The opera bufa (from the Italian opera buffa , also called commedia per musica or dramma giocoso per musica ) is an opera with a comic theme. It was developed in Naples in the first half of the 18th century . From there it spread to Rome and northern Italy . Its stylistic counterpart is serious opera .
The subgenre was the musical evolution of opera and the so-called serious opera . One of the functions that the opera performed at that time was to apply some techniques and aesthetics typical of serious music, such as the oratorio and the cantata , in contexts more accessible to musicians and the public. The reason for the great success of opera in general was this type of approach to more popular and understandable themes, together with the contemporary approach to theater , of relatively universal understanding. Other subgenres that are related to the comic opera, in its intention to connect a wider audience, are the Spanish zarzuela , the French opéra-comique , the German singspiel or the English ballad opera .
Some of the characteristics of the opera bufa are: longer recitatives (spoken parts) to make them more intelligible, written in the language of the people, not Italian or German ; everyday or superficial topics; and in some cases, the use of well-known characters, such as those from the Italian art comedy .
The examples of comedy are very varied: from The Barber of Seville ( 1816 ), by Rossini , to The Marriage of Figaro ( 1786 ), by Mozart . Two other examples of romantic comic opera are Donizetti's The Elixir of Love ( 1832 ) and Don Pasquale ( 1843 ) . The genre fell into disuse in the mid- 19th century , and for many the last opera of this genre was Falstaff , composed by Verdi in 1893 . The initiators of the movement were:Alessandro Scarlatti ( The triumph of honor , 1718 , La Dirindina, 1795 ), Giovanni Battista Pergolesi ( The master servant , 1733 ), Nicola Logroscino ( The governor , 1747 ) and Baldassare Galuppi ( The country philosopher , 1754 ). El trabajo de estos, todos operando en Nápoles o Venecia , fue reanudado y amplificdo por Niccolò Piccinni ( La Cecchina , 1760 ), Giovanni Paisiello ( Nina, 1789 ) and Domenico Cimarosa ( The Secret Marriage , 1792 ).
Comic characters had been a part of opera until the early 18th century, when opera buffa began to emerge as a separate genre, an early precursor was Alessandro Stradella's opera comedy Il Trespolo tutore in 1679. Opera buffa was a parallel development to serious opera, and arose as a reaction to the so-called first reform of Apostolo Zeno and Pietro Metastasio . [ 1 ]It was, in part, thought of as a gender that the common man could more easily relate to. Whereas serious opera was an entertainment that was made for kings and nobles and performed at the same time, buffa opera was made for ordinary people with more common problems and performed them. High-sounding language was generally avoided in favor of the dialogue with which the lower class was associated, often in the local dialect, and common characters were often derived from those of the Italian commedia dell'arte.
In the early 18th century, comic operas often appeared as short one-act interludes known as intermezzi that ran between acts of serious opera. However, there were also autonomous operatic comedies. The importance of the buffa opera declined during the Romantic period. Here, the forms were freer and less widespread than in the serious genre and the set numbers were linked by recitative secco, with the exception of Donizetti's Don Pasquale in 1843. With Rossini a standard distribution of four characters is reached: a prime donna soubrette (soprano or mezzo); a light and loving tenor; a bass singer or baritone capable of expressing himself lyrically, especially ironic; and a bass buffo whose vocal abilities, largely limited to clear articulation and the ability to "
- History of opera
- Neapolitan school of opera
- Opera food
- Buffoon opera
- The Barber of Seville
- The Marriage of Figaro
- Patrick J. Smith: The Tenth Muse (Schirmer 1970) p. 103.
- Fisher, Burton D. The Barber of Seville (Opera Classics Library Series)