains on many coasts of the Paraná River to the north and south of Buenos Aires no longer exists.
The stream basins were characterized by the existence of more depressed areas than others, known as "flood valleys". In this way, the territory had gentle undulations interrupted by the south, before the wide flood valley corresponding to the Riachuelo , a large part of the flooded areas received the name of Bañados de Pereyra until the beginning of the 20th century . The highest area of the autonomous city is in the Villa Devoto neighborhood . [ 49 ]
The existence of a series of quite steep coastal ravines is explained by variations in sea level (and the estuary of the Plata) thousands of years ago. [ 48 ] Despite being most of the Buenos Aires area part of the Pampean region, avoid believing that the territory was very flat before urbanization, the series of streams implied the existence of more depressed areas than others, those lower areas were known as "flood valleys". In this way, the territory had gentle undulations interrupted by the south, before the wide flood valley corresponding to the Riachuelo, the Riachuelo flood valley was a swampy area (for example: Los Bañados de Pereyra, dried up throughout the 20th century ).
The highest area of the autonomous city is in the neighborhood of Villa Devoto [ 50 ] located in the west of the city. The highest point is the corner of Av. Francisco Beiró and Chivilcoy, which is located in said neighborhood, near the border with Monte Castro. [ 51 ] It should be considered that Monte Castro receives its name from "mount" not because there is some orographic accident there, but because of the other meaning that the word " mount " has in Argentina : that of a wooded area. Indeed, this highest area of the city, before 1880 was naturally populated by groves.The famous neighborhood of La Boca is an area easily flooded by the Río de la Plata, given its low altitude, to avoid its flooding during the south-east (very windy and rainy gusts from the southeast) it has been necessary to resort to artificial systems.
Buenos Aires would be located, apparently, in an asismic region within the territory of the Argentine Republic . The region responds to the «Punta del Este fault», with low seismicity. Only slight seismic movements can be perceived in the highest floors of the central buildings, and whose origin is usually seismic movements whose epicenter is in the west of the republic.
Given the very short period known (five centuries after 1500 ), only known that the 5 of June of 1888 saw the earthquake Rio de la Plata 1888 , at 3:20 UTC-3 , with a magnitude on the scale Richter of 5.5; its epicenter was at a depth of 30 km , in the center of the river. [ 52 ] Minimally anti-seismic measures were never taken. It affected all the towns on the Río de la Plata coast, especially the cities of Buenos Aires and Montevideo , causing slight damage. [ 53 ]It should also highlight the earthquake on 30 of November of 2018 , at 10:27 am, with its epicenter 32 km to the south of the city center and 25 km deep, with magnitude of 3.8 on the Richter scale . [ 54 ] [ 55 ]
The country is located in the southern hemisphere , the seasons in Argentina are reversed compared to the northern hemisphere . The southern summer in Buenos Aires is hot and sunny despite possible thunderstorms and temperatures range between 19 ° C and 30 ° C. The southern winter is mild and humid with temperatures between 7 ° C and 16 ° C. The climate of the city of Buenos Aires is temperate Pampean . [ 56 ] According to the Köppen Climate Classification, Buenos Aires has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). Considering the 1981-2010 period, normally used to designate climatic averages, the mean annual temperature is 17.9 ° C and the mean annual precipitation is 1236.3 mm . The highest temperature recorded in Buenos Aires was 43.3 ° C on January 29, 1957 and the lowest was -5.4 ° C , recorded on July 9, 1918. Throughout the 20th century , as It has happened in most of the big cities of the world because of urbanization, the temperatures of the city have increased slightly due to the heat island(urban development), currently being between 1 and 8 ° C higher than that of nearby less urbanized regions, such as Greater Buenos Aires. The proximity to the Río de la Plata is also an influential factor. Rainfall has also increased since 1973, as was the case in the previous wet chamber: 1870 to 1920.
|Average climatic parameters of Buenos Aires, Central Observatory (1981–2010)|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||43.3||38.7||37.9||36.0||31.6||28.5||30.2||34.4||35.3||35.6||36.8||40.5||43.3|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||30.1||28.6||26.8||22.9||19.3||16.0||15.4||17.7||19.3||22.6||25.6||28.5||22.7|
|Temp. media (°C)||24.9||23.6||21.9||17.9||14.5||11.7||11.0||12.8||14.6||17.8||20.7||23.3||17.9|
|Temp. min media (° C)||20.1||19.3||17.7||13.8||10.7||8.0||7.4||8.8||10.3||13.3||15.9||18.4||13.6|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||5.9||4.2||2.8||−2.3||−4.0||−5.3||−5.4||−4.0||−2.4||−2.0||1.6||3.7||−5.4|
|Total precipitation (mm)||138.8||127.1||140.1||119.0||92.3||58.8||60.6||64.2||72.0||127.2||117.3||118.9||1236.3|
|Rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||9||8||9||9||7||7||7||7||7||10||10||9||99|
|Hours of sun||279.0||240.8||229.0||220.0||173.6||132.0||142.6||173.6||189.0||227.0||252.0||266.6||2525.2|
|Relative humidity (%)||64||68||72||76||77||79||79||74||70||70||65||63||71.4|
|Source: National Weather Service [ 57 ]|
Although covered days are more frequent in winter, it rains the most in summer , a time when storms sometimes develop very intense, so huge amounts of water fall in a short time. [ 58 ] In winter, weak but continuous drizzles are more common . In any case, it cannot be said that there is rain seasonality. Summers are warm , with a January average of 24.9 ° C. High humidity can sometimes make the weather stifling. [ 59 ] The annual average relative humidity is 71.4%.
Winters are cool, with an average maximum temperature in July of 15 ° C and lows that, on exceptional occasions, can reach below 0 ° C (with frosts in suburban areas). [ 60 ] Winter, in turn, is quite irregular or variable, since temperate days are also observed, [ 61 ] and even exceptionally warm during that season, [ 62 ] which makes it milder and shorter in as for its duration. [ 63 ]
The mists may occur variably during the year, although not too frequent.
As for heliophany (duration of insolation) it is between moderate and considerable, with approximately 2 400 to 2 500 hours of sunshine per year out of a total of approximately 4 300 possible.
Regarding atmospheric conditions, an average of 124 clear or clear days are recorded per year, 92 days with overcast skies and 101 rainy days, and the rest mixed.
The city of Buenos Aires is influenced by two types of zonal winds : the pampero and the sudestada . [ 56 ] The first comes from the southwest, usually beginning with a short storm that quickly gives way to much colder and drier air. Although it can occur at any time of the year, it occurs with greater intensity in summer; it is expected when it cools after warm days. The south-east occurs mainly between April and October. It consists of a strong wind from the southeast , cool and very humid, which lasts for several days and is often accompanied by rainfall of varying intensity. The continuous wind makes the waters of the Río de la Plata rise, sometimes producing floods in the lower areas of the city, such as the La Boca neighborhood . [ 64 ]
The snowfall in the city are rare. The last major snowfall had a chance on July 9, 2007. It began as sleet and ended up covering a large part of the city and the suburbs with snow. In suburban areas it became much thicker. It occurred as a result of a great polar wind that spread throughout the territory of Argentina. [ 60 ]
The 15 of January of 1526 , Diego García de Moguer , sailed from Corunna , as commander in chief of the army, to the command of an expedition of three ships, financed by merchants, to seek the spice route, following the defeat of Elcano , passing through the Strait of Magellan . On the way, in February 1528 , he stopped to explore the Río de la Plata area , for which he is credited with his discovery.
On August 24, 1534 he traveled, in a second expedition, in the Concepción caravel to the territory of the Río de la Plata , passing through the island of Santiago de Cabo Verde , then to Brazil , where the Plata estuary of the Uruguay rivers ascended. and Paraná , becoming one of the first residents of the original settlement of Santa María del Buen Aire .
1536: First foundation of Buenos Aires
The 2 of February of 1536 (or February 3 according to historians), the Spanish Pedro de Mendoza established a settlement that gave the name of Puerto de Nuestra Señora de Buen Ayre in a region inhabited by indigenous pampas known as querandíes . [ 65 ] [ 66 ] After famines and conflicts with querandíes, the position was finally abandoned and destroyed by the Spaniards themselves at the end of June 1541. [ 67 ]
June 11, 1580: Second foundation of Buenos Aires
The second foundation of Buenos Aires was organized in Asunción , by the Castilian advance of Basque origin [ 69 ] or Juan de Garay from Burgos . In January 1580, Garay recruited around 300 people in Asunción who would constitute the initial population of Buenos Aires. Most of them, about two hundred people, were Guarani families. They were joined by 65 people registered as neighbors, many of them accompanied by their wives and children. Of the 65 residents registered as such, one was a woman, Ana Díaz, herself a Guarani on her mother's side (single women or widows over 25 years of age had the right to be considered "neighbors"). Of the total contingent, only ten were born in Spain. [ 70 ] Asunción provided livestock, plants, fodder, and wood for the new settlement.
At the end of February 18 soldiers went overland herding the troops of horses and cows. In mid-March, the bulk of the contingent set sail, navigating downstream the Paraguay / Paraná River. Most traveled in canoes manned by the Guarani . The rest embarked on the caravel "San Cristóbal de Buena Ventura", built in Paraguay -which was then to continue its journey to Spain- and two brigs. After landing in Santa Fe , previously founded and where Garay had his family, the trip was resumed at the end of May. On the 29th of this month, the squadron anchored in the Riachueloin the place where the destroyed fort of Mendoza was. It was considered inappropriate for the population and a better location was sought. At last the place was located, according to the chronicles, a half league to the north, in a high place.
There, on Saturday November of June of 1580 took place technically the founding of the city, the name he City of Trinidad , in El Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires - because until then or the town of the Querandíes destroyed by the lansquenettes nor the fort and port of Pedro de Mendoza represented a city according to the Spanish concept and norms of the time.
According to the ordinances and laws of the Indies , the ceremony began in the morning in the future Plaza Mayor, today Plaza de Mayo , when Garay had a cross planted on the site designated for the church . The first Cabildo was immediately constituted and the Roll of Justice was erected in the center of the Plaza. Finally, Garay took possession of the territory, reaching for his sword, cutting with it a few blades of grass and throwing thrusts according to the ceremonial. With these rites, the city of Buenos Aires was founded
Buenos Aires Originally, the name replaced in practice to that of City of Trinidad , hosted a governorate subordinate to the Viceroyalty of Peru , . For about two centuries the inhabitants, later designated as porteños , suffered many hardships: far from any major commercial center, they lacked the necessary elements to maintain the European lifestyle and were unable to manufacture them in the city. The Crown, for its part, privileged ports on the Pacific , due to their rich cargoes, and therefore relegated Buenos Aires to the background, since it only received two registered ships per year, and there were five yearsin which none arrived. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] This led the inhabitants (just 500 in 1602) [ 73 ] seek to circumvent the law and live the smuggling , which came mainly from Brazil. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] This contraband was paid with the unique source of wealth that existed until the beginning of the seventeenth century, which consisted of the sale of leather that was obtained from the slaughter of herds ( vaquerías) of cattle without owners that roamed the fields. Meat, tallow, antlers and so on were consumed locally and the leftovers were discarded. [ 71 ] [ 72 ]
From around 1660 it is one of the first descriptions of the city of Buenos Aires, by the traveler Acarete du Biscay, contained in the Report of a trip to the Río de la Plata and from there by land to Peru with observations on the inhabitants, be they Indians or Spaniards, the cities, the commerce, the fertility and the riches of this part of America. [ 74 ]
In 1680 the Portuguese, recently independent from Spain, arrived with an expedition to Colonia del Sacramento , on the opposite coast of the Río de La Plata, intending to settle in that sparsely populated territory but dependent on the Castilian monarch. The governor of Buenos Aires, José de Garro , after sending them an ultimatum ordering their withdrawal, which was rejected, brought together the inhabitants that numbered about three thousand men with contingencies from other cities of the governorate, including Guarani from the Missions, and successfully attacked the usurpers. This overwhelming victory was very celebrated in Buenos Aires and made it more prestigious within the Hispanic Monarchy . [ 71]
From the 18th century on, the African slave trade , whose main employers were British, gained a great boom in the city . [ 75 ] Many of these slaves were settled in the city to carry out domestic tasks in the houses of the most important families. This led to the city having 25% of the population of African origin over the total of its inhabitants.
The leather industry progressed, and by the middle of the 18th century there was an important local production. On the other hand, given that in Buenos Aires you could only prosper because of what you had, social value was not given by surnames or closeness to the aristocracy, but by success achieved on your own merit. Unlike other neighboring cities, aristocratic or caste prejudices were less prevalent than fortune. [ 71 ] [ 72 ]
In 1776, the city was designated the capital of the newly created Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata . The main causes of this decision were due to: the need to stop the Portuguese and British advance in the region, the attempt to put an end to smuggling, [ 76 ] and its strategic location on the Atlantic route. Thus began a period of great prosperity, as the city was benefited by the Spanish Crown with a more open, flexible and liberal type of trade, given by the Free Trade Regulations.. Buenos Aires could introduce merchandise from any region, and connect with other ports, without asking permission from the royal authorities; in this way he cut off his political and commercial dependence on Lima . The city experienced exponential progress between 1780 and 1800, also receiving a strong immigration, mainly from Spanish, and to a lesser extent from French and Italians; [ 71 ] [ 72 ] and was filled with merchants and the first ranchers .
Foreign invasions and the process of independence from Spain
From its creation until 1807 the city suffered several invasions. In 1582, an English privateer [ citation needed ] attempted a landing on Martín García Island but was rejected. In 1587 the Englishman Thomas Cavendish tried to take over the city, without success. In 1658 the third attempt took place, ordered by Louis XIV , King of France , but the Master of the Field, Don Pedro de Baigorri Ruiz, then Governor of Buenos Aires, managed to successfully defend the port. The fourth attempt was in charge of the adventurer Mr. de Pintis, but the neighborhood rejected him. In 1699 there was the fifth invasion by a band of Danish pirates that was quickly expelled. During the government ofBruno Mauricio de Zabala , the Frenchman Étienne Moreau landed on the eastern coast of the Río de La Plata, where the Spanish troops repulsed and killed him.
In the framework of the Anglo-Spanish War (1804-1809) - the eleventh Anglo-Spanish War - in 1806, Great Britain had become interested in the wealth of the region and Spain was allied to France, the enemy of that empire. On June 27, the English Major General William Carr Beresford seized Buenos Aires, with almost no resistance, since there was no strong and organized army. He took the government, but was defeated on August 12, 1806 by an army from Montevideo commanded by the French Santiago de Liniers . [ 71 ] [ 77 ] [ 78 ]In 1807 a second English expedition under the command of John Whitelocke took the fortress of Montevideo and remained in this enclave for several months. On July 5, 1807, Whitelocke attempted to occupy Buenos Aires, but its inhabitants and the urban militias, now organized and — once again with the help of Liniers — defeated the English. [ 71 ] [ 77 ] [ 78 ]The resistance of the people and their active participation in the defense and reconquest increased the power and popularity of the Creole leaders, while increasing the influence and fervor of the pro-independence groups. Buenos Aires won in military power (made up mainly of Creoles) and moral prestige. [ 71 ] [ 78 ] At the same time , was evident the inadequacy of the metropolis in terms of sending troops that could defend their colonies, now eagerly desired by other emerging powers. [ 71 ] All this, and the arrival of liberal ideas [ 71 ]And fundamentally the occupation of Spain by the Napoleonic army, allowed the creation of emancipatory movements, which in 1810 unleashed the May Revolution and the creation of the first national government. [ 79 ]
As a consequence of this there was the deposition of the power of the Spanish for the benefit of the Creoles. [ 71 ] The city of some 40,000 inhabitants, [ 80 ] [ 81 ] became an important port of consumer manufactured products came mainly from Britain and took the dismemberment of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata. [ 71 ] Buenos Aires was initially constituted as a hegemonic center, but it had to impose itself on the provincial oligarchies, which had their own economic projects. [ 71 ] [ 82 ]
Until the end of the 19th century
The government that succeeded the viceroy, the First Junta , considered that it had all the powers of the viceroy . The same was understood by the governments that succeeded him: Junta Grande , First and Second Triumvirate , and Directories . The First Board also sought to appoint governors-mayors, send armies, and collect customs duties. This made the rest of the viceroyalty feel that the revolution had only substituted the central power of the viceroy for that of Buenos Aires, without gaining any advantage. [ 71 ]
In 1815 the provinces rebelled against the central government when Carlos María de Alvear was appointed as Supreme Director. He was deposed three months later, forcing him to instill a new motive of fervor for the Revolution. Thus arose the need to declare, in the Congress of Tucumán in 1816, what was already a fact: the independence of the viceroyalty with respect to Spain. That congress then moved to Buenos Aires, and drew up the Constitution of 1819 , which did not work and was rejected by the federals. The following year the federal forces defeated the Directory and the province of Buenos Aires was created , its first governor being Manuel de Sarratea who signed with the winners theTreaty of the Pillar . [ 67 ] After a period of instability, Martin Rodriguez was appointed governor [ 67 ] [ 82 ] [ 83 ] and his ministers, among which stood Bernardino Rivadavia , initiated a period of order and reforms: [ 83 ] The National Registry was created, the Vaccine Administration and the General Archive of Buenos Aires were founded, and the Mercantile Exchange was inaugurated. In the cultural aspect, the inauguration of the University of Buenos Aires was highlighted [ 83 ][ 84 ] and the Society was created in Physical Sciences and Mathematics.
At the end of 1824, a congress met to draft a national constitution, but a few months later the War in Brazil broke out , forcing an army to be formed urgently, and it was thought that a National Executive Power would also have to be formed to unify the command. military. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 85 ]
Thus, without even beginning to discuss a constitution that would give the office a legal framework, on February 6, 1826, the presidency law was enacted, creating a Permanent National Executive Power, with the title of "President of the United Provinces of the United States. Río de la Plata ». [ 83 ] [ 85 ] [ 86 ] was named Rivadavia as the first president in February 1826, which was not well received in the provinces. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 87 ]
Rivadavia presented to that congress a project to capitalize Buenos Aires , the city and a large part of the surrounding campaign proclaimed itself the capital of the State. The Buenosairean federalism was against, in defense of the institutions of the provinces guaranteed by the fundamental law, especially the port and customs, main source of resources in the province. However, the law was enacted in 1826. [ 67 ] [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 85 ] The governor of the province of Buenos Aires , Las Heras resigned from his position by decree of the Executive Branch.[ 85 ] The Board of Representatives was dissolved, and the province's army, public lands, customs, and all provincial properties were nationalized. [ 85 ] The landowners, alarmed by the consequences that capitalization could have, stopped supporting Rivadavia, and he was left politically isolated. [ 82 ] Three months later theConstitution of 1826was approved but the provinces rejected it. [ 82 ]
Meanwhile, in 1825, the liberating expedition of Juan Antonio Lavalleja and his Treinta y Tres Orientales landed in the Banda Oriental and after laying siege to Montevideothey met a congress that declared that the Eastern Province rejoined the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. The National Congress accepted the reinstatement but Rivadavia then decided to get rid of the war with Brazil since a naval blockade imposed by it affected trade, the basis of the state's revenue collection. Despite the overwhelming victory over Brazil, a dishonorable treaty was signed that recognized the sovereignty of the Empire over the Eastern Band and promised to pay the enemy compensation. Although in the face of criticism, Rivadavia rejected the agreement, he also suffered the political cost of the agreement, which was to be one of the reasons for his subsequent resignation. [ 82 ]
During the so-called " Rivadavia era " science and culture prospered significantly. His reformist impulse gave intellectual life a dynamic unknown until then, creating a favorable climate that bore fruit in various fields through the personal work of many individuals.
The centralist measures increased the enmity of the provinces with their government and the war with Brazil exhausted resources. [ 82 ] Rivadavia had to resign and went into exile in England. Thus, the presidential regime ended and once again each province was governed by its own institutions, trusting Buenos Aires with the management of Foreign Relations . [ 82 ] [ 83 ] Most of the players committed to the fallen regime emigrated, impoverished intellectual work of europeizante trend, mainly in Buenos Aires.
A period of questioning was then opened to the assumptions that until then had founded Buenos Aires relations with the rest of the country. In 1829, Juan Manuel de Rosas came to power after defeating the Unitary Party . [ 71 ] [ 82 ] In 1831 defeated the unitary army and left the government in 1832 to return in 1835, making the sum of public power , leading a coalition of most of the federal elite and traditionalist city. [ 71 ] [ 88 ] [ 89 ]Rivadavians and Unitarians were forced to emigrate.
The 1836 census carried out in the city at the request of Rosas indicated that there were 62,000 inhabitants. In 1852 there were already 85,000 in 350 built blocks.
Rosas sanctioned a Customs Law that protected the production of the provinces, but notably increased the income of Buenos Aires. At this time the city bravely faced the French Blockade and the Anglo-French Blockade . [ 88 ]
When Urquiza defeated Rosas in the Battle of Caseros , the latter went into exile in England , and thus in Buenos Aires the center of political power remained in the hands of liberals and Unitarians. [ 88 ] Vicente López y Planes was appointed interim governor of the province of Buenos Aires and the Agreement of San Nicholas customs of the city was nationalized, and income handled by Urquiza, to the designárselo Director of the Nation.
But the Buenos Aires Legislature, thanks to Bartolomé Miter's plea , rejected the agreement, prompting Governor López to resign. Urquiza tried to assume the leadership of Buenos Aires, but the porteños, after the revolution of September 1852, regained control of the city.
From Caseros the city opened towards immigration. Thousands of Europeans, especially from Italy and Spain , changed the appearance of the city and its idiosyncrasy. All kinds of constructions were carried out, including the first railway in Argentina , [ 90 ] which linked the city with the town of Flores, which was in the province at that time. The palaces and houses were built or decorated in the Italian style, replacing the "colonial style".
The founding of the Municipality in 1854 allowed the city to be organized. But the lack of hygiene was a big problem and it was only after the yellow fever epidemic of 1871 that literally decimated the population that the problem of running water was improved and the living conditions of the population were improved, which in some places lived overcrowded [ 91 ] and in 1875 the vast green space of Parque Tres de Febrero was created . [ 92 ]
During the long process that led to the creation of the Argentine National State, Buenos Aires was chosen as the residence of the National Government, although it lacked administrative authority over the city, which was part of the province of Buenos Aires . [ 67 ]
The need for the national government to federalize it , added to the movement of troops ordered by the governor of the province, Carlos Tejedor , produced in 1880 a series of confrontations that would end with the defeat of the province of Buenos Aires and the federalization of the city. Later, the province ceded the Flores and Belgrano districts, which were annexed to the territory of the Federal Capital, receiving financial compensation in exchange. [ 67 ] [ 90 ]
In 1882 the National Congress created the figures of the Mayor and the Deliberative Council of the city. The mayor was not elected by popular vote, but was appointed by the President of the Nation in accordance with the Senate . The first to exercise the new position was Torcuato de Alvear , appointed in 1883 by Julio A. Roca . On the other hand, the Deliberative Council was voted by the inhabitants.
In addition, the city became cosmopolitan, unlike the rest of the country, and developed a financial and cultural potential. The Nation did everything possible to enlarge and beautify the city that now belonged to it. From 337,617 inhabitants in 1880, the city grew to 649,000 in 1895, of which only 320,000 were natives. [ 93 ]
To the present
Towards the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the city underwent an important transformation; the economic prosperity that the country was going through, added to the preparations for the 1st Centennial to be celebrated in 1910, allowed the urban infrastructure to develop. Public services were improved and in 1913 it had the first subway in Latin America . In urban matters, it was modified in styles, tall buildings and in the urban layout. Plans were discussed and formulated to make the metropolis the symbol of a new and progressive nation. [ 94 ]
The increase in commercial traffic required the construction of a new port in the city. Eduardo Madero had presented several projects for its construction in 1861 and 1869, but it was in 1882 when his project was accepted thanks to his uncle Francisco Madero , vice president of the Nation during the first presidency of Julio Argentino Roca . The port was inaugurated in 1884, but the north dock and dock 4 were only inaugurated in 1897. This port had many deficiencies; Therefore, in 1908 the National Congress established the construction of the New Port , which was provisionally inaugurated in 1919, composed of open docks and located north of Córdoba Avenue..
But not everything was prosperity in the city of Buenos Aires. The Centennial celebrations took place under a state of siege , declared as a result of the general strike that occurred the previous year after the bloody repression in Plaza Lorea against an anarchist demonstration, which left 8 dead and more than 100 injured, and which would later take place. known as " Red Week ". [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ] In January 1919 , 700 were killed workers and nearly 4,000 were injured after a conflict unleashed following a strike in the metal workshops Pedro Vasena e Hijos, a fact that would be remembered as the " Tragic Week ". [ 100 ]
From 1895 to 1914, as a result of the arrival of the great immigration currents , the city grew with one of the largest annual rates in the world and in 1914 it was the twelfth largest city in the world with 1,575,000 inhabitants, and it also grew cultural and commercially. [ 101 ] [ 102 ]
This immigration caused changes in the appearance of the city. The construction of conventillos was frequent , precarious houses that were rented to newcomers, who had to live in a situation of overcrowding and lack of hygiene. [ 103 ] [ 104 ] also they started forming the first shantytowns that although they were developed from the 1930s, existed since the late the nineteenth century . [ 105 ]
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries there was a great development of the tram system. The first tram line was inaugurated on July 14, 1863. By the 1920s the network had 875 km of lines, 3,000 vehicles and 12,000 employees. The system continued to operate until February 19, 1963, [ 106 ] after which the city runs out of trams until the PreMetro opens on August 27, 1987, [ 107 ] except for a historic service that operates in the Caballito neighborhood on holidays and weekends since 1980 —the"Historic Tramway of Buenos Aires" - provided by the Friends of the Tram Association . [ 106 ]
In 1941, after 4 years of works, the General Paz Avenue was inaugurated . Since then, serves as a boundary with the province of Buenos Aires , although those limits were established by law in 1887. [ 90 ] [ 109 ]
During the governments of the Revolution of 43 and mandates of Juan Domingo Peron , following a strong process of internal migration, the city increased its population both within its administrative limits and the parties of the province of Buenos neighboring Aires with itself, which led to the formation of the megacity known as Greater Buenos Aires . [ 90 ] [ 110 ]
In 1955 the city suffered the bombardment of the Plaza de Mayo by a group of soldiers and civilians opposed to the government of President Juan Domingo Perón with the intention of overthrowing him. In the event, 308 people died and there were more than 700 injured. [ 111 ] [ 112 ]
Towards 1976 (full military dictatorship ), with a view to a constantly expanding automobile fleet, the Urban Highways Plan was devised , firmly executed by Mayor Cacciatore , which envisaged a network of toll roads. [ 113 ] Construction began in 1978, and the 25 de Mayo and Perito Moreno highways were finally inaugurated on December 6, 1980. [ 114 ]A significant amount of land was expropriated, in many cases forcibly, and with deep discomfort and rejection from a large part of the affected residents. Many of them were transferred to neighborhoods built by state housing projects. Other works were started and then abandoned, and these lands were illegally occupied. [ 115 ]
On March 17, 1992 at 14:45 am, a car bomb exploded against the building of the Embassy of Israel causing 29 deaths, [ 116 ] but not the only, because the fact is repeated on 18 July 1994 at 9:53 a.m., this time against the AMIA headquarters , causing 85 deaths and more than 300 injuries. [ 117 ]
After the 1994 Reform of the Argentine Constitution, the city could count on its own Constitution and an autonomous government of direct election. [ 90 ] In the first elections of the Executive Power, held in 1996, the radical formula was the winner , making Fernando de la Rúa the first head of government. [ 118 ] De la Rúa would resign from his position in 1999 to assume the Presidency of the Nation, his term being completed by Vice Chief Enrique Olivera . [ 119 ]
During the following years the city continued with its cultural development and its infrastructure. New works to expand the subway line began ; At the same time, different museums, theaters and cultural centers were inaugurated and renovated.
In December 2001 the city witnessed some of the cacerolazos and marches that demanded the resignation of the Minister of Economy, Domingo Cavallo , and the President of the Nation , Fernando de la Rúa . The police repression ordered by the National Government caused several deaths both in the vicinity of the Casa Rosada and in the Palace of Congress . The conflict ended with the resignation of the President, and gave rise to one of the worst institutional crises suffered by the Argentine Republic . [ 120 ]
In 2004, the city suffered one of its greatest tragedies when a fire broke out at the República Cromañón dance venue at a rock recital on December 30 when the audience threw flares inside it, causing a fire. of left 193 dead and 1,432 wounded. [ 122 ] This fact led to an investigation in a political trial to determine the political responsibility of the head of Government Aníbal Ibarra ; after which, the Legislature decided to suspend him [ 123 ] and then dismiss him, being permanently replaced by the Deputy Chief of Government Jorge Telerman on March 7, 2006.[ 124 ] [ 125 ] [ 126 ] [ 127 ] In the criminal trial started later found that Aníbal Ibarra was not guilty and was dismissed, [ 128 ] failure then was final. [ 129 ]
In 2007 the elections for head of government and legislators took place. On December 10, 2007 Mauricio Macri assumed the position of Head of Government, after defeating the formula composed by him and Gabriela Michetti , in the second round of the elections held in June of the same year, to the Daniel Filmus - Carlos Heller binomial with 60.96% of the votes. This formula had also triumphed in the previous round, obtaining 45.62%, with a difference of more than 20% compared to its main competitors. On the same date, Aníbal Ibarra also assumed the position of legislator in the Porteña Legislature, after having won in the legislative elections.
In 2010 the city held the central events of the Bicentennial of Argentina , during which the Teatro Colón reopening was also celebrated , after the restoration work carried out as a result of its deterioration. [ 130 ] [ 131 ]
Capital relocation project
In 1868, President Bartolomé Miter vetoed Law 252, which sought to move the capital to the city of Rosario . [ 132 ] Domingo Sarmiento also vetoed two laws intended to move it to the same destination: Law 294 in 1869 and 620 in 1873. [ 132 ] Also vetoed in 1870 Law 462, which sought to move her to Villa Maria . [ 132 ]
On May 3, 1972, during the de facto presidency of General Alejandro Agustín Lanusse , Decree-Law 19610 was issued, which declared the need to move the nation's capital out of the city of Buenos Aires. [ 132 ]
On May 27, 1987, during the presidency of Raúl Alfonsín, the National Congress sanctioned Law 23512 in which the urban centers erected and to be erected in the future in the area of the cities of Viedma , Carmen de Patagones and Guardia Miter ( Federal District of Viedma-Carmen de Patagones ), along with a wide territory of fields in the Lower Valley of the Negro River , ceded by the Legislatures of the Buenos Aires and Rio Negro provinces . This project, which is known as Proyecto Patagonia, had the objective not only to decentralize the city of Buenos Aires, but also to populate and develop the Patagonian region. To comply with the project, on July 21, 1987, through decree 1156, the Entity for the Construction of the New Capital-State Company ( ENTECAP ) was created. [ 133 ] When Carlos Saúl Menem assumed the presidency in 1989, he decided to dissolve ENTECAP. [ 132 ]
With the project to transfer the capital, a debate was opened on the eventuality of the city returning to the jurisdiction of the province of Buenos Aires , which was resolved with Article 6 of Law 23512, which establishes the provincialization of the city once the federal authorities were settled in their new headquarters and that a Constituent Convention should be convened to organize their institutions. [ 132 ]After the expiration of the validity periods of the assignments made by the province of Buenos Aires (on November 12, 1991) and by the province of Río Negro (on July 14, 1994), on May 21, 2014, Law 23512 was repealed. with the sanction of the Argentine Legal Digest (Law No. 26939), which is the ordered body of Argentine national norms in force, as it is not included in its normative body. In this way, the project to transfer the federal capital legally came to an end. [ 134 ]
Discussion about your legal status
The Argentine constitutional reform of 1994 granted the city of Buenos Aires a new legal status by providing that "The City of Buenos Aires will have an autonomous government regime, with its own powers of legislation and jurisdiction, and its head of government will be directly elected by the town of the city "(art. 129). Before 1994, the city of Buenos Aires was a municipality that had the extraordinary power to have its own representation in the chambers of senators and deputies of the National Congress , but it did not have the power to elect the municipal mayor, whose election fell to the President of the Nation.
After 1994, the citizens of the city elected a constituent convention that proceeded to approve in 1996 an "organizational statute" (art. 129, CN), called "constitution" by the convention , which also adopted as the official name of the city. , the one of "Autonomous City of Buenos Aires".
Since then, there is no agreement among specialists on what is the legal status of the city of Buenos Aires. The central discussion centers around the dichotomies of autonomy - autarky and municipality - state . The following is a summary of the main positions on the status or legal nature of the city of Buenos Aires since 1994:
- Autonomous government. For Claudio Kiper, Buenos Aires is not an "autonomous city", nor an "autonomous state", but a city with "autonomous government", that is to say, a self-governed city. Kiper argues that the use of the word "autonomous government" used by the National Constitution, and not "autonomous state" or "autonomous city", expresses the will of the constituents to limit the autonomy of the government, establishing legislative and jurisdictional powers (judicial) a more limited criterion of "own powers" defined by the regulatory law issued by the National Congress. For Kiper, the condition of autonomous state in Argentina only corresponds to the provinces. For this reason, according to Kiper,
- City-state on the way to full autonomy . For Antonio María Hernández, it is a "city-state" on the way to "full autonomy", which in 2017 had not yet reached it, because many institutional areas are still in charge of the federal state and are paid for by the entire population of the country. [ 136 ]
- City-state of status lower than a province. For Juan Octavio Gauna it is also a "city-state", with a legal status higher than a municipality, but lower than a province. [ 137 ]
- Municipality with a large degree of autarky. For Rodolfo Barra it is a " municipality ", whose nature, like all municipalities, is conferred by urban neighborhood relations. As a municipality, it does not have autonomy but rather autarky , which the 1994 constitutional reform granted to a great extent. [ 138 ]
- Federated municipality. For Pedro Frías it is also a municipality, but unlike the other Argentine municipalities, it is part of the Argentine federation together with the provinces. [ 139 ]
- Self-sufficient city with broad functional competence . For Miguel Marienhoff , in the Argentine constitutional regime only the provinces have autonomy, because their power is original. Public persons whose power is derived from another power do not have autonomy, but rather autarky. For that reason, for Marienhoff, Buenos Aires is not an autonomous city, but rather an autarkic city with broad functional competence. [ 140 ]
- Person of public law not originated in the will of its inhabitants. For Alberto Spota, the personality of the city of Buenos Aires is more like autarky than autonomy. The reason for this is that it was not installed by the will of its inhabitants, but by a constitutional reform convention, which could in the future extinguish that status and return to the previous status or another that is decided. [ 141 ]
- Urban province. Para Ricardo Ottonello is an "urban province". [ 142 ]
- Federal constitutional city. Horacio Rosatti maintains that it is a "federated constitutional city." [ 143 ] This doctrine was recently adopted by the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation in the proceedings "City of Buenos Aires v. Province of Córdoba s / Fiscal Execution", judgment of April 4, 2019. In this precedent, resolved that "... art. 129 of the National Constitution was incorporated in the 1994 constitutional reform, recognizing the city of Buenos Aires the status of a federated constitutional city (...) endowing it with autonomy of legislation and jurisdiction and in this way includes it in the federal dialogue " [ 144 ] .
- Autonomy limited by its role as federal capital. For Jorge Francisco Cholvis it is a "federated constitutional city" (conf. Horacio Rosatti ), not equated to the provinces, with a "limited autonomy" due to its dual role of local government and federal capital. For this reason, Cholvis maintains that the Port of Buenos Aires should not be transferred to the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, since its domain and jurisdiction correspond to the federal State. [ 145 ]
- It is not a province.The Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation has held that the City of Buenos Aires after 1994 was not a province. (conf., CSJN, “Cincunegui v. Government of the City of Buenos Aires”, of 11/18/1999; CSJN, “National Treasury-Federal Administration of Public Revenues-General Tax Office”, of 5/16/2000 - “The Law” , Special Series Constitutional Law of August 25, 2000-; CSJN, “Rodríguez, Héctor y otros v. Provincia de Buenos Aires”, dated 5.12.2000, pub., In Rev. JAS of the weekly 6255, dated 18.7.2000; between others). In more recent rulings, such as "City of Buenos Aires c / Province of Córdoba s / Fiscal Execution" (Rulings 342-533) and "Nisman" (Rulings 339-1342), it held that the City of Buenos Aires "is a city, due to its demographic characteristics. It is a constitutional city, because it is the only one expressly designated by name and with specific attributes of public law in the National Constitution, unlike the other cities that are referred to generically when dealing with provincial municipalities. And it is a federated constitutional city, because it directly integrates the Argentine federal system together with the other political subjects that compose it, both those of" Necessary existence" or "inexorable", whose identification and regulation - or the provision of its regulation - works in the Basic Law itself (the National State, the provinces, the provincial municipalities and the autonomous city of Buenos Aires), such as the of «possible existence» or «eventual», those whose existence depends on the will of the inexorable subjects (such as the case of the regions) ".
Population and urban planning
|1914||1 575 814||+137.4%|
|1947||2 981 043||+89.2%|
|1960||2 966 634||−0.5%|
|1970||2 972 453||+0.2%|
|1980||2 922 829||−1.7%|
|1991||2 965 403||+1.5%|
|2001||2 776 138||−6.4%|
|2010||2 890 151||+4.1%|
In the last national census carried out in October 2010 by the INDEC , in the city of Buenos Aires 2,890,151 inhabitants were counted, of which women are 54.0% and men represent 46.0%. [ 146 ] Likewise, the city has a significant demographic density that amounts to 14,307.68 inhabitants / km². At the beginning of the XXI century , due to the aging (due to low fertility of the middle class strata ) of the native population of Buenos Aires, emigration abroad and the demographic substitution largely caused by economic crises , 40% of Buenos Aires He was not born in the city or in the parties of theGreater Buenos Aires , but it is a population that migrated from the provinces of northern Argentina and from other countries (it is estimated that 381,778 of its inhabitants were born abroad). [ 147 ] According to the General Directorate of Statistics and Censuses (belonging to the Government of CABA), in 2008 the global fertility rate was 1.94 children per woman (below the generational replacement level of 2.1 children per woman). [ 148 ]
|Graph of demographic evolution of Buenos Aires between 1779 and 2010|
Source of the National Censuses of INDEC
For more than 60 years, the population of the city of Buenos Aires has been stagnant at approximately 2.9 million inhabitants, with slight variations between census. In 2001 the city ceded the 2nd place that it historically occupied among the most populous jurisdictions in the country, given the demographic growth of the provinces of Córdoba and Santa Fe .
Architecture and urbanism
The city of Buenos Aires evolved from various immigration currents belonging to different cultures and, consequently, they have created a marked eclecticism that is evidenced in its architecture in which expressions can be found ranging from cold French academicism or art deco , to the cheerful art nouveau ; from the modern neo - Gothic , passing through the Bourbon French, to the modern skyscraper made of glass or concrete. Or very peculiar styles, such as that of the colorful Italian neighborhood of La Boca , as well as buildings from the colonial or neocolonial era.
The city is located on a good geographical support: its territory is extensive and flat and rarely suffers complications from extreme temperatures, winds, snowfalls (three per century), or earthquakes (low seismicity). It has a very good source of fresh water such as the Río de La Plata.
The layout of the city is very regular. The historical and financial center of the city has perfectly square blocks, extended from north to south and from east to west, just as its founder Garay established them. This layout of perpendicular streets (the so-called "checkerboard") was largely extended to the rest of the city. Buenos Aires has 2,113 streets (between avenues, streets and passages). [ 149 ]
During the so-called Rivadavian period (1821-1828) architects, engineers and technicians came to these beaches from Great Britain, Italy and France, who brought an architecture that reflected what was happening in their countries of origin. There was undoubtedly in the Buenos Aires leadership a will for change, for cultural rupture, with a manifest anti-Hispanic character. In 1880 the alterations to the urban layout appeared. In Buenos Aires, in 1894, the Avenida de Mayo planned an axis that was described as Parisian. Around 1920, the opening of the two diagonal avenues began from the Plaza de Mayo, completing the patte d'oie scheme with the previous avenue.which referred to the French urban layouts of the seventeenth century. The squares were landscaped with designs also taken from the Gallic repertoire, incorporating fountains, lights and monuments to the great men of the country consecrated in accordance with the teachings of what was called official history. In the capital and inland cities, parks of European design were created importing often exotic plant species. [ 150 ]
The metropolis is fertile in areas of urban and architectural quality. It has insufficient public squares, among which the parks stand out: Parque Tres de Febrero or (Bosques de Palermo), Almirante Brown and those of the former Costanera Sur (Andrés Borthagaray and Manuel Ludueña). Buenos Aires has a total of 640 squares and squares. And the missing number of parks and squares is 2400 hectares. [ 151 ]
One characteristic is the diversity of trees and the colors of their flowers. To a large extent, this is the result of the work of Carlos Thays , a French landscaper, creator, among other things, of the Botanical Garden of Buenos Aires , who planted trees such as tipas , jacaranda and lapachos . [ 152 ] following the criteria of the geometric and picturesque variants that France had adopted since the 17th century for green spaces. [ 150 ]
Another outstanding feature are the crowns on domes , towers and mansards that the buildings have. In principle, they were the result of the European influence on Buenos Aires architecture, especially by the work carried out by French, Italian and German architects, who designed the buildings between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as a replacement for colonial architecture. At first it was a symbolic architectural element. But then they were chosen as a symbol of the sumptuousness of the Argentine bourgeoisie that held national power. Perhaps the main characteristic of them is the variety: there are those in the shape of a half orange, pineapple, onions and many others. [ 153 ]
However, the amount of public green spaces is insufficient, it does not reach the minimum standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). [ 156 ]
The oldest derive from the old parishes established in the 19th century . From the end of the 19th century, a new generation of neighborhoods emerged, no longer determined by parishes but with different origins. [ 157 ] Although we speak of 100 neighborhoods in Buenos Aires , this expression has its origin in a popular song and not in the actual number of neighborhoods. Each neighborhood has its own history and population characteristics that give it unique color, style and customs; and they are a reflection of the cultural variety that underlies the city. [ 158 ]Many of these territorial units are centenary, others are officially disappeared and there are others that were recently determined. This is the case of Parque Chas , whose boundaries were established on January 25, 2006 when it was published in the Official Gazette Act 1907. [ 159 ]
The northeast neighborhoods are the ones with the highest purchasing power, with exclusive stores and several upper-class residential areas such as Recoleta , Retiro, Palermo , Belgrano , Núñez , Las Cañitas , Colegiales as well as Puerto Madero , to the east of the city. With the exception of the Barracas neighborhood , in which a population of middle and upper middle class emerges thanks to the real estate boom, the southern area is the one with the lowest socio-economic indicators in the city. [ 160 ]
The system of decentralization of government by communes, resumed the inter-neighborhood limits, since there is one commune for each neighborhood or neighboring neighborhoods. [ 161 ] Officially, the city is divided into 48 neighborhoods or territorial units. [ 162 ]
The porteño shanty towns , similar to the Brazilian favelas , the shacks of Spain , the Uruguayan cantegriles , the Colombian slums , the neighborhoods in Venezuela or the Chilean callampas populations . A settlement is a group of a minimum of eight grouped or contiguous families, where more than half of the population does not have title to the land, nor does it have regular access to at least two of the basic services. Since the 19th century, fueled both by the rural exodus and by a large number of European immigrants. Their growth was enhanced during the international crisis of 1930 and the crisis of 2001 , the latter having caused an increase in income inequality. [ 163 ] Since the economic recovery of 2003, the important economic growth of the country, the doubling of the middle class in Argentina and the reduction of inequality, [ 164] Achieved relief for the precarious settlements, [ 165 ] which in any case continue to present significant health problems, deteriorated sanitary conditions due to the contamination of the Río de La Plata, [ 166 ] as well as lack of access to various health services. quality.
26% of the heads of households are foreigners and 13% come from other provinces, but 61% were born and raised in Buenos Aires. [ 167 ] [ 168 ] The current situation of the villas, is varied: some sources indicate that some continue to grow, [ 169 ] while several other villas have been partially or completely urbanized in recent years, and some others are The object of future urbanization plans and campaigns, such as Villa 20 in Lugano and Villa 31 . [ 170 ] [ 171 ]
Insufficient subway network
The metro network - including the subways - of Buenos Aires was the first in the southern hemisphere, being inaugurated in 1910 . Because the vested interests in favor of private companies collective or urban buses after more than a century has only 61 kilometers of track, with 294 kilometers of Madrid , 226 kilometers from the City of Mexico , 140 kilometers from the from Santiago de Chile , 80 kilometers from São Paulo and 70 kilometers from Caracas . [ 172 ]
Shortage of public green spaces
The World Health Organization (WHO), to guarantee the human right to health, recommends a minimum of 10 square meters of public green space per inhabitant. The city of Buenos Aires currently has 1.9 square meters per inhabitant. [ 173 ] Between 2007 and 2014 there was a serious decrease in green space in the City of Buenos Aires, 44.5 hectares of parks, 36 hectares of flowerbeds and 10 hectares of small squares were lost. [ 174 ]
The deficit of public green space in the city is 2,400 hectares according to Dr. Sonia Berjman , [ 151 ] and the current trend indicates that the amount of public green space per inhabitant in the city will continue to decline because the total occupancy factor (FOT ) [ 175 ] allows indiscriminate construction, because the government's plan is to double the population of the city of Buenos Aires. [ 176 ]
Additionally, green spaces are unevenly distributed in the city, [ 177 ] for example, neighborhoods like Almagro are in a worse situation than neighborhoods like Palermo. [ 178 ] Large cities in the world such as New York and London have, respectively, 29 and 27 square meters of public green space per inhabitant. [ 179 ]
According to a study published by the IDB, Buenos Aires is among the cities that offer the worst quality of life in terms of public green space per inhabitant. Offering only 2.69 square meters of public green space per inhabitant in 2001 against 11.58 square meters of public green space offered by São Paulo . [ 180 ]
Among parks and squares, the amount of green space in the city averaged 4.54 meters per inhabitant in 2007, however for 2014 this proportion barely reached 3.9 m² for each porteño, of which 1.17 m² contributed the Costanera Sur Ecological Reserve . [ 181 ]
In Caballito, for its part, the amount of green space per inhabitant does not reach 1.5 square meters. [ 182 ]
Area of green spaces per inhabitant (ha / thousand inhabitants) per commune. Buenos aires city. Years 2006/2013. [ 183 ]
According to official data, only 3 communes (1, 8 and 14) meet the minimum established by the WHO of 10 square meters of green space per inhabitant. Communes 3 and 5, which include neighborhoods such as Boedo , Almagro , San Cristóbal and Balvanera , have practically no green spaces. Communes 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11 and 15 are also in a very critical situation.
This lack of green spaces affects the health of the population. 56% of children and adolescents in the city do not do enough physical activity and an important reason, for 28.5%, is that their club or square is far from home. [ 184 ]
According to official data, 80% of public green spaces correspond to parks, squares and squares (dry squares are also counted). The remaining 20% is made up of flowerbeds, gardens, recreational patios, sports centers, gardens located on Avenida General Paz and various spaces maintained by the General Directorate of Green Spaces. With which, the usable green space (squares and parks added together) would barely reach 4.48 square meters per inhabitant. [ 185 ]
Regarding urban trees, there are 425 thousand trees. [ 186 ] In order for there to be no less than 1 tree for every 3 inhabitants, as in other cities, the city government should plant 575 thousand additional trees, [ 174 ] given that the city has around 3 million inhabitants.
Recognizing the problem of the lack of green spaces, the city government launched the Buenos Aires Verde Plan [ 187 ] which proposes the following: " with the Buenos Aires Verde Plan we will be adding by the year 2034, more than 1,000,000 of square meters of new public green spaces in Buenos Aires ". That means that by the year 2034, if the built area does not vary and always according to official data, the city will have 6.23 square meters of green space per inhabitant, well below the 10 square meters per inhabitant suggested by the WHO.
With the drafting of a new urban code, the government of Horacio Rodríguez Larreta proposes to double the current population of the city. [ 188 ] With this proposal the city will go from 3 million people to 6 million. The environmental impact of this measure will be strong, the green surface will drop from the current 5.9 square meters per inhabitant to 2.95 square meters, moving further away from the minimum of 10 square meters of green per inhabitant recommended by the World Organization of the Health.
The city of Buenos Aires borders one of the most polluted rivers on the planet, the Riachuelo. [ 189 ] It also borders the Río de la Plata , which is heavily polluted. [ 190 ] According to AYSA, sewage waste is dumped 2.5 km from the coast after being treated. [ 191 ] In the past, porteños had more green spaces per inhabitant on hot days and they also had the option of cooling off in the river. [ 192 ] The contamination of the river was lowering the quality of life in the city of Buenos Aires. [ 193 ]
This plan was implemented based on a comprehensive urban plan to renovate the streets of the downtown area, called “Pedestrian Priority”, with the general objective of optimizing public space, which included: the ordering of traffic and transportation —restricting the use of avenues. for vehicular circulation and the use of the streets for pedestrian circulation -, the increase in bicycle lanes, the ordering of advertising in shops, [ 194 ] the renovation of the facades of historic buildings, the placement of underground containers to improve the street cleaning, renovation LED luminaire technology, [ 194 ] [ 195 ] [196 ] [ 197 ] leveling with the roadway sidewalks placing gratings in drains and installing bollards to discourage automobile use. [ 194 ]
It was carried out through Plans and Programs by the Undersecretary of Urbanism , Architecture and Infrastructure Projects , in charge of the Ministry of Urban Development, together with the city administration; since 2009 until 2015. [ 194 ] [ 198 ]
Government and administration
The executive power of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, called the Government of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (GCABA) or Head of Government of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is exercised by a head of government elected by popular vote in double round , whose duration in office is four years and with the possibility of consecutive reelection for only one more term.
Formerly, the highest authority in Buenos Aires was an intendant appointed by the President of the Nation, who had a Deliberative Council elected by popular vote. However, after the 1994 Argentine constitutional reform , it was agreed to give Buenos Aires the status of an autonomous city , whose Head of Government is Horacio Rodríguez Larreta , who heads the executive branch. [ 199 ] The chief is elected every four years together with a deputy chief who presides over the Legislature of the City of Buenos Airescomposed of 60 members. Each deputy lasts four years in office, and the legislature is renewed in halves every two years by direct, non-cumulative vote based on the Law or the D'Hondt System . Article 62 of the Buenos Aires constitution states that suffrage is free, equal, secret, universal, compulsory and not cumulative. Resident foreigners enjoy this right, with the corresponding obligations, under the same conditions as Argentine citizens registered in this district, under the terms established by law . [ 200 ] In 2015, an attempt was made to incorporate the Single Electronic Ticket System, in order to "guarantee better security in the conduct of the elections." [ 201 ]
The Head of Government may appoint his ministers and secretaries according to the aforementioned Constitution of the City of Buenos Aires . This constitution also provides for the figure of a coordinating minister, the Chief of Cabinet, who institutionally has the role of endorsing the decrees and the administration of the Budget sanctioned by the Legislature. In the field of the judiciary, according to Law 24588, [ 202 ] the Justice of the city only has jurisdiction in matters of criminal, neighborhood, misdemeanor and misconduct, contentious-administrative and local taxation. [ 203 ]It is made up of the Superior Court of Justice, the Council of the Magistracy, the Public Ministry and the different Courts of the city. However, its organization in terms of legislative and judicial autonomy is lower -in legal terms- than that of any of the provinces that make up the Argentine Republic. Justice in matters of common law that is taught in the city is governed by the Judicial Power of the Nation .
As of 2007, the city has embarked on a new decentralization scheme, with the creation of new communes , [ 204 ] which have to be managed by elected committees of seven members each. Each of them has its own assets and budget. [ 205 ] The following year, the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Police was created , officially beginning its activities on February 5 , 2010 . [ 206 ] [ 207 ]
|Diego Santilli||President||Together for Change|
|Francisco Quintana||1st Vice President||Together for Change|
|Mariano Recalde||2nd Vice President||Citizen Unit|
|Roy Cortina||3rd Vice President||Together for Change|
Buenos Aires is the seat of the Government of Argentina , located around the Casa Rosada . Many of the authorities that make up the national government reside in the city. The Congress of the Argentine Nation was inaugurated in 1906, and is one of the largest in America . [ 208 ] In the Argentine congress there are 3 senators and 25 deputies who serve on behalf of the city, elected through legislative elections . [ 209 ]
|Primary Care [ 210 ]|
|Infant mortality [ 211 ]|
The city's public health system provides coverage to 21.9% of the population, based on a survey conducted by the Buenos Aires government. [ 211 ] The city of Buenos Aires has 34 hospital establishments with totally free care, which operate within the state health system. 90% of the consultations made in the public health system are made in one of these establishments. [ 211 ] Of the consultations made in hospitals, 55.6% correspond to the population residing in the city, while 41.2% correspond to residents of the province of Buenos Aires and 3.2% to residents of other localities. [ 211 ]
This primary care system is made up of the Health Centers, the Neighborhood Medical Centers and the General Practitioners. The Health Centers are integrated, among others, by clinical doctors, pediatricians, psychologists and social workers, since their function is not only care, but also the execution of different prevention programs. The Neighborhood Medical Centers (CMB) fulfill the same prevention and care function, but this care and delivery of free medicines is aimed at sectors considered "at risk". The General Practitioners is another decentralization system, where hospital doctors provide free care and delivery of medicines in their private offices.
The city also has a large number of clinics and private clinics, where the Italian Hospital (where many of the organ transplants in Argentina are performed ), the Argentine Swiss Clinic and Maternity, the University Hospital of the Favaloro Foundation , CEMIC ("Norberto Quirno" Center for Medical Education and Clinical Research) and FLENI (Foundation for the Fight Against Neurological Diseases of Children), among others.
The metropolis has had low birth rates in recent decades compared to other jurisdictions in the country. In 2008, 45,820 births were registered, giving a crude birth rate of 15.1 ‰. Deaths were 32,074, with a high crude mortality rate of 10.5 ‰ (product of an aging population structure ). As a result, a very low vegetative growth of 4.6 ‰ (0.46%) is seen, similar to that observed in European countries . [ 212 ]
- Child mortality
The infant mortality rate is an indicator that indirectly reflects the socioeconomic conditions of a society, and especially its impact on the most vulnerable sectors. In the period 1990-2007, the infant mortality rate dropped by 51%. While in 1990 the rate was 16 per thousand, in 2007 it was reduced to 7.9 per thousand. But there is a very large gap in the city between the south and the north: while in some communes in the west and north of the city (Communes 10, 11 and 12) the rate is much lower than the city average (4.6 , 4.0 and 5.9, respectively), in the communes of the southern zone (3, 4, 5, 8 and 9) the rate is much higher (8.9, 9.9, 8.5, 10.0 and 8.7, respectively). [ 211 ] The indicator in 2008 was 7.7 ‰, according to theMinistry of Health of the Nation . [ 212 ]
The Minister of Security and Justice of the City of Buenos Aires is the coordinator of the area.
The City Police and the Comprehensive Public Security System
Since January 1, 2017, Buenos Aires has been under the jurisdiction of the City Police , which has personnel transferred from the Federal Police , which previously operated, in addition to the personnel of the former Metropolitan Police , as established by Law 5688 of the Comprehensive System of Public Security, enacted on November 17, 2016. [ 213 ]
The city has a Comprehensive Public Security System, with an Urban Monitoring Center with the capacity to monitor the cameras installed in 14 parks and Buenos Aires squares 24 hours a day, in the streets surrounding the Headquarters of the Government and the Legislature, the Technological District, the surroundings of Plaza de Mayo and the United Nations square, in the vicinity of the Law School. [ 214 ] In addition, the presence in the streets of agents of the City Police, City Firefighters, traffic agents, prevention, park guards and emergency personnel; which gives a total, as of June 12, 2017, of 36,137 troops, compared to 32,987 in 2016. [ 215 ]. It also has a digital ring made up of patent readers, which record the entry and exit of motor vehicles. [ 216 ]
To a greater extent after the great crisis of 2001 , crime increased notably in the city and did not decrease again, despite the economic growth of the following years, according to the government's own statistics. [ 217 ] A study of public opinion carried out by the University of Belgrano in 2012 reveals that 79% of the inhabitants of the city believed that "currently insecurity is high", a feeling that increased 37 points since 2006. 80% of Those surveyed in this study argued that insecurity in the city grew in 2012 compared to the previous year, leading to consequences that have affected their quality of life. [ 218 ]
The complexity of the City of Buenos Aires requires an equally complex and extensive transportation and access system to the city. The city not only needs a transport system for those who live in it, but also for the inhabitants of the agglomerate who move to the city mainly for work reasons.
Groups and Metrobus system : The transport means more use is the collective , with more than 135 lines in service not only allows you to connect different parts of the city but also reaches different parties in the bordering province of Buenos Aires .
Since May 31, 2011, the Metrobús has been operating , a system of stops and lanes exclusively for buses, which began on Avenida Juan B. Justo , with 21 stops along 12.5 kilometers between the neighborhoods of Palermo and Liniers . [ 220 ] On July 24, 2013, a new corridor was opened on the 9 de Julio Avenue route [ 221 ] and, three weeks later, another branch was inaugurated that connects the Plaza Constitución Station with the La Noria Bridge.. Subsequently, a new corridor was inaugurated in June 2015, on Cabildo Avenue (Capital side) and Maipú Avenue (Province side). [ 222 ] In April 2016 the exclusive lane on Avenida San Martín was enabled, connecting the neighborhoods of La Paternal and Villa Devoto. New corridors are currently under construction: on Avenida Alem and Avenida Paseo Colón (Metrobús del Bajo), on National Route 3 (Metrobús la Matanza) and on Provincial Route 8 (Metrobús 3 de Febrero).
Trains : The other massive means used to access the city is the railway network , which has a clear hub in Buenos Aires. Some of these lines have a connection to the subway , which allows a relatively fluid transfer from the Buenos Aires suburbs to different areas of the city. [ 223 ] Trains are also used by porteños as a means of rapid movement within the city.
Subway : The Buenos Aires Subway has six lines in operation ( A , B , C , D , and H ), which add up to a total of around 56.7 km of tunnels for commercial service and 90 stations. [ 224 ] In 2013, the extension of line A to the intersection of Avenida Rivadavia with avenues Nazca and San Pedrito in the Flores neighborhood [ 225 ] and Line B from De los Incas - Parque Chas station.to the neighborhood of Villa Urquiza . [ 226 ] The E line in 2019 was extendienda to Retiro . [ 227 ]
The construction of another three lines is planned: F , G and I , with which the lines in operation would reach nine. [ 224 ] Line A - inaugurated in 1913 - is also a tourist attraction, as it was the first subway line in the southern hemisphere, Latin America and the Spanish-speaking world, in addition to preserving fourteen stations opened between 1913 and 1914 in practically original condition.
Tram : The tram , although it was very important in the past, is currently only a tourist attraction located in the Caballito neighborhood.
Premetro: The Premetro is a train system that runs through the streets of the southern part of the city. It was inaugurated in 1987 as a way to continue the service of line E at the end of it in a SW direction.
Light Rail: The city of Buenos Aires once had a light rail system called Tranvía del Este that began operating in 2007 in the Puerto Madero neighborhood , and was suspended in 2012. The Tren de la Costa , located In the Argentine province of Buenos Aires, it is a tourist light train, inaugurated in 1995 that runs 15.5 km through elegant residential neighborhoods parallel to the Río de la Plata, between the Avenida Maipú stations, located in the town of Olivos and Delta , in Tigre.
In its 11-station journey, it passes through the municipalities of Vicente López, San Isidro, San Fernando and Tigre.
Remís: The Remis is a transport system that, unlike taxis, can only be contacted by phone and has a fixed rate.
Taxi : Taxis circulate continuously through the city and in a few minutes you get a free one for 24 hours. A gesture with the hand is enough to make it stop and be able to make the desired trip. Taxi drivers are the ones who know the city the most, which makes the trip safe and fast. The taxi has 2 rates, one that is applied from 6:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. and the rest the so-called 2 or night rate that has a 20% surcharge. You must always pay the amount indicated on the watch and in pesos, adding the cost of the toll if there is one during the trip. The taxi driver can legally apply a surcharge for each bag, suitcase or package and also the return, if you travel outside the city, to the Federal Capital if the passenger does not return.
Combis, charters and others : The combis or charters also have two of their own terminals: the Obelisco Terminal and the Puerto Madero Terminal, with the purpose that the combis that go to and from Greater Buenos Aires do not obstruct the traffic in the lower part of Buenos Aires , on Avenida 9 de Julio and the Metrobús . The combis are used by people who work in the city and live in the province.
Bicisendas y Ciclovías : Buenos Aires ranks fourteenth out of 122 urban centers as one of the friendliest cities in the world to move around by bike, according to a report by the Copenhagenize Index Bicycle-Friendly Cities. In recent years, the construction of bicycle paths in the most important arteries of the city and the system of shared bicycles Ecobici that work automatically have been carried out. [ 228 ] [ 229 ]
Buenos Aires also has a network of 150 kilometers of integrated and protected bicycle lanes , stimulating the use of bicycles as a means of transport, [ 230 ] as well as a free bicycle rental system . [ 229 ] [ 231 ]
Bus Terminals : In interurban passenger transport, the Retiro Bus Terminal stands out , from which pulman services depart for the interior of the country and neighboring countries, [ 223 ] and the Liniers bus stop. In March 2017, the third long-distance bus terminal was inaugurated in the Villa Soldati neighborhood, called Terminal Dellepiane, to serve the metropolitan area. [ 232 ] [ 233 ]
Highways : The city has four freeway accesses, in addition to the large number of existing accesses, either bridges or avenues that cross Avenida General Paz . The highway accesses are the Buenos Aires - La Plata highway , the Ricchieri highway , the West Access and the North Access .
According to a study by the CNRT , the railroad is the fastest way to get from the suburbs to the city center, closely followed by the private car or taxi, and thirdly, the bus, with the exception of the southern zone. where traveling by car is somewhat faster than doing it by train. According to this same study, the train is the cheapest means of transport, followed by the bus, and lastly, the car. And he concludes that the railroad, although it is usually faster and cheaper than the car, the problems of punctuality in the schedules and quality of the trip, mean that despite the higher cost and even probable delays, many people choose to travel to the capital in car. [ 234 ]
The port of Buenos Aires is the largest in the country, [ 235 ] and was traditionally the main maritime gateway to Argentina. It currently handles 70% of Argentine imports and concentrates approximately 40% of the country's total foreign trade. [ 236 ]
The metropolitan area of Buenos Aires also has the Domingo Faustino Sarmiento international river station , located in the town of Tigre, from which taxi boats, collective boats and tourist catamarans depart that make trips to the numerous islands of the Paraná delta, towards Carmelo , towards Nueva Palmira and towards Colonia (all located in the Eastern Republic of Uruguay); Likewise, from said fluvial terminal it is possible to arrive at Puerto Madero, in the City of Buenos Aires.
The city and Greater Buenos Aires have three commercial airports, five military and two private. [ 238 ] The two commercials are the Ministro Pistarini International Airport , in the Ezeiza district , 35 kilometers from the city, and the Jorge Newbery Airport in the Palermo neighborhood . In addition, Buenos Aires has the only low cost airport in Latin America , which is intended for the operations of the low-cost airline Flybondi , it is the El Palomar Airport , located in the Buenos Aires suburbs.. This airport also has military purposes. From Ezeiza airport there are flights to all of South America , North America , Europe , Africa , Oceania and Asia . [ 239 ] From the Aeroparque Jorge Newbery mainly national and leave lesser extent provides international services flights to Paraguay , Bolivia , Chile , Brazil and Uruguay . [ 240 ] The IATA codes of the airports are EZE (international airport) and AEP (domestic airport).
The running water and sewer service was administered from 1993 to 2006 by the company Aguas Argentinas , in March 2006 its concession was terminated. To replace it, the national state created the state-owned company Aguas y Saneamiento Argentinos (AYSA). [ 242 ] The service is provided through two water treatment plants, the General San Martín plant and the General Belgrano plant. [ 243 ] The General San Martín Water Treatment Plant, inaugurated in 1913, is located in the Palermo neighborhood , with a surface area of 28.5 ha and a daily production of 3,100,000 m³ of water. [ 244] The General Belgrano Water Treatment Plant is located in theprovince of Buenos Aires, in the town ofBernal. It was inaugurated in 1978 and has an area of 36 ha and a production of1,700,000 m³per day. [ 245 ]
The natural gas service has been provided by MetroGAS since December 1992. During 2006 a total of 4,398,286,000 m³ of gas were distributed , being 1,031,385,000 m³ for residential users, 339,704,000 m³ for Compressed Natural Gas, 169,264 000 m³ for commercial users, 173 411 000 m³ for industries, 2 629 972 000 m³ for power plants and 55 007 000 m³ for official entities. [ 246 ]
The electricity service is in charge of two companies: Edesur and Edenor . Edenor's coverage area is delimited by: Dársena «D», unnamed street, layout of the future Coastal Highway, Pueyrredón Avenue extension, Córdoba Avenue, San Martín Railroad tracks, General San Martín Avenue, Zamudio, Tinogasta, Avenida General San Martín, Avenida General Paz and the Río de La Plata; [ 247 ] while Edesur is in charge of the service in the rest of the city. According to provisional values for 2004, the city generated 14,783,018 MWh , while it only consumed 9,689,504. [ 248 ] The main electrical energy production plant is theCostanera thermal power plant , located in the southern part of the port area , with an installed power of 2,304 MW. [ 249 ]
The fixed telephony service is provided by Telecom Argentina and Telefónica de Argentina . These companies have been in charge of providing the service since ENTel was privatized in 1990. In 2006, 1,604,750 telephone lines were in service , while in 2005 there were 9,491,787 mobile telephone subscribers. [ 250 ] In addition, in 2006 there were 1,068,859 residential Internet accesses [ 251 ] and 77,948 accesses from organizations. [ 252 ] Regarding the cable television service, in 2006 there were 2,752,323subscribers to it. [ 253 ]
The waste collection service is organized into six collection areas, in which the service is provided by a different company. In Zone 1 (which includes the old CGP 1, 2S, 2N and 3) the service is provided by the Cliba company , in Zone 2 (which includes the old CGP 13, 14O and 14E) it is provided by the AESA company , in Zone 3 (which includes the old CGP 4, 5 and 6) the service is provided by the URBASUR company , in Zone 4 (which includes the old CGP 7 and 10) the service is provided by the Níttida company , in Zone 5 ( which includes the old CGP 8 and 9) is provided by the Urban Hygiene Entity [ 254 ]And in Zone 6 (which includes the old CGP 11 and 12) it is provided by the INTEGRA company . [ 255 ] In turn, since 2008 the Ministry of the Environment and Public Space has been formalizing urban reclaimers in order to carry out the recovery of recyclable materials in decent, hygienic and safe working conditions. Currently, more than 2,100 reclaimers are already working without minors, with uniforms, credentials, resources and logistics provided by the city government, within the framework of the Zero Waste laws (No. 1854) and 992 (urban reclaimers) .
Its inhabitants have high access to public services: 99.9% have mains water, the same amount has mains electricity, 92.8% have mains gas, 99.6% have lighting. public, 99.3% with waste collection and 89.7% of households have telephony. These figures decrease for the population living in villas, although all of its inhabitants receive running water (including the public tap), 99.5% have electricity, 93.1% have public lighting, 87.8 % trash and only 1.3% regular gas. [ 256 ]
Deployment of the Armed Forces
|Educational institutions [ 258 ]|
|Non-University Tertiary or Higher Level||261||51||210|
|Students enrolled [ 258 ]|
|Initial level||101 358||45 961||55 397|
|Primary level||263 719||149 549||114 170|
|Medium level||195 294||104 011||91 283|
|Non-University Tertiary or Higher Level||96 200||34 567||61 633|
According to a survey carried out by the General Directorate of Statistics and Censuses in 2006, [ 258 ] the enrollment rate by level is 96.5% for the initial level (5 years) and 98.6% for the primary level ( 6 to 12 years) and 87.0% for the medium level (13 to 17 years). In addition, the number of students enrolled continues to increase, reaching 656,571 students in 2318 establishments during 2006. [ 258 ]
In 2013, there was a greater enrollment in public primary schools, reversing 10 years of decline in the city and becoming the only district in the country to achieve a drop in the loss of enrollment compared to private institutes, however the Enrollment in public high school still continued to decline that year. [ 260 ]
Buenos Aires has a large number of educational establishments. Except in the case of primary schools where there are more state establishments, [ 258 ] the number of private establishments is greater. [ 258 ] However, the number of students enrolled in privately managed educational establishments is slightly less than that registered in state institutions. [ 258 ]
The city also receives students who live in the province of Buenos Aires , during 2005 the percentage of students residing in that province who attended state schools was 4.5% at the initial level, 11.8% at the level primary, 19.5% at the middle level. [ 258 ]
Primary and secondary education
Initial education corresponds to the period between 45 days and 5 years. The Maternal Gardens are responsible for the education of minors between 45 days and 2 or 3 years, depending on the establishment. The so-called Infant Schools cover the entire period, between 45 days and 5 years.
Primary education ranges from 6 to 12 years of age of the minor, and is compulsory throughout the Argentine Republic . A second language is taught in all of them, in those of official management only from the 4th grade (English in single-time institutions; and English, French or Italian in full-time institutions), although 22 multilingual establishments operate in the city, where In addition to Spanish, English, French, German, Portuguese or Italian are taught.
Secondary education is aimed at minors between 13 and 18 years of age, can reach 19 years in some modalities, and is organized in a basic cycle that includes the first 3 years, and a specialization cycle that includes the remaining period (up to 19 only in technical schools). Unlike many provinces, the City of Buenos Aires maintained its technical schools, and through Law 898 [ 261 ] it was established that the average level of education is compulsory. [ 262 ] Some schools are dependent on the University of Buenos Aires, such as the Free Institute of Second Education , the Carlos Pellegrini School of Commerce.and the National College of Buenos Aires .
The city is home to some of the most important universities in the country, including the different modalities of tertiary education. Buenos Aires is a city with great weight at the regional level in matters of higher education. The British consultancy Top Universities in a 2013 study considered the city the best city for students in Latin America. [ 263 ] In 2014, the city had a university population of around half a million students, approximately one in three in the entire country, of which 68.4% of the students attended public universities. [ 264 ]
With its 308,748 students, the University of Buenos Aires (UBA), which is public, is the largest university for face-to-face education in all of Latin America . [ 265 ] [ 266 ] was founded on December of August of 1821 and is divided into two -the land Ciudad Universitaria and Centro Universitario Regional fatherly grouping several of its academic institutions, with a total of thirteen faculties. [ 267 ] The first year of all degrees is the Common Basic Cycle(CBC), which must be approved to enter the corresponding faculty. The University also has eight regional university centers, fifteen museums, and five healthcare units. Each of these members of the University of Buenos Aires has its own admission procedures and its own awards for the studies they teach. For several years, the University of Buenos Aires has been classified according to different and prestigious international rankings as the best university in Latin America and Spanish-speaking, integrating the select elite club of the best 100 universities in the world. [ 268 ]
In the city there are also other higher education institutions outside the University of Buenos Aires, including the Caece University , the University of Palermo , the Argentine Catholic University , the Manuel Belgrano National School of Nautical , the University of Salvador , the University of Belgrano , the Technological Institute of Buenos Aires , the Universidad Argentina de la Empresa , the Universidad Torcuato Di Tella , which are private. It is also the main headquarters of the National Technological University , National University of Tres de Febrero, and there are some headquarters of the National University of General San Martín (Argentina) that are public like the UBA. There are some tertiary institutions dependent on the city, such as the "Dr. Joaquín V. González" Higher Institute of Teachers , as well as institutes dedicated to art such as the National University of the Arts or the School of Fine Arts .
Freedom of worship
As in the whole country, the freedom of worship of the Buenos Aires citizen is guaranteed by Article 14 of the National Constitution, although the State recognizes a preeminent character to the Catholic Church that has a different legal status compared to the rest of the churches and confessions.
According to the survey provided by CONICET regarding the religious situation according to the different Argentine regions in 2008 , Buenos Aires, being part of the Greater Buenos Aires and Capital Federal region, although it is the most indifferent region towards religion with 18.0% , Catholics are 69.1% of the population. While it is the fourth area of evangelicals with 9.1%. Due to its immigration past and different current immigration currents, it is where the maximum of minority religions is concentrated with 2.3%.
Most of the porteños declare themselves professors of the Catholic religion . The Archbishop of Buenos Aires , currently Cardinal Mario Aurelio Poli , is the Primate of the Catholic Church in Argentina . [ 269 ] The previous Archbishop of Buenos Aires was Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who since March 13, 2013 is the current Pope Francis . Jorge Mario Bergoglio is the first Jesuit pope , the first from the southern hemisphere and the first non- European since the Syrian Gregory III - who died in 741 -.
Despite its long Catholic tradition, Argentina has only two recognized saints : the martyr Héctor Valdivielso Sáez ( 1910 - 1934 ) and the diocesan priest José Gabriel Brochero ( 1840 - 1914 ), the first of whom was born in Buenos Aires.
Also in the city there is a significant number of evangelical or Protestant temples that represent 9.1% of the population.
The Judaism is the second most practiced religion in the city after Christianity . The Jewish population in Argentina is the largest in Latin America , the third largest on the continent, and the seventh largest in the world outside of Israel . As of 2006, a population of around 184,500 Jews was estimated according to some estimates, [ 270 ] others, based on a report by the JOINT [ 271 ] (or JDC: Jewish Joint Distribution Committee) based on a sample of 30,000 households, estimated (in 2005) 233,000 Jews in Buenos Aires and surrounding areas, based on the definition of a Jew according to Israel's Law of Return.
In 2008, the Gross Geographic Product (GNP) of the City of Buenos Aires was approximately 460,455 million Argentine pesos (ARS), which results in $ 80,400 (Argentine peso) per capita. [ 272 ] Income, approximately US $ 24,900 ( US dollar ) per capita, was much higher than the national one for that year and ranks the city with the second highest per capita income in Latin America in nominal terms, after Mexico City . [ 273 ]This, due to the relatively devalued exchange rate of the Argentine peso, presents important distortions, since, taking purchasing power into account, Buenos Aires has the highest per capita product in the Latin American region. [ 274 ] The real GDP grew by 11.4% in 2006 compared to 2005. [ 272 ]
The main economic sector in Buenos Aires is the Services sector, which represents 78% of its GDP in constant terms, [ 272 ] much higher than the 56% nationwide. The most important branches are real estate, computer, professional services, business and rental services, and financial intermediation services.
One of the most dynamic sectors was construction , since the number of permits to build increased by 44%, with communes 6, 8 and 11 the fastest growing with 164%, 132% and 130% respectively. The influence of the sector in the PBG reached 7480 million in 2006. [ 275 ]
Regarding financial services, Buenos Aires generates 70% of the added value of the Nation. [ 272 ] It concentrates 53% of bank deposits and 60% of loans to the non-financial private sector, which amount to 90,446 and 53,567 million pesos, respectively. [ 272 ] In addition, 90% of the country's financial institutions have their headquarters in this city. [ 272 ]
The manufacturing industry represents 20.2% of the GDP. The sector underwent a 10% increase compared to the previous year, [ 272 ] and the items that registered the greatest increase in activity are medicines, chemical products and clothing, which exceeded 14%. The headings of "Food, beverages and tobacco", "Medicines for human use" and "Paper and printing" concentrate 60% of the income of the sector. [ 272 ]
In recent years, the city has become a tourist center, especially due to the reduction in costs that the devaluation of the peso produced for foreign visitors . Between 2002 and 2004 the number of hotel establishments increased by 10.7%, while the rate of occupied rooms had a significant increase of 42.9%. [ 276 ]
In the city there is an important development of the IT services sector . Approximately 70% of the software generating companies are installed in the City of Buenos Aires , which at the national level export more than 940 million dollars. [ 272 ] The Port of Buenos Aires is the largest in the country and handles 9.7 million