The Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), in addition to a great production of ecclesiastical music and madrigals , composed prolifically for the stage. He wrote his theatrical works between 1604 and 1643 and they included operas , of which three ( Orpheus's Fable -1607-, Ulysses' return to his homeland -1640- and Poppea's coronation -1643-) have survived with his music intact librettos . In the case of seven other operas, the music has almost completely disappeared, although some of the librettos exist. The loss of these works, written during a critical period in the early history of opera, has been much lamented by commentators and musicologists.
Opera, as a musical and theatrical genre, began to emerge during the early part of Monteverdi's career, initially as a form of courtly entertainment. With other composers, he played a leading role in its development into the main form of public musical theater. His first opera, The Fable of Orpheus , written in 1607 for the court of Mantua , which used it, was a great success. In the years that followed in Mantua and in his later position as a chapelmaster (music director) at St. Mark's Basilica in Venice , Monteverdi continued to write theatrical music in various genres, including operas, dances, and intermedia (shortmusical interludes inserted in conventional works). Because in Monteverdi's time stage music was seldom thought to be of much use after its initial performance, much of this music disappeared shortly after its creation.
Most of the available information related to the seven lost operas has been deduced from contemporary documents, including the many letters that Monteverdi wrote. These documents provide irrefutable evidence that four of these works ( L'Arianna , Andromeda , Proserpina rapita and Le nozze d'Enea con Lavinia ) were completed and performed in Monteverdi's lifetime, but of his music, only the famous' Lamento »by L'Arianna and a trio by Proserpina . Monteverdi abandoned the other three lost operas: Le nozze di Tetide , La finta pazza Licori and Armida abbandonata. It is unknown how much of his music he actually wrote.
Claudio Monteverdi's creative life spanned more than 50 years. Between 1590 and 1612, he served as a musician at the Gonzaga court in Mantua , followed by 30 years (1613-1643) as a chapelmaster at the Basilica of San Marco in Venice . In this time period, opera developed, from its beginnings as a limited form of court entertainment, to becoming part of mainstream public musical theater. [ 1 ] Before the Italian word "opera" - shortened from opera in musica("Musical work") - came into general use around 1634, musical plays were typically referred to as favola in musica ( musical fable ), dramma in musica ( musical drama ) or tragedia in musica ( musical tragedy ). [ 2 ] Monteverdi used these and similar descriptions for many of his early operatic projects. [ 3 ]
The first work generally considered to be an opera is Jacopo Peri's Dafne from 1597, closely followed by Eurydice (1600), for which Peri and Giulio Caccini wrote separate musical arrangements . Ottavio Rinuccini was the librettist for Daphne and Eurydice . [ 4 ] In the new genre, a complete story was told through characters and in addition to choruses and ensembles, the vocal parts included recitatives , arias, and arios . [ 5 ]This was a development of several ancient forms of musical theater that had been around since the early years of the Italian Renaissance . Such forms included the maschera ( masquerade ), the ballo (a dance performance, often with sung passages), and particularly the intermission or intermezzo , a short dramatic musical episode inserted as a prologue or interlude between the acts of conventional works. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Another format in the period of the Renaissance was the tournament, a stylized dramatic show in which the narrator performed the lead song. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] The suboperísticas forms of dramatic music continued to flourish as the opera itself developed. The blurred boundaries that existed for many years between these forms and "opera" have led to debate on how to classify some works. [ 10 ] For example, the precise genre of Monteverdi's Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda (1624) has proven particularly difficult to define. [ 11 ]
Monteverdi's first recognized opera is The Fable of Orpheus (1607). He composed a total of 24 works for the stage. Of these, ten are generally classified as operas, of which the music for seven has been lost apart from some fragments. [ 3 ] [ a ] Most of what is known about the missing works comes from surviving librettos and other documentation, including extensive correspondence of Monteverdi. Tim Carter, a leading Monteverdi scholar, suggests that the high rate of loss is explainable because, in Monteverdi's time, 'memories were rare and large-scale musical works were often limited in force beyond their immediate circumstances. ».
Monteverdi wrote six recognized operas for the Mantua court , of which only The Fable of Orpheus survives with the libretto and music intact. He wrote four of the five lost works from Mantua after he had left the Gonzaga service in 1612 and settled in Venice , but he still maintained contact with the court. He completed and performed L'Arianna and Andromeda , while the others were left incomplete. [ 3 ]
He composed L'Arianna as a festive piece for the wedding of the heir to the duchy, Francisco Gonzaga , to Margaret of Savoy in May 1608. Monteverdi was commissioned after the successful premiere of The Fable of Orpheus at court in February 1607. [ 13 ] The libretto for L'Arianna was by Ottavio Rinuccini , whose literary abilities had previously impressed Duke Vincente I after a performance by Eurydice . [ 14 ] The composition of L'Ariannabecame a complicated matter for Monteverdi and was only one of the three works that the duke asked him for the wedding: he also had to compose a musical prologue for Gian Battista Guarini's play L'idropica and write the music for a dramatic dance, Il ballo delle ingrate . [ 3 ] His life had been disrupted by the fatal illness of his wife Claudia, who died on September 10, 1607, but the Duke gave him no respite. [ 13 ] He composed L'Arianna largely in the last two months of that year, [ 15 ] an effort that Monteverdi's biographer Hans Redlich, describes as "superhuman." [ 16 ] The composer felt slighted for the lack of recognition of his efforts by the duke. [ 17 ] Almost 20 years later, in a letter to the court clerk of Mantua, Alessandro Striggio the Younger , he wrote that he had nearly committed suicide by writing to L'Arianna in such a hurry. [ 18 ]
Rinuccini used numerous classical sources as the basis for his libretto, notably the works of Ovid , the Heroids and The Metamorphosis , and poems by Catullus . [ 19 ] After a prologue, the main action begins when Venus tells Cupid that Ariadne and her lover Theseus , fleeing Crete after her murder of the Minotaur , will arrive shortly in Naxos . Theseus, he reports, will abandon Ariadne, as he believes that she is unfit as queen for the people of Athens.. Venus plans to pair her up with the god Bacchus and asks Cupid to fix this. Theseus and Ariadna arrive and he is distressed by his decision to leave her, but his advisor informs him that his resolution is wise and he leaves. In the morning, Ariadna, finding herself abandoned, searches in vain for Theseus on the shore, where she sings her lament. A fanfare indicates an imminent arrival. Ariadna hopes this is Theseus returning, but it is Bacchus and his entourage. Jupiter speaks from the heavens and amid festive scenes, Bacchus promises Ariadne immortality with the gods in exchange for her love. [ 20 ]
Rinuccini spread out the libretto during rehearsals, after the Duchess complained that the piece was "too dry." As a result, the first scenes between Venus and Cupid were added, and the blessing of Jupiter from heaven. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] Preparations for the performance of the opera was interrupted when, in March 1608, the soprano main Caterina Martinelli died of smallpox . [ 22 ] They quickly found a replacement and the lead role fell to Virginia Ramponi-Andreini., a renowned actress and singer who used the stage name "La Florinda." He reportedly learned the role in just six days. [ 13 ] In his analysis of Monteverdi's plays, Carter suggests that lament may have been added to the play to take full advantage of Andreini's acting and vocal abilities. [ 23 ] The premiere, on May 28, 1608, took place in a specially erected temporary theater, which according to contemporary accounts could host an audience of several thousand. The production was lavish and apparently 300 men were required to manipulate the stage machinery. [ 13 ]Federico Follino, who prepared the official chronicle of the court of Mantua for the occasion, praised the beauty of the work, the magnificence of the costumes and machinery, and the sweetness of the music. [ 24 ] Marco da Gagliano , Monteverdi companion and composer, was equally laudatory and wrote the opera "was visibly moved the entire audience to tears." [ 25 ] It is possible that L'Arianna was performed in Florence in 1614. A planned performance in Mantua in May 1620 to celebrate Duchess Caterina's birthday was canceled for unknown reasons. [ 26 ] [27 ] On the contrary, there is no record of the performance of the opera before its new staging in 1640 at the Teatro San Moisè in Venice. In his study of late Renaissance opera, Gary Tomlinson supposes that the enthusiastic reception of the work in Venice was a significant factor in Monteverdi's decision to resume opera composition during his later years. [ 28 ]
Of music, only the "Lament" survives. It was published independently of the opera in various forms, a five-voice adaptation was included in its sixth book of madrigals in 1614, and two versions of the original solo were published in 1623. [ 3 ] Other composers emulated the lament format. [ 29 ] Redlich claims that it started a musical subgenre that lasted into the late 17th century and beyond. [ 25 ] It retains and releases the booklet published in Mantua in 1608 and in 1622 and 1639 Venice [ 30 ]
The wedding of Tethys (1616-17)
After the death of Duke Vincente I in February 1612, Monteverdi fell from grace at the court of Mantua. The duke's successor, Francis IV , had no great regard for the composer and dismissed him from his post. After the sudden death of Francisco in December 1612, the duchy passed to his brother Ferdinand , but Monteverdi was not called to court and ended up appointing him master of the chapel in August 1613 in the Basilica of San Marcos in Venice. [ 31 ] [ 32 ]However, he remained in contact with Striggio and other high-ranking Gonzaga courtiers, through whom he was able to secure occasional commissions to compose plays for the Gonzaga court. [ 33 ] Thus, in late 1616, Striggio asked him to put music to Scipione Agnelli's libretto , Le nozze di Tetide ( The Wedding of Thetis ), as part of the celebrations for Duke Ferdinand's upcoming marriage to Caterina de ' Medici . This story, based on the marriage of the mythical Greek hero Peleo with the goddess of the sea Thetis , [ 34 ]It had been previously offered by Peri to the court of Mantua, whose montage of a libretto by Francesco Cini [ 35 ] had been rejected in 1608 in favor of L'Arianna . [ 36 ]
Initially, Monteverdi had little enthusiasm for Le nozze di Tetide and looked for ways to avoid or delay his work on the play. He would accept the commission, he informed Striggio on December 9, 1616, because it was the wish of the duke, his feudal lord. However, the verses they gave him were not, in his opinion, conducive to beautiful music. The story was difficult for him to understand and he did not think he could draw inspiration from it. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] In any case, was occupied during most of December writing a Mass on Christmas Evefor San Marcos. On December 29, perhaps in the hope that the commission would be withdrawn, the composer told Striggio that he was ready to begin work on Le nozze di Tetide "if you tell me to do it." [ 37 ] [ 39 ] In January 1617, however, was more excited to know that the project had been reduced and is now projected as a series of intermediates . [ b ] He informed Striggio that what he had first considered a rather drab piece, he now considered entirely appropriate for the occasion. [ 42 ] [ 43 ]He began work on the recitative sections , but before he could begin to establish the more expressive numbers, the duke changed his mind and canceled the commission. [ 44 ] He abandoned Le nozze di Tetide and his libretto and any music that had existed have disappeared. [ 45 ]
Monteverdi's next commission for Mantua came in early 1618, when he was asked to provide the music for Andromeda , an opera based on the ancient Greek myth of the princess chained to a rock . The libretto was written by Duke Ferdinand's chancellor, Ercole Marigliani , and the project was sponsored by the duke's younger brother, Vincente II Gonzaga . [ 46 ] [ 47 ] It is likely that the work was intended for presentation at the Carnival of Mantua March 1618, but as Carter documents, Monteverdi approach their orders from Mantua was often dilatory and halfhearted.[ 48 ] His inability or unwillingness to work inAndromedadelayed its representation, first to 1619 and then to 1620. [ 49 ]
Monteverdi's letters during the period between 1618 and 1620, mainly to Striggio, but occasionally to Vincente II or Marigliani, offer various excuses for his lack of progress in Andromeda , including his obligations to San Marcos, his health, and his responsibility to provide music. ceremonial for the Doge of Venice . [ 50 ] [ 51 ] In February 1619, Monteverdi had begun work on another project for Mantua a ballo (dance with sung parts) for Striggio libretto entitled Apollo . [ 52 ] On January 9, 1620, still with 400 lines from the libretto ofAndromeda without music, Monteverdi proposed to Striggio that the entire project was abandoned opera and ballo replacement. [ 47 ] This idea was quickly scrapped and Vincente II ordered that the remaining music from Andromeda be sent to him immediately . [ 53 ] The final segment of the opera, a song of eight parts, handed to Marigliani on February 15, 1620. [ 54 ]
None of Monteverdi's music is preserved for Andromeda . The libretto was also thought to have been lost, until its rediscovery in 1984. As was customary at the time, the manuscript does not mention the name of the composer. The librettos were often the subject of numerous settings by different composers. The cover of the libretto confirms that Andromeda was performed during the Mantua Carnival, March 1-3, 1620. [ 49 ] An analysis of its content reveals some influence of Rinuccini's libretto for L'Arianna , such as the use of measures and identical lengths in the prologues of each play and various common characters in the respective cast lists. [ 49] The document remains in private hands and has not been published. [ 48 ]
Monteverdi did not record any apparent interest in Andromeda's performance after the Carnival of 1620. The long letter he wrote to Striggio on March 13, 1620, made no reference to the event and dealt primarily with financial matters. The letter hints that Gonzaga's court was trying to persuade Monteverdi to return to Mantua. In courtly language, Monteverdi evades the issue, comparing the relative generosity of his Venetian employers to the parsimony of the Gonzaga court. [ 55 ] [ 56 ]
Two aborted projects (1627-28)
After Andromeda there followed a period of several years in which Mantua made little use of Monteverdi's services. Duke Fernando died on October 26, 1626 and was succeeded by Vincente II. In early 1627, Striggio approached Monteverdi with a request for theatrical music, possibly for celebrations of the duke's appointment. [ 57 ] Monteverdi responded by offering three options: first, Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda , a setting for Torquato Tasso's epic poem Jerusalem Liberated , which had been performed at the 1624 Venice Carnival ; [ c ]Second, a scene from another part of Tasso's poem, covering the story of the sorceress Armida and her abandonment by the Christian hero Rinaldo; finally, he offered to set the text for a new play by Giulio Strozzi , Licori feint pazza inamorata d'Aminta , about a woman who feigns madness for love. [ 18 ] [ 59 ] Monteverdi Striggio sent a copy of the work of Strozzi on May 7, 1627 and this liked and told the composer began music. [ 59 ]
The fake crazy Licori
Strozzi was Venetian, born in 1583, whose literary works include plays and poetry, and opera libretti, and Monteverdi met him in 1621. [ 60 ] [ 61 ] Strozzi knew the music of the composer and had a great appreciation of his innovative style. [ 62 ] On June 20, 1627, Monteverdi informed Striggio that Strozzi had expanded and organized the text into five acts , under the new title La feint pazza Licori ( The feigned mad Licori ). [ 18 ] Feigned insanity was a standard theme in the comedy-of-art tradition.which had established itself in the Italian theater in the 16th century . [ 44 ] In Strozzi's plot, the first known attempt at comic opera, [ 45 ] the Licori woman disguises herself initially as a man, then as a woman, and then pretends to be insane, all as part of a strategy to win the heart. of her lover, Aminta. [ 63 ]
Monteverdi was, initially at least, very captivated by the potential of the plot and the opportunities the libretto provided for a variety of musical effects. [ 40 ] He emphasized to Striggio the importance of finding a singer with true acting ability to play the role of Licori, someone capable of playing a man and a woman with the appropriate emotions and gestures. [ 64 ] Later, he was excited about the prospect of writing a ballet for each of the five acts, all in different styles. [ 65 ] [ 66 ]Monteverdi's letters continued throughout the summer, but his attitude slowly changed from one of obvious compromise to frustration over delays in copying the libretto. Musicologist Gary Tomlinson, in his analysis of the genesis of opera, suggests that Monteverdi may have stalled. [ 67 ] In September, Striggio, having received, read, and presumably disliked the expanded libretto, abruptly canceled the commission and the work is no longer heard. Instead, Monteverdi was told to work on the Armida stage . [ 61 ] [ 68 ]
For many years Monteverdi was assumed to have written much of the music for Licori before its sudden cancellation. Redlich says that he finished the music on September 10, 1627. The rejection of the work and the subsequent disappearance were attributed to Striggio's contempt for the composer's efforts. [ 69 ] However, reading the correspondence suggests a different conclusion for Tomlinson: Monteverdi, in his opinion, "was not even close to completing the score" and may have written very little of the music. It is probable that he would have stopped composing at the end of July, as he was suspicious of Striggio's true commitment to the work. Tomlinson suggests that, mindful of Mantua's earlier cancellation ofLe nozze di Tetide , Monteverdi avoided expanding on the new project, maintaining a diplomatic impression of activity. Tomlinson writes: "It would not be surprising if Monteverdi was supernaturally sensitive to Mantua's signs of hesitation [and] if, at the first signs in 1627, he decided to exercise caution in the composition of Licori ." [ 67 ] The libretto by Strozzi disappeared along with the music that Monteverdi was able to write, but Strozzi wrote one second script with the same name, composed by Francesco Sacrati and produced in Venice in 1641. [ 70 ]
After Licori's rejection , Monteverdi did not immediately turn his attention to Armida . On the contrary, he went to Parma to fulfill a commission to provide musical entertainment for the marriage celebrations of the young Duke Eduardo I Farnese and Margarita de Medici . [ 67 ] [ 71 ] He spent several weeks in the city working on these. However, on December 18, 1627, he was able to tell Striggio that he had completed the music for Armida and was copying it. [ 72 ] [ 73 ]In the relevant section of Tasso's poem, the sorceress Armida lures the noble Rinaldo to her enchanted island. Two knights arrive to persuade Rinaldo to return to duty, while Armida pleads with him to stay, or if he must leave, to allow her to be by his side in battle. When he refuses and leaves her, Armida curses him before falling unconscious. [ 74 ]
Carter indicates several structural similarities to Il combattimento and both works require three voices, one of which acts as the narrator. [ 74 ] Despite these similarities, the Monteverdi experts consider Armida abbandonata , unlike the previous work, as an opera, although Denis Stevens, translator of Monteverdi's letters, described it as "parergon" (subsidiary work ) by Il combattimento . [ 75 ]
Plans for the representation of Armida were, however, canceled when Duke Vincente II died in late December 1627. [ 61 ] On February 4, 1628, Striggio continued to order a copy of Armida , perhaps for his use. in connection with the coronation of the next duke. [ 76 ] Monteverdi promised to send him one, but there is no confirmation that he did. [ 77 ] No trace of the music has been found, although Tomlinson has deduced some of its probable characteristics from Monteverdi's correspondence, including the extensive use of the stile concitato effect . [78 ] Although there is no record of Armida ever performing in Mantua, Stevens has discussed the possibility that he did so in Venice in 1628, as Monteverdi's response to Striggio's February letter indicates that the play I was inhands of Girolamo Mocenigo, a wealthy patron of the arts in which Venetian palace had represented Il combattimento in 1624. [ 79 ]
Licori and Armida were Monteverdi's final plays for the Mantua court. The death of Vincente II ended the main line of the Gonzaga and the duchy was inherited by a distant relative, Carlos I de Gonzaga-Nevers , and Mantua was later embroiled in a series of conflicts , which by 1630 had reduced much of the city to ruins. The last known letter from Monteverdi to Striggio is dated July 8, 1628. [ 80 ] Striggio died in Venice on June 8, 1630, while leading a mission requesting aid against the armies surrounding Mantua. [ 81 ]
Between 1630 and 1643, Monteverdi wrote four operas to represent them in Venice . All were staged while Monteverdi was alive, but only Ulysses' return to his homeland and Poppea's coronation survive . [ 3 ]
Proserpine kidnapped (1630)
Proserpina rapita was the first of the plays that Monteverdi wrote specifically for Venice, commissioned by Mocenigo for the wedding celebrations of his daughter Giustiniana. [ 82 ] Strozzi's libretto is based on the ancient Greek myth of Pluto and Proserpina . Symbolic rape was a common theme in wedding entertainment designed for Italian courts, intended, in Carter's words, "both to proclaim the power of love and to set appropriate limits on female behavior." [ 83 ]
In Strozzi's version of the story, Pachino, a passionate shepherd, invokes the help of Pluto, ruler of the underworld , to remedy his unrequited obsession with Proserpina. Pluto obeys by turning Pachino into a mountain, though he promises his soul a place on the Champs Elysees . Pluto falls in love with Proserpina, after being struck by a love dart fired by Cupid, and claims her as his queen. Initially, she resists, but when Cíane turns her protector into a spring of water, Pluto defeats her. Submissive, she swears obedience. The strength of her beauty is such that Pluto softens and promises that in the future she will treat lovers less harshly. [ 83 ]
The libretto was published by Evangelista Deuchino in 1630 in Venice. The surviving copies indicate that Giuseppe Albardi created the original stage and that Girolamo Scolari organized the dances. [ 83 ] The opera was performed on April 16, 1630, in a room of the Mocenigo Palace. Carter is skeptical that, in such a restricted setting, the performance could incorporate all the special effects stipulated by the script. [ 84 ]However, an account by one of those present shows that the occasion provided a considerable spectacle: «In the evening, with torches, music was performed and performed ... the rape of Proserpina with the most perfect voices and instruments, with aerial appearances, scene changes and other things, to the amazement and wonder of all present. [ 85 ]
A small fragment of Proserpina rapita's music survives , a song for three voices: "Come dolce oggi l'auretta." It was published posthumously in Monteverdi's ninth book of madrigals ( Madrigali e Canzonette a due e tre voci ) (1651). [ 85 ] [ d ] Moreover, one can discern some indication of the musical character of the work from notes on the script, which suggests Fabbri indicate that may not sing at all times in the work. [ 88 ] It contained at least two sung balli , [ 89 ]One of which concluded the opera with words that provided a barely disguised homage to the composer: "Quanto nel chiaro mondo / su verdi arcadi monti / di te si cantari?" ("How much in the clear world / in the green arcadian mountains / will they sing of you?"). [ 88 ] More information on the nature of the music and the instrumentation is included in the notes within the published libretto. [ 83 ]
According to Carter, Proserpina rapita is a work of transition. With its emphasis on dance, and in terms of its subject matter, it represents the courtly traditions of opera from the early 17th century . At the same time, in terms of characterization, he yearns for the "modern" world of Monteverdi's trio of late operas, specifically Poppea's Coronation . Proserpina's temperament anticipates the character of Poppea in the later opera. Likewise, Pachino may be a forerunner of Ottone, while some of the speeches in Proserpina have the rhetorical flavor of those between Nero and Seneca in The Coronation . [ 90 ]Redlich documents that in 1644, the year after Monteverdi's death, Proserpina rapita was added to the repertoire of the Teatro San Moisè in Venice, but does not provide details of the performances. [ 91 ] A second edition of the libretto was published in Venice in that year. [ 92 ]
Aeneas' wedding with Lavinia (1641)
In the three years before his death in 1643, Monteverdi composed a trilogy of operas for Venetian opera houses after the opening of the Teatro San Cassiano in 1637 . [ 93 ] Two of these three operas survive in complete and executable versions: The Return of Ulysses to the Fatherland (1640), with libretto by Giacomo Badoaro , and The Coronation of Popea (1643), for which Giovanni Francesco Busenello provided the text. [ 94 ] [ e ] Among these, Monteverdi composed Le nozze d'Enea with Lavinia (Aeneas' wedding to Lavinia ). The libretto survives in manuscript form, although no trace of the music has been found. [ 3 ] In her analysis of Monteverdi's later works, Ellen Rosand unites the three operas: “[The] phantom opera unites with the two surviving ones to form a coherent body of works that testifies to Monteverdi's position in the world of the Venetian opera ». The trilogy covers a historical trajectory that moves through Troy and the birth of Rome to the decline of the Roman Empire , and points towards the founding and final glory of the Republic of Venice . [96 ] The common theme of all three works is the mythical power of love, beneficial at first, but later destructive. [ 97 ]
Due to the textual and structural similarities with Ulysses , Badoaro was supposed to have written the libretto for Le nozze . [ 98 ] However, Rosand's investigations reveal that the librettist was a close friend of Badoaro, Michelangelo Torcigliani. [ 99 ] In a preface long Torcigliani enter your account, taken from the Epic Eneida of Virgilio , as a lieto di tragedy fine (tragedy with a happy ending). [ 100 ]It recognizes numerous deviations from the original, including the introduction of a comic character, "Numanus." This he did, he admitted, because "Iro," a kind of analogous character in Ulysses, was popular with theatergoers. [ 101 ] He had written the text to meet Monteverdi's requirements for emotional variety, which allowed him, according to Torcigliani, to demonstrate the full range of his musical genius. [ 102 ]
The main theme of the story is the desire of Juno , who is fighting with Venus , mother of Aeneas , to prevent the marriage of this with Lavinia , daughter of the Latin king of Latium . She uses an evil spirit to create discord between Trojans and Latinos. When a Trojan hunting party first wounds a deer and then kills a Latino shepherd, Elminio, there are calls for war, which Latino rejects. Aeneas, who rests by the river Tiber , is unaware of these incidents, although the spirit of the river warns him. The danger comes in the person of Turnus , king of the Rutulos, an ally of Latinos whose love Lavinia had rejected. Driven by Turno's clamor for war, the Trojans and Latins fight, and Aeneas kills Turno. Latino invites Aeneas to take Lavinia's hand, who is delighted to accept him. In light of Aeneas' bravery, Juno forgets her former enmity and joins Venus and Hymenaeus to bless the marriage. The opera ends with predictions of the greatness of Rome and the distant future glories of Venice. [ 103 ]
Le nozze d'Enea with Lavinia was performed during the Venice Carnival of 1640-1641, at the Teatro Santi Giovanni e Paolo, where it alternated with a new staging of Ulysses . [ 104 ] [ 105 ] According to Carter, the work was quite undemanding in terms of staging, the action was carried out mainly on the banks of the Tiber with little change of scenery. [ 106 ] There is no record of the Venetian public's response to the opera, which Rosand claims was clearly directed at his patriotic impulses, with its final scene a celebration of the "birth and wonders of the city of Venice." [ 107] In a preface published with the libretto, Torcigliani refers to "the sweetness of Monteverdi's music, which is never praised enough," but the libretto itself does not provide specific guidance on the nature of the music. [ 1 ] Ringer regretfully states that "the words are all that remains of this Virgilian opera and offers slight hints of lost melodies." [ 108 ]
Many of Monteverdi's lost works date from the 1610s and 1620s, and the manuscripts may have disappeared in the wars in Mantua in 1630. [ 109 ] Carter cites as a significant aspect of their loss the extent to which they may have provided musical links between the composer's early court operas of Mantua and the public operas he wrote in Venice towards the end of his life: 'Without these links ... it is difficult to fabricate a coherent account of his development as a composer for the stage ». [ 110 ] In an essay on the opera orchestras of Montverdi's time, Janet Beat laments that the 30-year gap betweenThe Fable of Orpheus and Monteverdi's next surviving opera, The Return of Ulysses to the Fatherland , makes it difficult to study how opera orchestration developed during those critical years. [ 111 ]
Carter also reflects on the intriguing, albeit remote, possibility that a discovery in an unexplored library could one day expose some of this missing music. [ 110 ] As of 2015 this has not happened. However, on September 15, 1995, a montage of the Rinuccini libretto by British composer Alexander Goehr was staged at the Royal Opera House in London , under the title Arianna . Goehr worked from Rinuccini's original script and, in homage to historical opera, incorporated sections of Monteverdi's lament configuration into his score. [ 112 ] 
- Portal: Classical music . Classical music related content .
- Annex: Compositions by Claudio Monteverdi
- Annex: Operas by Claudio Monteverdi
- Madrigals by Claudio Monteverdi
- Opera history
Notes and references
- The other plays include four intermedi (three lost), seven balli (three lost), two tornei (one lost) and a lost maschera . [ 3 ]
- The exact genre of the work is unknown and refers to it in various ways: an "opera", an "operatic composition" or a favola marittima (" nautical fiction "), the name by which Monteverdi first described it time. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] [ 42 ]
- The music for this work is preserved and experts do not classify it as an opera, although its genre is difficult to establish with certainty. [ 58 ]
- The Monteverdi madrigals were published in "books". The first, Primo book de 'Madrigali appeared in 1587, and the last during his lifetime, the eighth book, in 1638. The ninth book is a miscellany that, as Nigel Fortune comments , includes duets and trios that are "no longer madrigals." . [ 86 ] [ 87 ]
- The Coronation is generally attributed to Monteverdi, but experts on the composer acknowledge that the music incorporates works by other composers, possibly following Monteverdi's guidance in the manner of a master painter's workshop. Ringer suggests an analogy to " Rubens's workshop , who could design a painting and handle the important details himself, but left the more mundane aspects ... to the younger apprentice artists." [ 95 ]
- Carter, 2002, pp. 1-3.
- Grout, 1971, p. 1.
- Carter, 2002, pp. 298-305.
- Grout, 1971, pp. 35, 43-45.
- Ringer, 2006, pp. 23-24.
- Redlich, 1952, p. 196.
- Grout, 1971, pp. 23-30.
- Redlich, 1952, p. 197.
- Carter, 2002, p. 171.
- Carter, 2002 , pp. vi-vii.
- Carter, 2002, pp. 190-191.
- Carter, 2002, p. 4.
- Ringer, 2006, pp. 91-93.
- Carter, 2002, p. 18.
- Fabbri, 1994, p. 81.
- Redlich, 1952, pp. 17-18.
- Beat, 1968, pp. 26-30.
- Stevens, 1980, pp. 311-313.
- Fabbri, 1994, p. 96.
- Carter, 2002, pp. 205-206.
- Carter, 2002, p. 208.
- Fabbri, 1994 , p. 82.
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